A honey bee is a eusocial flying insect within the genus Apis of the bee clade, all native to Eurasia but spread to four other continents by human beings. They are known for construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax, for the large size of their colonies, for their surplus production and storage of honey, distinguishing their hives as a prized foraging target of many animals, including honey badgers and human hunter-gatherers. In the early 21st century, only seven species of honey bee are recognized, with a total of 44 subspecies, though seven to eleven species are recognized; the best known honey bee is the western honey bee, domesticated for honey production and crop pollination. Honey bees represent only a small fraction of the 20,000 known species of bees; some other types of related bees produce and store honey and have been kept by humans for that purpose, including the stingless honey bees, but only members of the genus Apis are true honey bees. The study of bees, which includes the study of honey bees, is known as melittology.
The genus name Apis is Latin for "bee". Although modern dictionaries may refer to Apis as either honey bee or honeybee, entomologist Robert Snodgrass asserts that correct usage requires two words, i.e. honey bee, as it is a kind or type of bee, whereas it is incorrect to run the two words together, as in dragonfly or butterfly, because the latter are not flies. Honey bee, not honeybee, is the listed common name in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the Entomological Society of America Common Names of Insects Database, the Tree of Life Web Project. Honey bees appear to have their center of origin in South and Southeast Asia, as all the extant species except Apis mellifera are native to that region. Notably, living representatives of the earliest lineages to diverge have their center of origin there; the first Apis bees appear in the fossil record at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, in European deposits. The origin of these prehistoric honey bees does not indicate Europe as the place of origin of the genus, only that the bees were present in Europe by that time.
Few fossil deposits are known from South Asia, the suspected region of honey bee origin, fewer still have been studied. No Apis species existed in the New World during human times before the introduction of A. mellifera by Europeans. Only one fossil species is documented from the New World, Apis nearctica, known from a single 14 million-year-old specimen from Nevada; the close relatives of modern honey bees – e.g. bumblebees and stingless bees – are social to some degree, social behavior seems a plesiomorphic trait that predates the origin of the genus. Among the extant members of Apis, the more basal species make single, exposed combs, while the more evolved species nest in cavities and have multiple combs, which has facilitated their domestication. Most species have been cultured or at least exploited for honey and beeswax by humans indigenous to their native ranges. Only two species have been domesticated: Apis mellifera and Apis cerana indica. A. mellifera has been cultivated at least since the time of the building of the Egyptian pyramids, only that species has been moved extensively beyond its native range.
Honey bees are the only extant members of the tribe Apini. Today's honey bees constitute three clades: Micrapis and Apis. Apis florea and Apis andreniformis are small honey bees of southeastern Asia, they make small, exposed nests in trees and shrubs. Their stings are incapable of penetrating human skin, so the hive and swarms can be handled with minimal protection, they occur sympatrically, though they are distinct evolutionarily and are the result of allopatric speciation, their distribution converging. Given that A. florea is more distributed and A. andreniformis is more aggressive, honey is, if at all harvested from the former only. They are the most ancient extant lineage of honey bees, maybe diverging in the Bartonian from the other lineages, but do not seem to have diverged from each other a long time before the Neogene. Apis florea have smaller wing spans than its sister species. Apis florea are completely yellow with the exception of the scutellum of workers, black. One species is recognized in the subgenus Megapis.
It builds single or a few exposed combs on high tree limbs, on cliffs, sometimes on buildings. They can be fierce. Periodically robbed of their honey by human "honey hunters", colonies are capable of stinging a human being to death if provoked. Apis dorsata, the giant honey bee, is widespread across most of South and Southeast Asia. A. d. binghami, the Indonesian giant honey bee, is classified as the Indonesian subspecies of the giant honey bee or a distinct species. A. d. laboriosa, the Himalayan giant honey bee, was described as a distinct species. It was included in A. dorsata as a subspecies based on the biological species concept, though authors applying a genetic species concept have suggested it should be considered a separate species. Restricted to the Himalayas, it differs little from the giant honey bee in appearance, but has extensive behavioral adaptations that enable it to nest in the open at high altitudes despite low ambient temperat
Islamic Cairo called Historic Cairo or Medieval Cairo, refers generically to the historic areas of Cairo, that existed before the city's modern expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries. The name "Islamic" Cairo refers not to a greater prominence of Muslims in the area but rather to the city's rich history and heritage since its foundation in the early period of Islam, while distinguishing it from with the nearby Ancient Egyptian sites of Giza and Memphis; this area holds one of the largest and densest concentrations of historic architecture in the Islamic world. It is characterized by hundreds of mosques, madrasas, mansions and fortifications dating from throughout the Islamic era of Egypt. In 1979, the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization proclaimed Historic Cairo a World Cultural Heritage site, as "one of the world's oldest Islamic cities, with its famous mosques, madrasas and fountains" and "the new centre of the Islamic world, reaching its golden age in the 14th century."
The history of Cairo begins, in essence, with the conquest of Egypt by Muslim Arabs in 640, under the commander'Amr ibn al-'As. Although Alexandria was the capital of Egypt at that time, the Arab conquerors decided to establish a new city called Fustat to serve as the administrative capital and military garrison center of Egypt; the new city was located near a Roman-Byzantine fortress known as Babylon on the shores of the Nile, southwest of the site of Cairo proper. The choice of this location may have been due to several factors, including its closer proximity to Arabia and Mecca, the fear of strong remaining Christian and Hellenistic influence in Alexandria, Alexandria's vulnerability to Byzantine counteroffensives arriving by sea. More the location of Fustat at the intersection of Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt made it a strategic place from which to control a country, centered on the Nile river, much as the Ancient Egyptian city of Memphis had done; the foundation of Fustat was accompanied by the foundation of Egypt's first mosque, the Mosque of'Amr ibn al-'As, much rebuilt over the centuries but still exists today.
Fustat grew to become Egypt's main city and economic center, with Alexandria becoming more of a provincial city. In 661 the Islamic world came under the control of the Ummayyads, based in their capital at Damascus, until their overthrow by the Abbasids in 750; the last Ummayyad caliph, Marwan II, made his last stand in Egypt but was killed on August 1st, 750. Thereafter Egypt, Fustat, passed under Abbasid control; the Abbasids marked their new rule in Egypt by founding a new administrative capital called al-'Askar northeast of Fustat, under the initiative of their governor Abu'Aun. The city was completed with the foundation of a grand mosque in 786, included a palace for the governor's residence, known as the Dar al-'Imara. Nothing of this city remains today, but the foundation of new administrative capitals just outside the main city became a recurring pattern in the history of the area. Ahmad Ibn Tulun was a Turkish military commander who had served the Abbasid caliphs in Samarra during a long crisis of Abbasid power.
He became governor of Egypt in 868 but became its de facto independent ruler, while still acknowledging the Abbasid caliph's symbolic authority. He grew so influential that the caliph allowed him to take control of Syria in 878. During this period of Tulunid rule, Egypt became an independent state for the first time since Roman rule was established in 30 BC. Ibn Tulun founded his own new administrative capital in 870, called al-Qata'i, just northwest of al-Askar, it included a new grand palace, a hippodrome or military parade ground, amenities such as a hospital, a great mosque which survives to this day, known as the Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built between 876 and 879. Ibn Tulun died in 884 and his sons ruled for a few more decades until 905 when the Abbasids sent an army to reestablish direct control and burned al-Qata'i to the ground, sparing only the mosque. After this, Egypt was ruled for a while by another dynasty, the Ikhshidids, who ruled as Abbasid governors between 935 and 969; some of their constructions under Abu al-Misk Kafur, a black eunuch who ruled as regent during the part of this period, may have influenced the future Fatimids' choice of location for their capital, since one of Kafur's great gardens along the Khalij canal was incorporated into the Fatimid palaces.
The Fatimids, an Isma'ili Shi'a caliphate, based in Ifriqiya, conquered Egypt in 969 CE during the reign of Caliph al-Mu'izz. Their army, composed of North African Kutama Berbers, was led by the general Jawhar al-Siqilli. In 970, under instructions from al-Mu'izz, Jawhar planned and constructed a new city to serve as the residence and center of power for the Fatimid Caliphs; the city was named al-Mu'izziyya al-Qaahirah, the "Victorious City of al-Mu'izz" simply called "al-Qahira", which gave us the modern name of Cairo. The city was located northeast of Fustat and of
João Carlos Serra Ferreira Pereira is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a left winger, the manager of Académica de Coimbra. Born in Luanda, Angola to Portuguese parents, Pereira started playing football with A. C. Marinhense, went on to spend one season in the second division with the club. From 1985 to 1987 he represented Académica de Coimbra in the Primeira Liga, but was never more than a reserve player. Pereira retired professionally in June 1990 at the age of only 25, after spells in the second level with Moreirense F. C. and C. D. Trofense. Pereira began coaching aged just 32, starting with Marinhense in division three and moving in 2001 to fellow league side S. C. Pombal, his top-flight debut came in the 2003–04 campaign with another former club, Académica, which he led to the 13th place. In early 2005, after being fired by the Students, Pereira signed with C. D. Nacional and moved shortly after to Moreirense spent the next year without a team until he joined Kuwait's Al Tadhamon SC.
After leading G. D. Estoril Praia to the fourth place in 2008–09's second tier, he returned to the top division by signing a two-year contract with C. F. Os Belenenses, relegated only to avoid it due to C. F. Estrela da Amadora's serious financial problems. On 21 December 2009, following a series of poor results, Pereira resigned at Belenenses although they were still above the relegation zone – not managing to retain their status. On 9 December of the following year he moved to Cyprus, being appointed at Ermis Aradippou FC and asking to be released at the end of the season after managing to avoid First Division relegation by registering a club-record 30 points in the competition, 38 after the second stage. On 28 November 2011, Pereira replaced countryman João Alves at the helm of Swiss club Servette FC, being replaced in April 2012 by his predecessor. During his tenure the team won four Super League drew two and lost seven. After six years working with Aspire Academy, Pereira returned for another spell as Académica coach on 18 November 2019, with the side now in the second level.
João Carlos Pereira at ForaDeJogo João Carlos Pereira manager stats at ForaDeJogo