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Homo habilis

Homo habilis is an archaic species of Stone Age human which lived between 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago, during the Early Pleistocene. The species was first discovered by anthropologists Mary and Louis Leakey at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania in 1955, associated with the Oldowan stone tool industry. H. Habilis is considered to be intermediate between H. erectus. It has been suggested reclassifying the species as Australopithecus habilis, as one of the main arguments for its classification into Homo was the now outdated idea that it was the earliest human ancestor to use stone tools. H. habilis used tools for butchering meat which it scavenged from more fearsome carnivores. H. habilis coexisted such as the robust Paranthropus and Homo erectus. Since its discovery, it has been argued that Homo habilis should be reclassified as Australopithecus habilis, on the basis of small size and some rather primitive attributes. Louis and Mary Leakey first discovered H. habilis in 1955. It was first formally described by paleoanthropologists Mr. Leakey, Phillip V. Tobias, John R. Napier on the basis of a jawbone with some teeth, parietal bone fragments, hand bones of the 1.75 Ma juvenile OH 7.

The species name habilis was given on recommendation by South African anthropologist Raymond Dart, is Latin for "able, mentally skillful, vigorous". The earliest specimen, LD 350-1, dating to 2.8 million years ago, was argued to be intermediate between Australopithecus and H. habilis. The fossil was claimed as the earliest evidence of the genus Homo known to date; the individual in question lived just after a major climate shift in the region, when forests and waterways were replaced by arid savannah. Homo habilis is considered to be the ancestor of the more sophisticated H. ergaster. Debates continue over whether all of the known fossils are properly attributed to the species, some paleoanthropologists regard the taxon as invalid, made up of various specimens of Australopithecus and Homo. Since H. habilis and H. erectus coexisted, an isolated subpopulation of H. habilis may have evolved into H. erectus, other subgroups remained as unchanged H. habilis until their extinction. The discoverers of the Georgian Dmanisi skull suggested that all the contemporary groups of early Homo in Africa–including H. ergaster, H. habilis, H. rudolfensis–are all different stages in the evolution of H. erectus, making them a chronospecies.

H. habilis brain size has been shown to range from 550 cm3 to 687 cm3, rather than from 363 cm3 to 600 cm3 as thought. A virtual reconstruction published in 2015 estimated the endocranial volume at between 729 ml and 824 ml, larger than any published value, their average brain size was about 45% greater than Australopithecus, 25% greater than Paranthropus. H. habilis appears to have had an expanded cerebrum, unlike australopithecines the frontal and parietal lobes which govern speech in modern humans. H. habilis had a less protruding face than australopithecines. H. habilis was smaller than modern humans, on average standing no more than 1.3 m. It had proportionally longer legs than australopithecines, was more similar to humans in this aspect. However, the arms were more chimp-like and adapted for swinging and load bearing, unlike A. afarensis and other Homo. A 2018 study of the anatomy of A. sediba found that A. sediba is distinct from but related to both Homo habilis and Australopithecus africanus.

H. habilis is associated with the Lower Paleolithic Olduwan stone tool industry at Olduvai Gorge and Lake Turkana, Kenya. They used these tools to butcher and skin animals, it was thought H. habilis was the first human ancestor to have used stone tools, but australopithecines have been associated with tools, such as the 2.6 Ma A. garhi, the 3.3 Ma Lomekwi stone tool industry, some evidence of butchering from about 3.4 mya. It is thought H. habilis used tools for scavenging, such as cleaving meat off carrion, rather than defense or hunting. They may have been confrontational scavengers, stealing kills from the smaller predators of their environment such as jackals or cheetahs. Fruit was also an important dietary component, indicated by dental erosion consistent with repetitive exposure to acidity. Based on dental microwear-texture analysis, H. habilis did not consume tough foods. Microwear-texture complexity is, on average, somewhere between that of tough-food feeders and leaf feeders, point to an generalized and omnivorous diet.

It is thought that the intelligence and social organization of H. habilis were more sophisticated than typical australopithecines or chimpanzees. H. habilis' proportionally longer legs may indicate long distance travel. H. habilis and other hominins were predated upon by the large carnivores of the time, such as the hunting hyena Chasmaporthetes nitidula, the leopard, the saber-toothed cats Dinofelis and Megantereon, crocodiles such as Crocodylus anthropophagus. Homo habilis coexisted with other hominins, namely Paranthropus. H. habilis may have outlived Paranthropus due to advanced tool use. H. habilis may have coexisted with H. erectus about 1.8 mya. List of fossil sites List of human evolution fossils KNM-ER 1805 KNM-ER 1813 OH 24 Early Humans /Copyright 2000 ISBN 0-7614-0960-2 The Making of Mankind, Richard E. Leakey, Elsevier-Dutton Publishing Company, Inc. Copyright 1981, ISBN 0-525-15055-2, LC Catalog Number 81-664544. Fifty Years After Homo h

Badzhgard

Badzhgard or Bashkurd Bashkiria is a historical and geographical region in the Urals, the traditional border between Northern Asia and Eastern Europe in modern Russia, inhabited by the Bashkirs. Today, the territory is administratively split between the Republic of Bashkortostan and Chelyabinsk oblasts, parts of the Republic of Tatarstan, the south-eastern part of Udmurtia, the southern part of the Perm Krai, the south-western part of the Sverdlovsk oblast, the western part of the Kurgan, the north-eastern part of Samara, the eastern part of the Saratov regions. Various other names have been applied to the region throughout its history, including: Bashgurd, Bashgird, Bashkyrd, Pascatir, Bashirdi etc; the reference area titled "Bashgurd" is found in the Fazalallah Rashid ad-Din, an "Oghuz-name"

2016 San Diego mayoral election

The 2016 San Diego mayoral election was held on Tuesday, June 7, 2016, to elect the Mayor for San Diego. Incumbent Kevin Faulconer ran for a second term as Mayor against former San Diego City Council member Ed Harris and former California State Assembly member Lori Saldaña. Municipal elections in California are non-partisan, though some candidates do receive funding and support from various political parties; the non-partisan primary was held Tuesday, June 7, 2016. Faulconer received a majority of votes in the primary, precluding the need for the November election. Kevin Faulconer, incumbent Mayor of San Diego Ed Harris, former San Diego City Council member Lori Saldaña, former California State Assembly member In October 2015, Ocean Beach Town Council president Gretchen Newsom became the first major Democratic candidate to announce that she would challenge Kevin Faulconer's bid for re-election. However, Newsom dropped out of the race only seven weeks after declaring her candidacy. In January 2016, former California State Assembly member Lori Saldaña announced that she intended to run for mayor against Faulconer.

Although Saldaña had been a Democrat while in the state assembly, she subsequently left the party in September 2014 and intended to run for mayor as an independent. In March 2016, former San Diego City Council member Ed Harris declared his intention to run for mayor; the primary election was held on Tuesday, June 7, 2016. Because Faulconer won a majority of the votes in the primary, there was no need for a runoff in the November general election