In Shinto shrine architecture, the honden called shinden, or sometimes shōden as in Ise Shrine's case, is the most sacred building at a Shinto shrine, intended purely for the use of the enshrined kami symbolized by a mirror or sometimes by a statue. The building is in the rear of the shrine and closed to the general public. In front of it stands the haiden, or oratory; the haiden is connected to the honden by a heiden, or hall of offerings. Physically, the honden is the heart of the shrine complex, connected to the rest of the shrine but raised above it, protected from public access by a fence called tamagaki, it is small and with a gabled roof. Its doors are kept closed, except at religious festivals. Shinto priests; the rite of opening those doors is itself an important part of the shrine's life. Inside the honden is kept the go-shintai "the sacred body of the kami"; the go-shintai is not divine, but just a temporary repository of the enshrined kami. Important as it is, the honden may sometimes be absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, or when there are nearby himorogi or other yorishiro that serve as a more direct bond to a kami.
Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands. For the same reason, it has no honden. In this sense, it is a model of. Another important shrine without a honden is head of the Suwa shrine network; the honden's structure determines the shrine's architectural style. Many exist, but three are of particular importance because they are the only ones believed to predate the arrival of Buddhism, have therefore a special architectural and historical significance, they are exemplified by the honden at Izumo Taisha, Nishina Shinmei Shrine and Sumiyoshi Taisha. German architect Bruno Taut compared the importance of Ise Shrine's honden to that of Greece's Parthenon. For details, see the article Shinto architecture. Main Hall of a temple for the similar concept in Japanese Buddhism Glossary of Shinto for an explanation of terms concerning Shinto, Shinto art, Shinto shrine architecture Holy of Holies in Judeo-Christian traditions Tamura, Yoshiro.
"The Birth of the Japanese nation in". Japanese Buddhism - A Cultural History. Tokyo: Kosei Publishing Company. P. 232 pages. ISBN 4-333-01684-3. "Honden". JAANUS. Retrieved 2008-12-19. Mori, Mizue. "Honden". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University. Retrieved 2008-12-19. Smyers, Karen Ann; the Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2102-5. OCLC 231775156
Sikhism is a religion originating in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan, former imperial possessions of the British Empire. The religion was recorded as the religion of 420,196 people resident in England at the 2011 Census, along with 2,962 people in Wales, 9,055 in Scotland and 216 in Northern Ireland, making for a total Sikh population of 432,429. Sikhs and Britain have a storied history. Decades before the last Sikh King, Duleep Singh, stepped onto British soil in the middle of the 19th century, there had been Anglo-Sikh contact as far back as the 1800s in the Punjab with his father Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Since even though this relationship has changed in nature many times, both communities have left a permanent mark on each other. For instance, in such varied parts of British society as food, political systems, soldiering and of course cricket, the British-Sikh relationship has given rise to many new facets of modern British and Indian society; the first Sikh settler in Britain was Maharaja Duleep Singh, the last Sikh Emperor of the Imperial Sukerchakia Dynasty, from 1844-1849.
He arrived in England in the year 1854. His mother, Empress Jind Kaur, arrived in 1860 at Kensington in Victorian London and settled permanently, after fighting the British for a long time until the fall of the Sikh Dynasty in 1849, she was given permission by the British Parliament to settle on English soil. The First Sikh Settlers started migrating from the Punjab in 1911, when the first Sikh Gurdwara was opened in London. During the start of the First and Second World Wars there was an established Sikh presence in many parts of England. In London itself the community was small but this grew rapidly during the 1950s and 60s and faced much racism and discrimination owed to the appearance and skin colour. In 2019, Seema Malhotra MP set up the first debate in Parliament to discuss the positive contribution of the Sikh community over the last 70 years. Research including the British Sikh Report have been used to provide an insight into the British Sikh community. British Sikhs are considered one of the best example of cultural integration in the United Kingdom.
A strong work ethic combined with an emphasis on the importance of the family has been the reason why Sikhs have been so successful. These are the places where most Sikhs live in Southall, Slough, West Midlands, Bradford, Derbyshire, Ilford, Erith, London Borough of Hillingdon and Ealing, and some live in London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, Manchester Luton, Northolt. 65 % of Sikhs have a graduate level above. Sikhs in the 20 - 34 age group have the highest level of graduates within the Sikh community; the highest level of post graduate Qualifications of master's degrees is in the 35 - 49 age group. 8% of Sikhs aged 65 and over have a PhD. The split of formal education between women and men is equal, with more women holding a university degree or equivalent; the most popular employment sectors for British Sikhs include: Healthcare, IT and Technology and Education, Accountancy and Financial Management. This demonstrates that Sikhs tend to favour professional and technical employment sectors compared with others.
Healthcare is a popular sector for all age groups. Teaching and Education is more popular with the 35 - 49 and the 50 - 64 age groups than other groups, whereas accountancy and financial management is more popular with the 20 - 34 age group compared with 6% for both the 35 - 49 and the 50 - 64 age groups; the top career choices for Sikh women are Teaching and Education. Healthcare is a joint second most popular choice for Sikh men along with Accountancy and Financial Management, the most popular sector being IT and Technology. Home ownership is high amongst British Sikhs with 87% of households owning at least a portion of their home. 30% of British Sikh households own their homes outright and only 9% rent their properties. A mere 1% of British Sikhs claim Housing Benefit; this represents the highest level of private home ownership rate over any other community in the UK. In addition half of all British Sikh families own more than one property in the UK, with a similar number owning at least one property in India.
British Sikh families appear to use property as a means of building assets for the future. 6% of British Sikhs own property elsewhere in Europe. According to the ONS, the national average income for British households is £40,000 before tax. With these values in mind the British Sikh Report 2014 found that Sikh households tend to be affluent. Two in every three British Sikh households have pre-tax incomes in excess of £40,000, over a third of British Sikh households have an income in excess of £80,000 giving a value for the Sikh Pound of 7.63 billion. Sikhs have the second highest poverty rate in the UK, with 27% of British Sikhs living in poverty; this is in comparison to 18% of the population as a whole. British Sikhs are clear net contributors to the British economy and have a strong entrepreneurial drive, with about one in three British Sikh families owning a business in the UK. Performing Seva is a basic tenet of Sikhism, Sikhs are expected to share at least 10 per cent their earnings with those less fortunate and for good causes.
64 per cent of the British Sikhs engage in some volunteering work. 40 per cent give between one and five hours of their time per week on voluntary activities, including Seva at their Gurdwara, whilst more than two p
Dorothy Walcott Weeks was an American mathematician and physicist. Weeks was born in Pennsylvania, she earned degrees from Wellesley College, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Simmons College. Weeks was the first woman to receive a PhD in Mathematics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After graduation from Wellesley College in 1916, Weeks went on to work as a teacher and a statistical clerk before becoming the third woman to work as a patent examiner at the US Patent Office in 1917. In 1924 she obtained a second master's degree, from the Prince School of Business at Simmons College, became an employment supervisor for Jordan Marsh, the Boston department store, but by 1928, she had returned to academia, teaching physics at Wellesley College while working on her doctorate at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1930, Weeks completed a PhD in theoretical physics from the mathematics department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, her dissertation work was guided by Norbert Wiener.
Following completion of graduate studies, Weeks developed and led the physics department at Wilson College in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania from 1930-1956. Weeks left Wilson on sabbatical from 1943 to 1945, when she worked as a technical aide at the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Between 1949–50, Weeks was a Guggenheim fellow at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1956-1964, Weeks was a physicist at the Watertown Arsenal and the technical representative for the Committee on Radioactive Shielding. In 1964, she worked for the NASA supported Solar Satellite Project at the Harvard College Observatory, she would continue to work as at Harvard as a spectroscopist, studying solar satellites at the Harvard College Observatory until she retired in 1976 at the age of eighty-three