Private pilot licence
A private pilot licence or, in the United States, a private pilot certificate, is a type of pilot licence that allows the holder to act as pilot in command of an aircraft privately. The licence requirements are determined by the International Civil Aviation Organisation, but implementation varies from country to country. According to the ICAO, it is obtained by completing a course with at least 40 hours of flight time, passing seven written exams, completing a solo cross country flight, demonstrating flying skills to an examiner during a flight test. In the United States, pilots can be trained under Title 14 of federal code part 141, which allows them to apply for their certificate after as few as 35 hours. However, most pilots require 60–70 hours of flight time to complete their training; the minimum age for a student pilot certificate is 14 for balloons and gliders, 16 for powered flight. The minimum age for a private pilot certificate is 16 for balloons and gliders, 17 for powered flight.
Pilots can begin training at any age and can solo balloons and gliders from age 14, powered aircraft from age 16. A PPL may be issued by the Civil Aviation Authority in many countries such as the FAA for US certification, the CASA for Australian certification, or Transport Canada for Canadian certification. In Europe, national CAAs issue a licence based on common EASA regulations; each organization has different requirements. Different types of private licences are issued for the major categories of aircraft, it is possible to obtain a category/class rating for rotorcraft or lighter-than-air aircraft without obtaining a rating on fixed-wing aircraft. Some category/class ratings may include limitations placed on the certificate. For example, a glider pilot who has trained and tested using aerotow-, ground- or self-launch techniques will have a limitation placed on his glider rating "______-launch only" until he has completed additional training and a practical exam using the additional launch method.
In similar fashion, a lighter-than-air pilot with a balloon class-rating will have the limitation "limited to hot air balloons with airborne heater" or "limited to gas balloons" unless he has logged flight training and completed a practical exam on both types of balloon. Other limitations may be issued, however these are not encountered; the classes listed on the certificate define which aircraft categories its holder is qualified to operate. The structure of aircraft categories and further subdivision into classes are as follows: Airplane Single-engine land Single-engine sea Multi-engine land Multi-engine sea Rotorcraft Helicopter Gyroplane Glider Lighter-than-air Airship Balloon Powered-lift Powered parachute Powered parachute land Powered parachute sea Weight-shift-control Weight-shift-control land Weight-shift-control sea A licence will contain a number of sub-qualifications or ratings; these specify in more detail the actual privileges of the licence, including the types of aircraft that can be flown, whether flight under instrument flight rules and at night is allowed, whether instructing and examining of trainee pilots is authorized.
Ratings include Single and/or Multi-Engine Aircraft, Land or Seaplane, each of which require a checkride with an approved examiner. In addition, a number of endorsements are available for specific skills. Endorsements only require instruction and a Flight Instructor's endorsement, they do not require any flight test with an FAA representative and are placed in the pilot's logbook, not on the licence itself. Sec. 61.31 Federal Aviation Regulations endorsements required to act as pilot-in-command are: Tailwheel - Tailwheel endorsement not applicable in Canada Complex airplane – aircraft with a variable-pitch propeller and retractable landing gear High-performance Pressurized aircraft pressurized aircraft that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude, whichever is lower, above 25,000 feet msl. Night vision goggle operationsOther aircraft operations for which the FAA does not require an endorsement that require additional training are glider towing and aerobatics; the FAA does not require an endorsement for some commercial activities like banner towing.
Aerial application, whether conducted by a commercial certificate holder operating for hire or by a private pilot treating a crop in which he is the owner of a substantial share, requires an Authorization under Part 137 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. Commercial pilot license Pilot licensing and certification Pilot licensing in Canada Pilot certification in the United States Private aviation Australian PPL FAA Registry: Airmen Certification Inquiry Private Pilot Practical Test Standards for Airplane Computer Testing Supplement for Recreational Pilot and Private Pilot
The Beagle B.121 Pup is a 1960s British 2–4 seat single-engined training and touring aircraft built by Beagle Aircraft Limited at Shoreham Airport and Rearsby Aerodrome. The Pup was designed as a single-engined all-metal two-seat aerobatic aircraft or a four-seat touring aircraft; the prototype Pup first flew from Shoreham Airport on 8 April 1967. Soon after, more powerful Pup 150s, with seating for an extra adult, were flown in October 1967; the second and third aircraft were Series 2 aircraft fitted with an enlarged rudder which became standard on all production aircraft. G-AVLM was converted during 1968 to become the series 3 prototype aircraft with a further enlarged rudder. Beagle Aircraft Ltd chose to build the Pup following a market survey which demonstrated a global requirement for a 2–4 seat training/touring aircraft to replace aging Tiger Moths and Pipers used by flying clubs; the first delivery was to the Shoreham Flying School on 12 April 1968. The aircraft was popular and sold to flying private users worldwide.
A Series 3 variant, a four-seater, was developed for the Iranian Civil Air Training Organisation. By 1969 production had increased at Shoreham to one Pup a day, aircraft were flown to either Rearsby Aerodrome or Cambridge Airport for painting and finishing. One aircraft was not ordered. Deliveries were made to civilian operators in several countries including Australia and Switzerland. In December 1969 the government withdrew financial support for Beagle and the company was placed in receivership. Over 250 Pups were on order but production ceased with the 152nd aircraft; some remaining nearly completed aircraft were finished at a variety of locations, the last being completed G-BCGV was first registered 17 June 1974. The Pup was more spacious than its direct competitors and was more of a "pilot's aeroplane". For these reasons it was correspondingly more expensive to build, yet was sold at a competitive price, its maintenance requires more care and its early days were troubled by issues with the doors and spares availability.
A military version of the Pup was developed after being assessed by Rolls Royce Test Pilot Graham Andrews, who made 12 recommendations including its adaptation to a twin seated aircraft suitable for training purposes. The aircraft evolved into the Beagle B.125 Bulldog with a 200 hp Lycoming engine. Only one prototype aircraft was built by Beagle. Pup Series 1 Powered by a 100 hp Rolls-Royce Continental O-200A engine Pup Series 2 Powered by a 150 hp Lycoming O-320-A2B engine Pup Series 3 Powered by a 160 hp Lycoming O-320-D2C engine Bulldog Military training version, 2 prototypes only built by Beagle IranIranian Civil Air Training Organisation United KingdomDerby Aero Club Shoreham Flying School Surrey and Kent Flying Club, Biggin Hill Aerodrome SkySport UK Netherthorpe Airfield New ZealandOne aircraft evaluated by the RNZAF in 1969, not ordered. General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 22 ft 11 in Wingspan: 31 ft Height: 7 ft 6 in Wing area: 119.5 ft² Empty weight: 985 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 1,600 lb Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce/Continental O-200-A air-cooled, horizontally opposed, four-cylinder piston engine, 100 hp Performance Maximum speed: 127 mph Wing loading: 13.4 lb/ft² Power/mass: 0.0625 hp/lb Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1969–70General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 2 passengers Length: 23 ft 2 in Wingspan: 31 ft 0 in Height: 7 ft 6 in Wing area: 119.5 sq ft Aspect ratio: 8.04:1 Empty weight: 1,090 lb Max takeoff weight: 1,925 lb Fuel capacity: 24 imp gal Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-320-A2B air-cooled flat-four, 150 hp Propellers: 2-bladed Sensenich M.74 DMS-0-60, 6 ft 2 in diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 138 mph Cruise speed: 115 mph Stall speed: 56 mph Never exceed speed: 195 mph Range: 440 mi Service ceiling: 14,700 ft Rate of climb: 800 ft/min Wing loading: 16.1 lb/sq ft Take-off run (to 50 ft: 1,480 feet Landing run (from 50 ft: 1,410 ft Piper PA-28 Cherokee Taylor, John W. R. ed..
Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1969–70. London: Sampson Low Marston & Co. Ltd; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Orbis Publishing. Jackson, A. J.. British Civil Aircraft since 1919 Volume 1. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-370-10006-9. Media related to Beagle B.121 Pup at Wikimedia Commons
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is an American four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company. First flown in 1955, more 172s have been built than any other aircraft. Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna 172 is the most successful aircraft in history. Cessna delivered the first production model in 1956 and as of 2015, the company and its partners had built more than 44,000; the aircraft remains in production today. The Skyhawk's main competitors have been the Beechcraft Musketeer and Grumman AA-5 series, the Piper Cherokee, more the Diamond DA40 and Cirrus SR20; the Cessna 172 started life as a tricycle landing gear variant of the taildragger Cessna 170, with a basic level of standard equipment. In January 1955, Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna 170, a Continental O-300-A-powered Cessna 170C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin. Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a tricycle landing gear, the modified Cessna 170C flew again on 12 June 1955.
To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna 170 type certificate as the Model 172. The 172 was given its own type certificate, 3A12; the 172 became an overnight sales success, over 1,400 were built in 1956, its first full year of production. Early 172s were similar in appearance to the 170s, with the same straight aft fuselage and tall landing gear legs, although the 172 had a straight tailfin while the 170 had a rounded fin and rudder. In 1960, the 172A incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, still in use today; the final aesthetic development, found in the 1963 172D and all 172 models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as "Omni-Vision."Production halted in the mid-1980s, but resumed in 1996 with the 160 hp Cessna 172R Skyhawk. Cessna supplemented this in 1998 with the 180 hp Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP; the Cessna 172 may be modified via a wide array of supplemental type certificates, including increased engine power and higher gross weights.
Available STC engine modifications increase power from 180 to 210 hp, add constant-speed propellers, or allow the use of automobile gasoline. Other modifications include additional fuel tank capacity in the wing tips, added baggage compartment tanks, added wheel pants to reduce drag, or enhanced landing and takeoff performance and safety with a STOL kit; the 172 has been equipped with the 180 hp fuel injected Superior Air Parts Vantage engine. A Cessna 172 was used in 1958 to set the world record for flight endurance. On December 4, 1958, Robert Timm and John Cook took off from McCarran Airfield in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a used Cessna 172, registration number N9172B, they landed back at McCarran Airfield on February 7, 1959, after 64 days, 22 hours, 19 minutes and 5 seconds in flight. The flight was part of a fund-raising effort for the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund. Food and water were transferred by matching speeds with a chase car on a straight stretch of road in the desert and hoisting the supplies aboard with a rope and bucket.
Fuel was taken on by hoisting a hose from a fuel truck up to the aircraft, filling an auxiliary belly tank installed for the flight, pumping that fuel into the aircraft's regular tanks and filling the belly tank again. The drivers steered while a second person matched speeds with the aircraft with his foot on the vehicle's accelerator pedal. Engine oil was added by means of a tube from the cabin, fitted to pass through the firewall. Only the pilot's seat was installed; the remaining space was used for a pad. The right cabin door was replaced with an easy-opening, accordion-type door to allow supplies and fuel to be hoisted aboard. Early in the flight, the engine-driven electric generator failed. A Champion wind-driven generator was hoisted aboard, taped to the wing support strut, plugged into the cigarette lighter socket; the pilots decided to end the marathon flight because with 1,558 hours of continuously running the engine during the record-setting flight, plus several hundred hours on the engine beforehand, the engine's power output had deteriorated to the point at which they were able to climb away after refueling.
The aircraft is on display in the passenger terminal at McCarran International Airport. Photos and details of the record flight can be seen in a small museum on the upper level of the baggage claim area. After the flight, Cook said: Next time I feel in the mood to fly endurance, I'm going to lock myself in our garbage can with the vacuum cleaner running; that is. 172The basic 172 appeared in November 1955 as the 1956 model and remained in production until replaced by the 172A in early 1960. It was equipped with a Continental O-300 145 hp six-cylinder, air-cooled engine and had a maximum gross weight of 2,200 lb. Introductory base price was US$8,995 and a total of 4,195 were constructed over the five years. 172AThe 1960 model 172A introduced a swept-back rudder, as well as float fittings. The price was US$9,450 and 1,015 were built. 172BThe 172B was introduced in late 1960 as the 1961 model and featured a shorter landing gear, engine mounts lengthened three inches, a reshaped cowling, a pointed propeller spinner.
For the first time, the "Skyhawk" name was applied to an available deluxe option package. This added optional equipment included full exteri
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
There were two men known as Sir Cecil Clementi, both having been colonial governors in Singapore. Sir Cecil Clementi, who served between 1930 to 1934, was Sir Cecil Clementi Smith's nephew. Sir Cecil Clementi was a British colonial administrator who served as Governor of Hong Kong from 1925–30, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Straits Settlements from 1930–34. Born in Cawnpore, Clementi was the son of Colonel Montagu Clementi, Judge Advocate General in India, his wife, Isabel Collard, he attended St Paul's School and Magdalen College, where he studied Sanskrit and the classics. In 1896, he achieved a first-class result in mods, was awarded a Boden scholarship in Sanskrit in 1897, he was given honorable mentions for the Hertford and Craven scholarships. Clementi was proxime accessit for the Gaisford Greek Prose prize in 1897, obtained his B. A. in 1898. Clementi was proxime accessit for the Chancellor's Latin Essay prize in 1899, obtained his M. A. in 1901. In 1899, Clementi placed fourth in the competitive examinations for the civil service, which allowed him his choice of postings.
His choice was Hong Kong, upon his arrival he was sent up to Canton, where he was a land officer until forced to return to Hong Kong by the events of the Boxer Rebellion. Clementi's facility with languages was demonstrated when he passed the Cantonese examination in 1900, the Pekingese examination six years in 1906. After serving as an Assistant Registrar General in 1901, Clementi joined as a member of the Board of Examiners in Chinese, in 1902. In 1902, Clementi was seconded for special service under government of India and was created J. P. in that same year. A year he was seconded for famine relief work in Kwangsi. A year afterwards, Clementi was appointed Member of Land Court, Assistant Land Officer and Police Magistrate at New Territories, Hong Kong, a position he served in until 1906. Due to his outstanding performance in the services, Clementi was promoted to Assistant Colonial Secretary and Clerk of Council, in 1907. While he was in that position, Clementi represented the Hong Kong government in the International Opium Conference at Shanghai, in 1909.
A year he became the Private Secretary to the Administrator at that time, Sir Francis Henry May. Clementi became Acting Colonial Secretary and Member of both the Executive and Legislative Councils of Hong Kong, he would remain there until 1912. Clementi played a part in the founding of the University of Hong Kong. Indeed, he wrote the words, in Latin, of the University Anthem, first performed 11 March 1912. In 1913, Clementi was appointed Colonial Secretary of British Guiana, a post he held until 1922. From there he was named the Colonial Secretary of Ceylon, where he served until 1925; each position imparted considerable responsibility, on more than one occasion he was in charge of administering the entire government of his area of responsibility. Whilst in Ceylon he served as President of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1924. In 1925, Clementi was appointed as Governor of Hong Kong, a position he would serve in for five years, until 1930; as he was fluent in Cantonese, he had little difficulty adapting to his new surroundings and developed a keen interest in the Chinese language and culture.
During his tenure, the Canton–Hong Kong strike which crippled the Hong Kong economy was resolved and Kai Tak Airport entered operation He notably ended the practice of Mui Tsai, the traditional Chinese "female maid servitude" system which resulted in the abuse of young servant girls. He appointed Shouson Chow, a prominent Chinese merchant, as the first unofficial member of the Executive Council. At the same time, he increased the numbers of official and non-official members in the Legislative Council from eight to ten and from six to eight respectively. For the latter type, he invited one Chinese and one Portuguese (the first is Jose Pedro Braga. After his tenure as Governor of Hong Kong ended, Clementi went on to serve his last post in the Colonial Services as Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Straits Settlements, which included Singapore, High Commissioner for the Malay States, from 5 February 1930 to 17 February 1934, he handed over to Sir Andrew Caldecott, whom become acting Governor, left for England due to his illness.
The position of Governor was handed over to Sir Shenton Thomas on 9 November 1934. Six years in 1940, Clementi became the Master of the Mercers' Company. Clementi was the nephew of the Rt. Hon. Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, Governor of the Straits Settlements and High Commissioner in the period 1887 to 1893, he was the great-grandson of the Italian-born musician Muzio Clementi. Clementi married Marie Penelope Rose Eyres, daughter of Admiral Cresswell John Eyres, in 1912; the couple had one son and three daughters. Clementi died in High Wycombe, England, on 5 April 1947. C. M. G. 1916 K. C. M. G. 1926 G. C. M. G. 1931 K. St. J. 1926 Fellow, Royal Geographical Society Member, Royal Asiatic Society Honorary Fellow, Magdalen College, Oxford, 1938 Recipient, Cuthbert Peek award of the Royal Geographical Society, 1912 Honours LL. D. degree, Hong Kong University, 1925 Cantonese Love Songs. Clarendon Press Summary of Geographical Observations taken during a Journey from Kashgar to Kowloon. Noronha & Co. Pervigilium Veneris, The vigil of Venus.
Blackwell Bibliographical and other studies on the Pervigilium Veneris. Blackwell The Chinese in British Guiana