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A homunculus is a representation of a small human being. Popularized in sixteenth-century alchemy and nineteenth-century fiction, it has referred to the creation of a miniature formed human; the concept has roots in preformationism as well as earlier folklore and alchemic traditions. The homunculus first appears by name in alchemical writings attributed to Paracelsus. De natura rerum outlines his method for creating homunculi: That the sperm of a man be putrefied by itself in a sealed cucurbit for forty days with the highest degree of putrefaction in a horse's womb, or at least so long that it comes to life and moves itself, stirs, observed. After this time, it will look somewhat like a man, but transparent, without a body. If, after this, it be fed wisely with the Arcanum of human blood, be nourished for up to forty weeks, be kept in the heat of the horse's womb, a living human child grows therefrom, with all its members like another child, born of a woman, but much smaller. Comparisons have been made with several similar concepts in the writings of earlier alchemists.

Although the actual word "homunculus" was never used, Carl Jung believed that the concept first appeared in the Visions of Zosimos, written in the third century AD. In the visions, Zosimos encounters a priest who changes into "the opposite of himself, into a mutilated anthroparion"; the Greek word "anthroparion" is similar to "homunculus" – a diminutive form of "person". Zosimos subsequently encounters other anthroparion in his dream but there is no mention of the creation of artificial life. In his commentary, Jung equates the homunculus with the Philosopher's Stone, the "inner person" in parallel with Christ. In Islamic alchemy, Takwin was a goal of certain Muslim alchemists, a notable one being Jābir ibn Hayyān. In the alchemical context, Takwin refers to the artificial creation of life in the laboratory, up to and including human life; the homunculus continued to appear in alchemical writings after Paracelsus' time. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz for example, concludes with the creation of a male and female form identified as Homunculi duo.

The allegorical text suggests to the reader that the ultimate goal of alchemy is not chrysopoeia, but it is instead the artificial generation of humans. Here, the creation of homunculi symbolically represents spiritual regeneration and Christian soteriology. In 1775, Count Johann Ferdinand von Kufstein, together with Abbé Geloni, an Italian cleric, is reputed to have created ten homunculi with the ability to foresee the future, which von Kufstein kept in glass containers at his Masonic lodge in Vienna. Dr. Emil Besetzny's Masonic handbook, Die Sphinx, devoted an entire chapter to the wahrsagenden Geister; these are reputed to have been seen by several people, including local dignitaries. References to the homunculus do not appear prior to sixteenth-century alchemical writings but alchemists may have been influenced by earlier folk traditions; the mandragora, known in German as Alreona, Alraun or Alraune is one example. The homunculus has been compared to the golem of Jewish folklore. Though the specifics outlining the creation of the golem and homunculus are different, the concepts both metaphorically relate man to the divine, in his construction of life in his own image.

Preformationism is the popular theory that animals developed from miniature versions of themselves. Sperm were believed to contain complete preformed individuals called "animalcules". Development was therefore a matter of enlarging this into a formed being; the term homunculus was used in the discussion of conception and birth. Nicolas Hartsoeker postulated the existence of animalcules in the semen of other animals; this was the beginning of spermists' theory, which held that the sperm was in fact a "little man", placed inside a woman for growth into a child, a neat explanation for many of the mysteries of conception. It was pointed out that if the sperm was a homunculus, identical in all but size to an adult the homunculus may have sperm of its own; this led to a reductio ad absurdum with a chain of homunculi "all the way down". This was not considered by spermists a fatal objection, however, as it neatly explained how it was that "in Adam" all had sinned: the whole of humanity was contained in his loins.

The spermists' theory failed to explain why children tend to resemble their mothers as well as their fathers, though some spermists believed that the growing homunculus assimilated maternal characteristics from the womb. The homunculus is used today in scientific disciplines such as psychology as a teaching or memory tool to describe the distorted scale model of a human drawn or sculpted to reflect the relative space human body parts occupy on the somatosensory cortex and the motor cortex. Both the motor and sensory homunculi appear as small men superimposed over the top of precentral or postcentral gyri for motor and sensory cortices, respectively; the homunculus is oriented with feet medial and shoulders lateral on top of both the precentral and the postcentral gyrus. The man's head is depicted upside down in relation to the rest of the body such that the forehead is closest to the shoulders; the lips, hands and sex organs have more sensory neurons than other parts of the body, so the homunculus has correspondingly large lips, hands and genitals.

The motor homunculus is similar to the sensory homunculus, but differs in several ways. The motor homunculus has a portion for the tongue most l

California State University, Bakersfield

California State University, Bakersfield is a public university in Bakersfield, California. It was authorized in 1965 and founded in 1971 on a 375-acre campus, becoming the 19th school in the 23-campus California State University system; the university offers 21 types of Master's degrees. The university offers a Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership; as of fall 2018, there were more than 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students at either the main campus in Bakersfield or the satellite campus, Antelope Valley Center in Lancaster, California. CSU Bakersfield has more than 50,000 alumni from its four schools: Humanities; the university is a commuter campus serving the city of Bakersfield. CSU Bakersfield's petroleum geology program is the only one offered by a public university west of the Rockies. CSUB owes its founding to the Donahoe Higher Education Act of 1960, which formalized the creation of the CSU system as the "California State Colleges" system; the areas in the southern San Joaquin Valley had been demanding a four-year university since the 1950s.

After considering several locations, including nearby Delano and parts of Kings and Tulare County, a steering committee decided on Bakersfield because it was the largest isolated metropolitan area in the United States without a four-year university at that time. Their decision was turned into a bill by Bakersfield's State Senator Walter W. Stiern, ratified by the California State Legislature and signed into law by Governor Pat Brown. Under these rules, the school was authorized as California State College, Bakersfield in 1965, it founded in September 1971. In 1982, the California State College system became the California State University system, the school changed to its present name. Cal State Bakersfield academics are grouped into four schools with the exception of interdisciplinary programs: School of Arts & Humanities School of Business and Public Administration School of Natural Sciences and Engineering School of Social Sciences & Education Together, the four schools offer 45 baccalaureate degrees, 21 masters degrees, one educational doctorate.

On May 24, 2019, at the 49th annual undergraduate commencement ceremony, CSU Bakersfield awarded 2,312 bachelor's degrees, a 28% year-over-year increase and a record for the University. On May 22, 2019, 462 graduate degrees, including the University's first 12 doctoral degrees, were awarded at the annual hooding ceremony; the Office of Grants and Sponsored Programs provides administrative support for student and faculty research. External grant funding grew from 2014/15 to 2016/17, with active awards increasing from 54 to 70 and total funding increasing from $10M to $14.7M. Institutions that have been established as part of university research include: Business Research and Education Center California Energy Research Center California Well Sample Repository Center for Economic Education and Research Center for Environmental Studies Kegley Institute of Ethics Political Research CenterCal State Bakersfield conducts scientific research using advanced facilities and technologies. Facilities include the Materials Science Engineering Lab, Sediment Analysis Lab, Computer Mapping and Simulation Lab, Plant Physiology Lab, Elemental Composition Lab, Wireless Communications Lab, Robotics Lab, Power Systems Lab, VLSI/Circuits Lab, Cognitive Processes Lab, Behavioral Neuroscience Lab, Social Cognition Lab, more.

Researchers on campus have access to advanced equipment including scanning electron microscopy, high resolution CAT scanning, 2D gel electrophoresis. Active areas of research include synthesizing polymers from renewable resources and geologic CO2 storage; the California Energy Research Center was announced in 2013 to foster collaborations between CSUB students and the Kern County energy industries. Dr. Alan Fuchs became director of CERC in 2017; the California Energy Research Center will be housed in the 53,000 square-foot Energy and Engineering Innovation Center after its completion in 2023. In 2020, ranked tied for 28th out of 43 "Top Public Schools" by U. S. News & World Report in the Regional Universities West category. In 2020, ranked tied for 22nd out of 128 schools in "Top Performers on Social Mobility", by U. S. News & World Report in the Regional Universities West category. In 2020, ranked tied for 97th of 210 schools in "Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs" where doctorates not offered, by U.

S. News & World Report. In 2020, ranked tied for 66th out of 128 schools in "Regional Universities West", by U. S. News & World Report. In 2019, ranked 6th in the Best Bang for the Buck Colleges: West category by Washington Monthly. In 2019, ranked 17th out of 606 "Master's Universities" by Washington Monthly based on its contribution to the public good, as measured by social mobility and promoting public service. In 2017, ranked 3rd in the nation for upward mobility by The New York Times. In 2014, ranked 20th in the United States by Payscale and CollegeNet's Social Mobility Index college rankings. In 2014, ranked 39th in the United States by TIME Magazine in a list of the top 100 universities. CSU Bakersfield is an NCAA Division I school; the Roadrunners began the transition process in 2006 and became a full Division I member in July 2010. Following a period as one of a small number of Division I independents, CSU Bakersfield joined the Western Athletic Conference in July 2013 for most sports. For wrestling, CSUB competes in the Pac-12 conference.

CSUB wrestling is the institution's original Div

Jean Tschumi

Jean André Tschumi was a Swiss architect and professor at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. A member of the Modern Movement, Jean Tschumi is known for his buildings for Sandoz, Nestlé, la Mutuelle Vaudoise, as well as for some of his projects. Jean André Tschumi was born on February 14, 1904 in Plainpalais, in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, his mother, born in 1873, was from Schüpfheim. His father, born in 1871, was a woodworker from Bern. In 1915, at the age of 11, Jean Tschumi began drawing under the guidance of his father, who taught him the basics of woodworking. Shortly before obtaining his primary school certificate in Renens in April 1918, he signed up for the professional course of the Société Industrielle de Lausanne ·. At the same time, he began an apprenticeship as a draftsman in the office of Charles Braun, he studied at the Paris School of Fine Arts under Emmanuel Pontremoli. He worked in the office of the furniture and interior designer Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann. In 1936, he began working with the sculptor Édouard-Marcel Sandoz, son of Édouard Sandoz, the founder of the Sandoz pharmaceutical company.

Tschumi began working for the Sandoz company, starting with some small projects. After World War II, Tschumi designed the Sandoz laboratories in Noisy-le-Sec. After his death, several buildings were completed posthumously: the general headquarters of Sandoz in Rueil-Malmaison, completed in 1968 by Bernard Zehrfuss and the Swiss architect Martin Burckhardt; the prize for architectural criticism and/or architectural education awarded triennially by the International Union of Architects is named for Jean Tschumi. He was the father of architect Bernard Tschumi. Notes: Jacques Gubler, Jean Tschumi:Architecture échelle grandeur on Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2008. François Chaslin, Les jeudis de l'architecture, France Culture. Jean Tschumi - Catalogue Exhibitions, Lausanne, EPFL, Zurich, ETH

Beach Soccer Intercontinental Cup

The Beach Soccer Intercontinental Cup is an international beach soccer tournament, held in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates every November as the finale of the competitive international beach soccer season. The invitation-only tournament has been held annually since the inaugural edition in 2011, it will continue until at least 2020. The Intercontinental Cup is second only to the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup as the largest and most prestigious event on the international beach soccer circuit, featuring an exclusive assembly of the world's best national teams from each continent. Since the World Cup is a biannual competition, this event is now the most important annual international beach soccer tournament; the competition bares many similarities to the FIFA Confederations Cup in association football, with each of the six confederations of FIFA represented by at least one nation, however is not so strict on entry requirements – those countries competing do not have to be regional champions, but will still be one of the best performing nations from their confederation's most recent regional championship.

The tournament hosts and reigning World Cup champions take part, taking the total number of participants to eight. Samsung was the lead sponsor and presenting partner of the tournament from its inception until 2016. Huawei became new lead sponsors for 2017–18; the Dubai Sports Council and Beach Soccer Worldwide organise the competition. Russia and Iran are the most successful teams, having won three tournaments each. Dubai first hosted a beach soccer event in 2000 and since 2006, the city began holding annual events, culminating with the hosting of beach soccer's premier event in 2009, the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup. During 2009, Emirates and FIFA struck an agreement to have the former sponsor and fund football tournaments worldwide. In connection to this deal, Dubai was offered to host an event in either youth football, women's football or beach soccer. DSC decided following the success and popularity of the World Cup. BSWW were keen on returning beach soccer to Dubai, with Vice-President Joan Cusco claiming Dubai as beach soccer's "second most important city in this sport" save for Rio de Janeiro.

After using the time in 2010 to consider how to take beach soccer forward in the city following the World Cup success, an agreement was made between BSWW and DSC in 2011 to host the new Intercontinental Cup. It was desired by BSWW to have the tournament respect the legacy and be a celebration of the 2009 Dubai World Cup; therefore it was believed the idea of the competition, featuring the world's best teams from each continent, modelled notably to association football's secondary international event, the FIFA Confederations Cup, would be best suited to achieve these goals. After a successful maiden event in 2011, BSWW and DSC decided to make the tournament an annual occurrence, signing a 5-year contract in 2012. In 2017, at the end of the 5-year deal, the two parties extended the existing contract to 2020. During this time, the championship's reputation has grown because of the high level of elite competition only comparable to the World Cup and, combined with the yearly presence of the championship, it has become beach soccer's most prestigious annual event.

Despite always taking place in Dubai to date, the tournament has been staged in multiple different parts of the city. 2011: The Walk, Jumeirah Beach Residence 2012: Festival City 2013–16: Dubai International Marine Club 2017: Business Bay 2018–19: Kite Beach The Intercontinental Cup is a 5-day event. The eight teams are split into two groups of four; the tournament starts with the group stage, played in a round robin format, taking place during days one through three. The winners and runners-up from each group advanced to the knockout stage, in which the teams compete in single-elimination matches, beginning with the semi-finals and ending with the final on days four and five respectively. A third-place play-off is contested by the losing semi-finalists on day five; the third and fourth placed nations from each group play in a series of consolation matches to decide fifth through eighth place however these matches have only occurred since 2013. As of 2019 Beach Soccer Intercontinental Cup Key: Appearances App / Won in Normal Time W = 3 Points / Won in Extra Time W+ = 2 Points / Won in Penalty shoot-out WP = 1 Point / Lost L = 0 Points Key As of 2018 The following table shows the all-time top 15 goalscorers.

Huawei Intercontinental Cup Dubai, at Beach Soccer Worldwide Intercontinental Cup, at Beach Soccer Russia

The Flintstones' New Neighbors

The Flintstones' New Neighbors is a 1980 animated television special and the first of The Flintstone Special limited-run prime time revival of The Flintstones produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions which premiered on NBC on September 26, 1980. The Flintstones' New Neighbors was animated at Filman, an animation studio in Madrid, Spain who did a lot of animation work for Hanna-Barbera between the early 1970s through the mid-1980s; this would explain why, the backgrounds in this special look much like pencil and charcoal drawings different from the original series and its spin-offs. Like many animated series created by Hanna-Barbera in the 1970s, the show contained a laugh track created by the studio, one of the last productions to do so; the Flintstones and the Rubbles welcome a new strange family, The Frankenstones, to their Bedrock neighborhood. The Frankenstone family featured on this special was a different version of the Frankenstones from the episode "Fred and Barney Meet the Frankenstones" of The New Fred and Barney Show.

The new Frankenstone family members are: Frank Frankenstone Oblivia Frankenstone, his wife Hidea Frankenstone, their daughter Stubby Frankenstone, their sonA friendship develops between the Flintstones and the Frankenstones, not unlike the rivalry that would be depicted between Fred and Frank on The Flintstone Comedy Show. This version of the Frankenstones continued to appear throughout the run of the specials. Henry Corden - Fred Flintstone Mel Blanc - Barney Rubble Jean Vander Pyl - Wilma Flintstone, Pebbles Flintstone Gay Autterson - Betty Rubble Don Messick - Bamm-Bamm Rubble John Stephenson - Frank Frankenstone Patricia Parris - Oblivia Frankenstone Jim MacGeorge - Stubby Frankenstone Julie McWhirter - Hidea Frankenstone Frank Welker - Creepy, Mother Pterodactyl The Flintstones' New Neighbors was nominated for Outstanding Individual Achievement - Animated Programming at the 33rd Primetime Emmy Awards in 1981. Executive in Charge of Production: Margaret Loesch Director: Carl Urbano Story: Willie Gilbert Story Direction: Alex Lovy Recording Director: Alex Lovy Voices: Gay Autterson, Mel Blanc, Henry Corden, Jim MacGeorge, Julie McWhirter, Don Messick, Pat Parris, John Stephenson, Jean Vander Pyl, Frank Welker Graphics: Iraj Paran, Tom Wogatzke Musical Director: Hoyt Curtin Musical Supervisor: Paul DeKorte Character Design: Bob Singer, Don Morgan Layout: Angel Izquierdo Animation: Alberto Conejo, Julio Diez, Miguel A. Fuertes, Manuel G. Galiana, Roberto Marcano, Matias Marcos, Ezequiel Martin, Pedro Mohedano, Pedro J. Molina, Mariano Rueda Backgrounds: Francisco Albert, Marcial Del Cerro, Andres Hernandez Xerography: Javier Alfonso, Jose A. Moreno Ink and Paint Supervision: Carmen Moreno Sound Direction: Richard Olson Camera:' Raul Garcia, Santiago Gomez Supervising Film Editor: Larry C.

Cowan Film Editor: Emiliano Diaz Dubbing Supervisor: Pat Foley Music Editors: Joe Sandusky, Terry Moore Effects Editors: Daniels McLean, Cecil Broughton, Michael Bradley, Catherine McKenzie Show Editor: Gil Iverson Negative Consultant: William E. DeBoer Production Supervisors: Carlos Alfonso, Juan Pina Post Production Supervisor: Joed Eaton Producer: Alex Lovy Executive Producers: Joseph Barbera and William HannaIt was made under the jurisdiction of IATSE-IA affiliated with the A. F. L.-C. I. O. © 1980 Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. The Flintstones' New Neighbors was included as a bonus episode on the 1989 VHS release of The Flintstones Meet Rockula and Frankenstone. On October 9, 2012, Warner Archive released The Flintstones' New Neighbors on DVD in region 1 as part of their Hanna–Barbera Classics Collection, in a release entitled The Flintstones Prime-Time Specials Collection: Volume 2, it was a Manufacture-on-Demand release, available through Warner's online store and The Flintstones' New Neighbors on IMDb The Flintstones' New Neighbors at The Big Cartoon DataBase

Muzaffarids (Gujarat)

The Muzaffarid dynasty, sometimes referred as Ahmedabad dynasty, were sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. The founder of the dynasty was Zafar Khan, governor of Gujarat under the Delhi Sultanate. Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam, adopted the name Wajih-ul-Mulk, had given his sister in marriage to Firuz Shah Tughlaq; when the Sultanate was weakened by the sacking of Delhi by Timur in 1398, Zafar Khan took the opportunity to establish himself as sultan of an independent Gujarat. His son, Ahmed Shah I established the capital at Ahmedabad; the dynasty ruled for 200 years, until the conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal Empire in 1572. The sultanate reached its peak of expansion under Mahmud Begada, reaching east into Malwa and west to the Gulf of Kutch. List of Sunni Muslim dynasties