Homo antecessor is a proposed archaic human species of the Lower Paleolithic, known to have been present in Western Europe between about 1.2 million and 0.8 million years ago. It was described in 1997 by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luis Arsuaga and J. M. Bermúdez de Castro, who based on its "unique mix of modern and primitive traits" classified it as a unknown archaic human species; the fossils associated with Homo antecessor represent the oldest direct fossil record of the presence of Homo in Europe. The species name antecessor proposed in 1997 is a Latin word meaning "predecessor", or "vanguard, pioneer". Authors who do not accept H. antecessor as a separate species consider the fossils in question an early form of H. heidelbergensis or as a European variety of H. erectus. H. antecessor has been proposed as a chronospecies intermediate between H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis. While H. heidelbergensis is accepted as the immediate predecessor of H. neanderthalensis, H. sapiens, the derivation of H. heidelbergensis from H. antecessor is debatable.
H. antecessor's discoverers suggested H. antecessor as a derivation of African H. erectus which would have migrated to the Iberian Peninsula at some point before 1.2 Mya, developed into H. heidelbergensis by 0.8 Mya, further into H. neanderthalensis after 0.3 Mya. Other authors would classify H. antecessor as an early form of H. heidelbergensis, which by the taxonomic principle of priority would extend the range of H. heidelbergensis to 1.2–0.3 Mya. Klein deems H. antecessor "an unlikely ancestor for H. heidelbergensis", interpreting the presence of H. antecessor an early "failed attempt to colonize southern Europe". The classification of H. antecessor as a separate species remains open to debate as the fossil record is fragmentary, as no complete skull has been found, with only fourteen fragments and lower jaw bones known. Since the anatomical parallels to H. sapiens were found in juveniles or children, the possibility has been argued "that H. antecessor adults didn't look much like H. sapiens at all".
H. antecessor was about 1.6–1.8 m tall, males weighed 90 kg. Their brain sizes were 1,000 to 1,150 cm³, smaller than the 1,350 cm³ average of modern humans. Due to fossil scarcity little more is known about the physiology of H. antecessor, yet it was to have been more robust than H. heidelbergensis. According to Juan Luis Arsuaga, one of the co-directors of the excavation in Burgos and reported in a Spanish newspaper, H. antecessor might have been right-handed, a trait that makes the species different from the other apes. This hypothesis is based on tomography techniques. Arsuaga claims that the frequency range of audition is similar to H. sapiens, which makes him suspect that H. antecessor used a symbolic language and was able to reason. Arsuaga's team is pursuing a DNA map of H. antecessor. Based on teeth eruption pattern, the researchers think that H. antecessor had the same development stages as H. sapiens, though at a faster pace. Other significant features demonstrated by the species are a protruding occipital bun, a low forehead, a lack of a strong chin.
Some of the remains are indistinguishable from the fossil attributable to the 1.5-million-year-old Turkana Boy, belonging to H. ergaster. At the site were numerous examples of cuts where the flesh had been flensed from the bones, based on which it has been argued that H. antecessor may have practiced cannibalism. The only known fossils of H. antecessor were found at two sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca region of northern Spain. In 1994 and 1995, a total of 80 fossils of six individuals who may have belonged to the species were found; the type specimen for H. antecessor is ATD 6-5, dating to 780,000 years ago. Evidence of early human presence in England and France has been tentatively associated with H. antecessor purely on chronological grounds and not based on anatomical evidence. Archaeologist Eudald Carbonell of the Universidad Rovira i Virgili in Tarragona and palaeoanthropologist Juan Luis Arsuaga of the Complutense University of Madrid discovered Homo antecessor remains at the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, east of Burgos, Spain.
The H. antecessor remains have been found in level 6 of the Gran Dolina site. More than 80 bone fragments from six individuals were uncovered in 1994 and 1995; the site had included 200 stone tools and 300 animal bones. Stone tools including a stone carved. All these remains were dated at least 900,000 years old; the best-preserved remains are ATD6-15 and ATD6-69, a frontal bone and a maxilla of an adolescent male, aged c. 10 years, dubbed the "Gran Dolina Boy". Based on palaeomagnetic measurements, it is thought to be older than 857–780 ka; the sediment of Gran Dolina was dated at 900,000 years old in 2014. On June 29, 2007, Spanish researchers working at the Sima del Elefante site in the Atapuerca Mountains of Spain announced that they had recovered a molar dated to 1.2 to 1.1 million years ago. The molar was from an individual between 20 and 25 years of age. Additional findings announced on 27 March 2008 included a mandible fragment, stone flakes, evidence of animal bone processing; these remains are the oldest hominid remains in Europe after Homo erectus georgicus from Dmanisi, Georgia and an infant tooth from Orce, Spain which has not received species assignation.
Before the 1990s, the oldest evidence of archaic
Tomasz Janusz Jaskóła is a Polish politician and teacher. Member of the Sejm, he graduated from the Jan Długosz University. He belonged to the Poland Together and The Republicans. In 2014, he unsuccessfully applied for the Silesian Regional Assembly from the KWW Independent Self-government of the Silesian Voivodeship, he started to the Sejm in the 28 Częstochowa district from the first place from Kukiz'15, organized by Paweł Kukiz. He obtained the mandate of the 8th term of Sejm. In the local elections in 2018 he became the candidate of Kukiz'15 for the presidency of Częstochowa, he received 5.27% of votes and he did not get a choice for this function. He ran unsuccessfully in the European Parliament election in 2019. In August 2019 he left the Kukiz'15 parliamentary club, co-creating the parliamentary association of the Real Politics Union, he did not apply for a parliamentary re-election in 2019
Adela Sloss-Vento was born Karnes City, Texas to Anselma Garza and David Henry Sloss. As a young American woman of Mexican descent, she was determined to become a writer, hailing from southern Texas, educated in San Juan lived in Corpus Christi during World War II, settled in Edinburg, she used her pen as weapon for more than sixty years, countering racial discrimination and exploitation of laborers, all the while championing the civil rights of Mexican Americans through the written word. Sloss-Vento comes from a merging of cultures, her mother, Anselma Garza Zamora, was Mexican/Spanish/Native American and nursed her community as a curandera and as a midwife. Her father, David Henry Sloss, was of Mexican/Spanish/Native American descent, her father left when she was seven and her mother raised four children in Southern Texas, along the border where people moved back and forth over a line, invisible prior the official establishment of US Border Patrol in 1924. She was an American woman, culturally and politically shaped by the dynamic amalgamation of people and ideas.
In 1927, when she graduated from Pharr-San Juan High School it was nearly unheard of for women to do so. By today's standards, the level of education she obtained would be considered equivalent to that of a college degree; as a uniquely qualified high school graduate, she acquired respectable employment from the city of San Juan, as a clerk for the mayor. While working in the office of the mayor, she began her civic responsibilities involving herself with the Good Neighbor League, whose objective was to stop the perpetual corruption occurring within that city office, her writing career began with her initial letter to Alonso S. Perales following the 1927 Harlingen Convention, she declared her commitment to the cause and praised his endeavors to rally the many political and civic groups around the state as one. With her support of Perales, she was afforded the opportunity to work with J. T. Canales and Jose de la Luz Saenz, compiling records of discrimination, it was at this time that she began writing politically charged articles for Spanish language newspapers in the Rio Grande Valley.
After the formation of LULAC in 1929, Sloss-Vento and Zacarias Gonzales arranged an event raising funds for the first lawsuit against segregation, Del Rio ISD v. Salvatierra. Throughout her life, Sloss-Vento always identified herself as a helper, never a leader, but author Dr. Cynthia E. Orozco explicates that her peers recognized her differently, "As early as 1931, La Prensa called her'a well-known resident of the Rio Grande Valley in Texas.'" Adela Sloss wed Pedro C. Vento in 1935, her husband encouraged her continued work with the Chicano Movement. The pair resided in Corpus Christi while Pedro Vento worked as a security officer at the Corpus Christi Naval Air Station during World War II. Moving to Edinburg, Texas at the war's end, employed by Hidalgo County, where Adela Sloss-Vento filled the position of jail matron and Pedro served as a guard in the county jail, it was in Edinburg that they started a family, raising two children, a daughter, Irma Dora Vento, a son, Arnoldo Carlos Vento. She raised funds for the Texas Good Relations Association through membership drives.
Her relentless activist endeavors kept her busy in the surrounding regional areas. Adela Sloss-Vento retired from the Hidalgo County Jail in 1955 and as her health limited her mobility she continued working from home, writing letters and articles. In the 1960s, according to her son, she "understood her importance as an archivist." Sloss-Vento began compiling documents about Perales and conveyed her eagerness for his biography to be written by someone like attorney Gustavo Garcia. In 1968, she was recognized with a Pioneer Award at the Fifth Annual Statewide LULAC Founder’s Pioneers and Awards Banquet in San Antonio for her lifetime devotion to the cause, she made her most significant mark with her book written in honor of a leader of LULAC, Alonso S. Perales: His Struggle for the Rights of Mexican Americans; this book has become a valuable resource for research within the historical community and it is this book that put her on the map leading to the discovery of her vast collection of papers held at this time by her son.
On April 4, 1998, Adela Sloss-Vento died, leaving her mark on the Rio Grande Valley and the now nationally recognized Mexican American civil rights movement thanks to the work of Dr. Arnoldo C. Vento and Dr. Cynthia E. Orozco. Adela Sloss-Vento corresponded with local political leaders like Alonso S. Perales, J. T. Canales, Jose de la Luz Saenz, Hector P. Garcia in support of Mexican American civil rights, she wrote letters to President Truman, President Eisenhower, President Carter, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson about the sociological and economic issues of the day, along with ideas of possible solutions for the problems at hand, she composed over 100 articles for newspapers during the course of her lifetime in English and in Spanish. Sloss-Vento was a consistent proponent of Bilingualism, she was published in the following periodicals: Diogenes, La Prensa, LULAC News, Brownsville Herald, La Verdad, El Manana, Corpus Christi Caller, Houston Chronicle, San Antonio Express-News, McAllen Monitor.
One of her most notable articles spoke out against machismo, titled "Why There is No True Happiness in Latino Homes," in the early 1930s before she was married. She wrote poetry as well. Sloss-Vento's papers are not yet part of a library collection, they are housed in the possession of her son, Dr. Arnoldo C. Vento. In addition to her son, Sloss