Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by bees and some related insects. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants or from secretions of other insects, by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, water evaporation. Bees store honey in wax structures called honeycombs; the variety of honey produced by honey bees is the best-known, due to its worldwide commercial production and human consumption. Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from hives of domesticated bees, a practice known as beekeeping or apiculture. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, has about the same relative sweetness as sucrose, it has attractive chemical properties for a distinctive flavor when used as a sweetener. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey, so sealed honey does not spoil after thousands of years. Fifteen millilitres of honey provides 190 kilojoules of food energy. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity. Several cave paintings in Cuevas de la Araña in Spain depict humans foraging for honey at least 8,000 years ago.
Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply. During foraging, bees access part of the nectar collected to support metabolic activity of flight muscles, with the majority of collected nectar destined for regurgitation and storage as honey. In cold weather or when other food sources are scarce and larval bees use stored honey as food. By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey. In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are: a single female queen bee a seasonally variable number of male drone bees to fertilize new queens 20,000 to 40,000 female worker beesLeaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing it in its proventriculus, which lies just dorsal to its food stomach; the honey stomach holds about 40 mg of nectar, or 50% of the bee's unloaded weight, which can require over a thousand flowers and more than an hour to fill.
The nectar begins with a water content of 70 to 80%. Salivary enzymes and proteins from the bee's hypopharyngeal gland are added to the nectar to begin breaking down the sugars, raising the water content slightly; the forager bees return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. The hive bees use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar, forming bubbles between their mandibles until it is digested; the bubbles create a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation. Bee digestive enzymes hydrolyze sucrose to a mixture of glucose and fructose, break down other starches and proteins, increasing the acidity; the bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes, passing the nectar from one bee to the next, until the product reaches the honeycombs in storage quality. It is placed in honeycomb cells and left unsealed while still high in water content and natural yeasts which, would cause the sugars in the newly formed honey to ferment.
Bees are among the few insects that can generate large amounts of body heat, the hive bees regulate the hive temperature, either heating with their bodies or cooling with water evaporation, to maintain a constant temperature of about 35 °C in the honey-storage areas. The process continues as hive bees flutter their wings to circulate air and evaporate water from the honey to a content around 18%, raising the sugar concentration beyond the saturation point and preventing fermentation; the bees cap the cells with wax to seal them. As removed from the hive by a beekeeper, honey has a long shelf life and will not ferment if properly sealed; some wasp species, such as Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica found in South and Central America, are known to feed on nectar and produce honey. Some wasps, such as Polistes versicolor, consume honey, alternating between feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles and feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs. Honey is collected from domesticated beehives.
On average, a hive will produce about 29 kilograms of honey per year. Wild bee nests are sometimes located by following a honeyguide bird. To safely collect honey from a hive, beekeepers pacify the bees using a bee smoker; the smoke triggers a feeding instinct, making them less aggressive, obscures the pheromones the bees use to communicate. The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey may be extracted from it either by crushing or by using a honey extractor; the honey is usually filtered to remove beeswax and other debris. Before the invention of removable frames, bee colonies were sacrificed to conduct the harvest; the harvester would replace the entire colony the next spring. Since the invention of removable frames, the principles of husbandry led most beekeepers to ensure that their bees have enough stores to survive the winter, either by leaving some honey in the beehive or by providing the colony with a honey substitute such as sugar water or crystalline sugar; the amount of food necessary to survive the winter depends on the variety of bees and on the length and severity of local winters.
The Stick style was a late-19th-century American architectural style, transitional between the Carpenter Gothic style of the mid-19th century, the Queen Anne style that it had evolved into by the 1890s. It is named after its use of linear "stickwork" on the outside walls to mimic an exposed half-timbered frame; the style sought to bring a translation of the balloon framing that had risen in popularity during the middle of the century, by alluding to it through plain trim boards, soffits and other decorative features. Stick-style architecture is recognizable by the plain layout accented with trusses on the gables or decorative shingles; the stickwork decoration is not structurally significant, being just narrow planks or thin projections applied over the wall's clapboards. The planks intersect at right angles, sometimes diagonally as well, resembling the half-timbering of medieval – Tudor – buildings; the style was used in houses, train stations, life-saving stations, other buildings from the era.
The Stick style did have several characteristics in common with the Queen Anne style: interpenetrating roof planes with bold panelled brick chimneys, the wrap-around porch, spindle detailing, the "panelled" sectioning of blank wall, radiating spindle details at the gable peaks. Stylized and decorative versions of the Stick style are referred to as Eastlake. Stick-Eastlake is a style term that uses details from the Eastlake Movement, started by Charles Eastlake, of decorative arts on Stick-style buildings, it is sometimes referred to as Victorian Stick, a variation of Eastlake styles. Stick-Eastlake enjoyed modest popularity in the late 19th century, but there are few surviving examples of the style when compared to other more popular styles of Victorian architecture. Chatham Train Station in Chatham, Massachusetts Delaware and Hudson Railroad Passenger Station in Altamont, New York John N. A. Griswold House in Newport, Rhode Island Hinds House in Santa Cruz, California Orfordville Depot in Orfordville, Wisconsin Emlen Physick Estate in Cape May, New Jersey John Reichert Farmhouse in Mequon, Wisconsin Swampscott Railroad Depot in Swampscott, Massachusetts Herman C.
Timm House in New Holstein, Wisconsin Robert Dollar Mansion in San Rafael, California Hereford Inlet lighthouse in North Wildwood, New Jersey Point Fermin Lighthouse in San Pedro, CA Ladd Carriage House in Portland, OR Category:Stick-Eastlake architecture in the United States Category:Stick-Eastlake architecture Queen Anne style architecture Category:Queen Anne architecture in the United States Category:Queen Anne architecture Category: Victorian architecture in the United States Category: Victorian architectural styles Foster, Gerald L. American houses: a field guide to the architecture of the home, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004. Cf. p. 387 and various
The Hills Have Eyes is a 1977 American horror film written and edited by Wes Craven and starring Susan Lanier, Michael Berryman and Dee Wallace. The film follows the Carters, a suburban family targeted by a family of cannibal savages after becoming stranded in the Nevada desert. Following Craven's directorial debut, The Last House on the Left, producer Peter Locke was interested in financing a similar project. Craven based the film's script on the legend of cannibal Sawney Bean, which Craven viewed as illustrating how civilized people could become savage. Other influences on the film include John Ford's The Grapes of Wrath and Tobe Hooper's The Texas Chain Saw Massacre; the Hills Have Eyes was shot in the Mojave Desert. The film's crew were unenthusiastic about the project, but this changed as they came to believe that they were making a special movie; the Hills Have Eyes spawned a franchise. All subsequent films in the series were made with Craven's involvement; the Hills Have Eyes was released on VHS in 1988 and has subsequently been released on DVD and Blu-ray, while Don Peake's score for the film has been released on CD and vinyl.
Reviews for the film were positive, with critics praising its tense narrative and humor. Some critics have interpreted the film as containing commentary on morality and American politics, the film has since become a cult classic; the suburban Carter family is traveling on vacation towing a travel trailer from Ohio to Los Angeles. Parents Bob and Ethel are driving, accompanied by their teenage children Bobby, eldest daughter Lynne, Lynne's husband Doug and Doug's baby daughter Katy, the family's dogs and The Beast. In Nevada, they stop at Fred's Oasis for fuel, Fred urges them to stay on the main road as they leave. Fred's truck explodes. Dismissing Fred's warnings as a crazy person's ramblings, the Carters skid off a desert road and crash; the dogs become panicky and start barking at the hills. Beauty runs off into the hills. Chasing after her, Bobby finds her mutilated body. Frightened, he runs and knocks himself unconscious. Bob walks back to Fred's Oasis to get help; as night falls, he finds Fred.
As a child, Jupiter killed the family's livestock and murdered his sister. Fred left him in the hills to die. However, Jupiter had children with a depraved, alcoholic prostitute known as Mama. Together, they had three sons – Mars and Mercury – and an abused daughter, Ruby; the family led by "Papa Jupiter" survives by stealing supplies. Papa Jupiter crashes through a window, kills Fred with a tire iron, takes Bob prisoner, crucifies him. Brenda finds Bobby, still shaken up about Beauty, the two return to the trailer. Bobby does not mention Beauty's death to avoid frightening the rest of the family. Pluto signals Papa Jupiter to set Bob on fire as a distraction. While Brenda stays in the trailer with Katy, Lynne and Bobby rush out to save Bob; the Carters extinguish the fire, but Bob dies shortly afterwards. As the Carters extinguish the fire and Mars ransack the camper and Mars rapes Brenda; when Ethel and Lynne return, Mars shoots them both. Pluto abducts the brothers flee, intending for the family to eat her.
Hearing their screams and Bobby rush back only to find Lynne dead, Ethel mortally wounded and Brenda traumatized. Mars and Pluto return to a cave; the Beast pushes Mercury off a hilltop to his death. Mama chains Ruby outside the cave, torments her and forces her to eat Beauty as punishment for sympathizing with the Carters; the next morning, shortly after Ethel dies, Doug sets out to find Katy while Papa Jupiter and Pluto set out to kill the remaining family members. The Beast tears Pluto's throat out. Brenda and Bobby use Ethel's corpse as a trap to kill Papa Jupiter. Doug gets to the cave, where he sees Ruby carrying Katy away. Doug catches up with Ruby. Mars gains the upper hand. Doug savagely stabs Mars and continues long after he is dead, whilst Ruby weeps and the screen fades to red. Wes Craven desired to make a non-horror film, following his directorial debut, The Last House on the Left, because he saw the horror genre as constraining. However, he could not find producers interested in financing a project that did not feature bloody violence.
Craven's friend, producer Peter Locke, was interested in financing a horror exploitation film, Craven decided to write the project due to his monetary issues. Craven considered collaborating with Sean S. Cunningham on a horror children's film based on "Hansel and Gretel", but Locke wanted the film to be more in the vein of The Last House on the Left. According to Steve Palopoli of Metro Silicon Valley, the finished film still features elements of "Hansel and Gretel," its portrayal of people getting lost in the wilderness and setting a trap for their tormentors. In writing the project for Locke, Craven decided he "wanted something more sophisticated than Last House on the Left." He added that he "didn't want to feel uncomfortable again about making a statement about human depravity."Searching for a story to film, Craven began looking up "terrible things" at the New York Public Library. While going through the library's forensics department, Craven learned of the legend of Sawney Bean - the alleged head of a 48-person Scottish clan responsible for the murder and cannibalization of more than one thousand people.
What interested Craven in the legend was how, after Bean's clan was arrested, they