Geography of Hong Kong
The geography of Hong Kong primarily consists of three main territories, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and the New Territories. The name Hong Kong, literally meaning fragrant harbour, is derived from the area around present-day Aberdeen on Hong Kong Island, the narrow body of water separating Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula, Victoria Harbour, is one of the deepest natural maritime ports in the world. Hong Kong and its 260 territorial islands and peninsulas are located in the South China Sea, the Kowloon Peninsula to the south of Boundary Street and the New Territories to the north of Hong Kong Island were added to Colonial Hong Kong in 1860 and 1898 respectively. The landscape of Hong Kong is fairly hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, the highest point in the territory is Tai Mo Shan, at a height of 958 metres. Lowlands exist in the part of the New Territories. Hong Kong is 60 km east of Macau on the side of the Pearl River estuary. It has a border with Shenzhen to the north.
The remaining land is reserved as country parks and nature reserves, Hong Kong is located in eastern Asia, on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China, facing the South China Sea. Hong Kongs climate is subtropical and monsoonal with cool dry winters and hot, as of 2006, its annual average rainfall is 2,214 mm, though about 80% of the rain falls between May and September. It is occasionally affected by tropical cyclones between May and November, most often from July to September, the mean temperature of Hong Kong ranges from 16 °C in January and February to 28 °C in July and August. January and February are more cloudy, with cold fronts followed by dry northerly winds. It is not uncommon for temperatures to drop below 10 °C in urban areas, sub-zero temperatures and frost occur at times on high ground and in the New Territories. March and April can be pleasant although there are occasional spells of high humidity and drizzle are common on high ground which is exposed to the southeast.
May to August are hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, afternoon temperatures often exceed 31 °C whereas at night, temperatures generally remain around 26 °C with high humidity. In November and December there are pleasant breezes, plenty of sunshine, Hong Kongs terrain is hilly and mountainous with steep slopes. There are lowlands in the part of Hong Kong. A significant amount of land in Hong Kong, especially on the Hong Kong Island, the lowest elevation in Hong Kong is in South China Sea while the highest elevation is at Tai Mo Shan in Tsuen Wan, the New Territories. Despite its small size, Hong Kong has a large number of mineral occurrences
Manufacturing in Hong Kong
Manufacturing in Hong Kong consists of mainly light and labour-intensive industries. As an entrepôt, Hong Kong had limited manufacturing development until the Second World War, the manufacturing industry of the city revived after the Second World War. The 1950s saw the transition from an entrepôt to a manufacturing-based economy. The citys manufacturing industry grew rapidly over the next decade, the industries were diversified in different aspects in the 1970s. One of the most notable reasons of diversification was the oil crisis, since the 1980s, factories and industrial plants in the city have been relocated to places with lower land rental rates and labour costs, most notably the Pearl River Delta. This caused a drop in the manufacturing industrys share of the value of domestic imports. This caused unemployment problems and over-reliance on the service sector, the government is attempting to solve this through various means, including the development of high-technology manufacturing industries.
After the British acquisition of Hong Kong Island in 1842, the industry started to develop. Most factories were limited to small workshops producing hand-made goods, primitive methods and facilities were used for production. The productivity was low and the industry was not as important as the re-exportation industry. At the beginning of the era, all factories in the city used to be owned by the British. The British-owned factories were limited to shipbuilding and rattan furniture. Guangdong officials fled to Hong Kong because of the Taiping Rebellion in the 1850s and 60s, bringing in capital, such factories were the first Chinese-owned ones to appear in Hong Kong. The first printing appeared in 1872, followed by many different industries such as sweets. By the end of the 19th century, the first mechanised factories emerged, including a match factory, small metal and electronic goods had emerged by the early 20th century. With the development of commerce, a few large manufacturing firms appeared, although these firms were few in number, there was large investment into them and most were leaders in their respective industries.
After the Chinese Revolution, many Chinese firms relocated to Hong Kong to avoid the constant warfare between warlords, during the First World War, supplies of daily necessities from Europe were cut off. Industries such as towels and biscuits emerged to support the local population, the 1920s and 30s saw the initial rise of the citys manufacturing industry
Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a language with topic-prominent organization. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants, Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan, aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters. There are many characters that are identical between the two systems, in English, the governments of China and Hong Kong use Putonghua, Putonghua Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, and Mandarin, while those of Taiwan and Malaysia, use Mandarin. The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history and it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese.
For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or common tongue/speech, was different from the Guoyu. The former was a prestige variety, while the latter was the legal standard. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, which is close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called the speech of the modern man. The use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai, prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the term for Standard Chinese. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca, Huayu, or language of the Chinese nation, originally simply meant Chinese language, and was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name Huayu to refer to Mandarin and it incorporates the notion that Mandarin is usually not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live.
The term Mandarin is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire, in English, Mandarin may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name Modern Standard Mandarin is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the language from other northern. Chinese has long had considerable variation, hence prestige dialects have always existed. Confucius, for example, used yǎyán rather than colloquial regional dialects, rime books, which were written since the Northern and Southern dynasties, may have reflected one or more systems of standard pronunciation during those times
Transport in Hong Kong
Hong Kong has a highly developed and sophisticated transport network, encompassing both public and private transport. Based on Hong Kong Governments Travel Characteristics Survey, over 90 per cent of the journeys are on public transport. The Octopus card, an electronic money payment system, was introduced in September 1997 to provide an alternative to the traditional banknotes. Hong Kong Island is dominated by steep, hilly terrain, which required the development of methods of transport up. In Central and Western district, there is a system of zero-fare escalators. The Mid-levels Escalator is the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world, operating downhill until 10 am for commuters going to work, the Mid-levels Escalator consists of 20 escalators and 3 moving pavements. It is 800 metres long, and climbs 135 vertical metres, total travel time is approximately 25 minutes, but most people walk while the escalator moves to shorten the travel time. Due to its vertical climb, the distance is equivalent to several miles of zigzagging roads if travelled by car.
It has been operating since 1993 and cost HK$240 million to build, a second Mid-Levels escalator set is planned in Sai Ying Pun, the Centre Street Escalator Link. Hong Kong has a railway network, and Hong Kong Government has long established that the public transit system has railway as its backbone. Public transport trains are operated by the MTR Corporation, the Hong Kong Tramways operates a tram service exclusively on northern Hong Kong Island. The Peak Tram connects Central, Hong Kongs central business district, opened in 1979, the system now includes 218.2 km of rail with 161 stations, including 93 railway stations and 68 light rail stops. The rail lines include the East Rail, Kwun Tong, Tsuen Wan, Tung Chung, Tseung Kwan O, West Rail, Ma On Shan, South Island, the Airport Express, all trains and most MTR stations are air conditioned. The Hong Kong Tramways is the system run exclusively with double deckers. The electric tram system was proposed in 1881, however nobody was willing to invest in a system at the time, in August 1901, the Second Tramway Bill was introduced and passed into law as the 1902 Tramway Ordinance.
Hong Kong Tramway Electric Company Limited, a British company, was authorised to take the responsibilities in construction, in 1904, the tram system first got into service. It was soon taken over by another company, Electric Tranction Company of Hong Kong Limited, the rail system is 13 kilometres long, with a total track length of 30 km, and it runs together with other vehicles on the street. Its operation relies on the 550V direct current from the overhead cables, There are three funicular railway services in Hong Kong, The Peak Tram carries both tourists and residents to the upper levels of Hong Kong Island
Central, Hong Kong
Central is the central business district of Hong Kong. It is located in Central and Western District, on the shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui. The area was the heart of Victoria City, although that name is used today. As the central district of Hong Kong, it is the area where many multinational financial services corporations have their headquarters. Consulates general and consulates of countries are located in this area, as is Government Hill. The area of Chung Wan, named Central in English, was one of the districts in Victoria City. The English name Central became prevalent after the Island Line of the MTR metro system was built in the early 1980s, on some older maps, it and the area to its west are named Kwan Tai Lo below Victoria Peak. It formed a channel, Chung Mun, with Tsim Sha Tsui, the eastern part of Central District has been known as Admiralty since the completion of Admiralty Station in the early 1980s. Central is located on the shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui.
It is bordered in the west by Sheung Wan, with the border being along Aberdeen Street and it is bordered in the east by Admiralty, an eastern extension of the central business district. As such, Admiralty is sometimes considered a part of Central, Central is bordered in the south by Mid-levels, an area halfway up Victoria Peak. The boundary between Central and Mid-levels is not clearly defined, for district council elections purposes, the area, together with Admiralty, correspond roughly to the Chung Wan constituency. The boundaries of such constituencies may be subject to modification, the British landed on Possession Point of Sheung Wan in 1841. They soon decided to build a city on the north coast of Hong Kong Island, and the present-day Central was chosen to house major military facilities and an administrative centre. The area soon attracted both Westerners and Chinese to trade and live in the area, and a Canton Bazaar was built between Cochrane Street and Graham Street in 1842, the area was soon zoned for Westerners only, and the Chinese residents were restricted to Sheung Wan.
The area was dominated by the presence of Victoria City. The popularity of this area would boost the population of Hong Kong from 5,000 in 1841 to 24,000 in 1848, Government House and other Hong Kong Government buildings were completed during this period on Government Hill. Various barracks, naval base and residence of Commander, Flagstaff House were built on the east end of the district, between 1860 and 1880 the construction of City Hall, Theatre Royal and other financial structures made Central the heart of Hong Kong
Financial Secretary (Hong Kong)
The Financial Secretary is the title held by the Hong Kong government minister who is responsible for all economic and financial matters. The position is among the three most senior Principal Officials of the Government, second only to the Chief Secretary in the order of precedence, the position evolved out of the office of the Colonial Treasurer before 1940. The Financial Secretary is a member of the Executive Council, and he is responsible for delivering the annual budget to the Legislative Council. To date, it is the only office among the three highest Principal Officials of the Government not to have been occupied by a woman, the incumbent Financial Secretary is Paul Chan Mo-po. Edward Elmslie, 1842–1843 Charles Edward Stewart, 1843–1844 Political party and it is listed as a grade 2 building. Described as a two-story neo-Georgian style residence built in 1935 and originally owned by Sir Shouson Chow as his own residence, the first Financial Secretary who moved into the building was Sir Charles Geoffrey Shield Follows
Coins of the Hong Kong dollar
The Hong Kong coinage, including 10¢, 20¢, 50¢, $1, $2, $5 & $10, is issued by Hong Kong Monetary Authority on behalf of the Government of Hong Kong. From 1863 until 1992 these coins were embossed with the reigning British monarchs effigy, from January 1993 to November 1994, a new series depicting the bauhinia flower was gradually issued, including a new denomination of $10. Since the beginning of the replacement programme in 1993, over 585 million coins featuring Queen Elizabeth II have been withdrawn from circulation. However, these coins remain legal tender, the total value of coins in circulation in Hong Kong can be found in Monthly Statistical Bulletin and the Annual Report. Since the introduction of Octopus card in 1997, small value payments, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority from 1998 to 2011, stopped issuing new coinage as the territory had stored enough for use. The obverse of each newest coin bears the standard bauhinia, with the word “Hong Kong” in Chinese characters, the reverse features the denomination in Chinese characters and English with a large Arabic numeral in the centre and the year of issue below.
The following coin denominations are no longer circulated by the HKMA, the 1 mill coin was discontinued due to its unpopularity. 1 cent last issued in 1934, but the last mintage which was melted down by the Japanese or lost was dated 1941, the 5 cent coin was last issued in 1979 and minted for uncirculated coin sets in 1988. The following current denominations that have changed in size and or shape, opening of the Lantau Link, May 1997 To mark the opening of the Lantau Link, the HKMA issued a philatelic numismatic cover in May 1997, the first of its kind in Hong Kong. The Lantau Link is the first road link between Lantau Island, where the new airport is located, and the rest of Hong Kong. On the obverse side of each of seven coins is the standard Bauhinia design, with a special commemorative design. Opening of the Hong Kong International Airport, July 1998 To mark the opening of the Hong Kong International Airport in July 1998,15,000 $1,000 commemorative proof gold coin was issued. The gold coin features a design symbolising Hong Kongs ascent into the new century, the five silver coins are individually engraved with a phrase and symbol of traditional blessing.
The $10 coin is made of two metals, a nickel alloy outer ring and a brass inner core. The standard bauhinia on the obverse gives a sharp embossed image, the neat bonding between the outer and inner rings gives it another unique feature. The $10 coin has a plain and milled edge. The $5 coin has a milled edge, a groove running within the milled edging contains raised English and Chinese characters, which read “Hong Kong Five Dollars”. The $1 and 50¢ coins have milled edges
Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin or Bopomofo is a system of phonetic notation for the transcription of spoken Chinese, particularly the Mandarin dialect. The first two are traditional terms, whereas Bopomofo is the term, used by the ISO. Consisting of 37 characters and four marks, it transcribes all possible sounds in Mandarin. Zhuyin was introduced in China by the Republican Government in the 1910s and used alongside the Wade-Giles system, the Wade system was replaced by Hanyu Pinyin in 1958 by the Government of the Peoples Republic of China, and at the International Organization for Standardization in 1982. The informal name Bopomofo is derived from the first four syllables in the ordering of available syllables in Mandarin Chinese. The four Bopomofo characters that correspond to these syllables are placed first in a list of these characters. The same sequence is used by other speakers of Chinese to refer to other phonetic systems. The original formal name of the system was Guóyīn Zìmǔ and Zhùyīn Zìmǔ and it was renamed Zhùyīn Fúhào, meaning phonetic symbols.
In official documents, Zhuyin is occasionally called Mandarin Phonetic Symbols I, in English translations, the system is often called either Chu-yin or the Mandarin Phonetic Symbols. A romanized phonetic system was released in 1984 as Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II, the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, led by Wu Zhihui from 1912 to 1913, created a system called Zhuyin Zimu, which was based on Zhang Binglins shorthand. A draft was released on July 11,1913, by the Republic of China National Ministry of Education and it was renamed first Guoyin Zimu and then, in April 1930, Zhuyin Fuhao. The last renaming addressed fears that the system might independently replace Chinese characters. Zhuyin remains the predominant phonetic system in teaching reading and writing in school in Taiwan. It is one of the most popular ways to enter Chinese characters into computers and smartphones, in elementary school, particularly in the lower years, Chinese characters in textbooks are often annotated with Zhuyin as ruby characters as an aid to learning.
Additionally, one newspaper in Taiwan, the Mandarin Daily News. In teaching Mandarin, Taiwan institutions and some communities use Zhuyin as a learning tool. The Zhuyin characters were created by Zhang Binglin, and taken mainly from regularised forms of ancient Chinese characters, the modern readings of which contain the sound that each letter represents. It is to be noted that the first consonants are articulated from the front of the mouth to the back, /b/, /p/, /m/, /f/, /d/, /t/, /n/, Zhuyin is written in the same stroke order rule as Chinese characters
Bank of China (Hong Kong)
Bank of China Limited is the second-largest commercial banking group in Hong Kong in terms of assets and customer deposits, with more than 300 branches in Hong Kong. It was established on 1 October 2001 from a merger of 12 subsidiaries and associates of the Bank of China in Hong Kong, as of the end of 2003, the bank had HK$763 billion in assets and earned net profit of HK$8 billion in 2003. Its head office is in the Bank of China Tower in Central and it shares its Hong Kong headquarters, the Bank of China Tower, with its parent, completed in 1988, this was the first building outside of North America to exceed 1,000 feet. The opening of a branch of the Bank of China in Hong Kong in 1917 marked the entry of state-owned Chinese banks into the banking sector. Other banks soon followed suit, starting with Yien Yieh Commercial Bank in 1918, in addition, the Chinese government established Po Sang Bank in 1949 and Nanyang Commercial Bank in 1950. Both of these were incorporated in Hong Kong, in 1952, the nine public-private banks were grouped into the Joint Office of Joint Public-Private Banks.
The Bank of China took over management of the Hong Kong branches of Kwangtung Provincial Bank, Hua Chiao Commercial Bank, in June 1975, the Bank of China moved to increase the capital of the public-private banks. As all of the new capital were from the Chinese government, private ownership in the banks were substantially reduced. The 14 banks were rebranded as part of the Bank of China Group in the 1980s, treasury and foreign currency exchange operations were centralised. However, the individual banks retained their own management and they are the second largest banking group. The Hong Kong branch of the Bank of Communications broke off from the Bank of China Group in 1998, the Bank of China Group started to restructure its operations in 1999 in preparation for an initial public offering. All minority shareholders were bought out by the Bank of China, formal plans for a restructuring received the approval of the Peoples Bank of China and were launched in January 2001. The restructuring saw all operations of the Mainland-incorporated group members merged into Po Sang Bank, Hong Kong incorporated Nanyang Commercial Bank and Chiyu Banking Corporation became subsidiaries of Bank of China Limited.
Legislation was required for the merger, as Hong Kong does not allow mergers via the pooling of interests, the Bank of China Limited Ordinance was approved by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong on 12 July 2001, and the merger was completed on 1 October 2001. BOCHK is listed under the name of BOC Hong Kong Limited, the holding company is listed on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong and as ADRs in the US under the symbol BHKLY. BOCHK Holdings is a constituent of the Hang Seng Index, for the 12 months ended 31 December 2003, BOCHK Holdings earned HK$11.6 billion in operating income and HK$8.0 billion in net profit. BOCHK offers a range of financial products and services to retail and corporate customers. It has Hong Kongs biggest branch network and 450 automatic teller machines, BOCHK is the biggest mortgage lender in Hong Kong in the secondary market, Hang Seng Bank is the biggest in the primary market
Culture of Hong Kong
The culture of Hong Kong can best be described as a foundation that began with China, and became more influenced by British colonialism. After the 1997 transfer of sovereignty to the Peoples Republic of China, one-hundred-fifty years of rule as a separate British colony, as well as political separation from the rest of mainland China have resulted in a unique local identity. Structurally, one of the first laws to define peoples relationships was the Hong Kong Matrimonial Ordinance passed in 1972, the law set the precedent of banning concubinage and same sex marriages with a strict declaration for heterosexual relationships with one partner only. Other economic changes include families in need of due to both parents working. In particular, foreign domestic helpers have become an part of the household since the late 1980s. Traditional Chinese values such as family solidarity and saving face carry significant weight in the minds of the people, Hong Kongs mainstream culture derives from, or is heavily influenced by, the Cantonese from the neighbouring province of Guangdong, China.
There are communities of Hakka, Teochew. Although Cantonese is not one of the Hong Kong indigenous languages, since the 1997 handover, the government has adopted the biliterate and trilingual policy. Hakka is commonly used in villages in New Territories and Hakka ethnic communities in Hong Kong since Hakka is one of the indigenous languages for Hong Kong indigenous people. Punti Language, another form of Hong Kong indigenous languages, are spoken by the older generation living in walled villages in New Territories. The Tanka people from the villages is another group of Hong Kong indigenous people. Their language, with their own variation of Cantonese, is another form of Hong Kong indigenous languages, a significant amount of the adherents of non-indigenous Chinese religions, in some cases the majority, are Hong Kong people of non-Chinese descent. The traditional Chinese religiosity, including Chinese Buddhism, was discouraged during the British rule over Hong Kong. With the end of the British rule and the handover of the sovereignty of the city-state to China, there has been a renewal of Buddhist and Chinese folk religions.
There are some distinctive holidays that are celebrated in Hong Kong as a part of eastern culture, the most well known is Chinese New Year, which occurs approximately a month after Gregorian New Year, variably in late January or early February. Other events include the Dragon Boat Festival, where Zongzi is made by millions at home as part of the tradition, Dragon boats compete for regional awards. Mid-Autumn Festival is another highly celebrated event, involving the purchase of Mooncakes from Chinese bakery shops. Category, Hong Kong artists For participation or viewing, Hong Kong has available different kinds of performing arts, including drama, music, Hong Kong is home to the first full-time comedy club in Asia, The TakeOut Comedy Club Hong Kong
Employment in Hong Kong
This page gives detailed information on the employment situation in Hong Kong. Hong Kong has an area of 1,103 square kilometres, despite its small size, Hong Kong is currently ranked the 15th largest exporting country in the world as of 2008. The total value of visible trade amounted to $3,548.2 billion in 2003, and exports totalled $362. 1Bn in 2008. During the period of 2004 to 2007, the Gross Domestic Product grew at an annual rate of 7. 3% in real terms. At the end of 2007,3.46 million of the 3.65 million labour force were employed full-time,117,800 were unemployed and 75,500 were considered under-employed, the unemployment rate averaged 4. 1% in 2007, the fourth straight year of decline. It has since increased to 5. 3% by 2009. In 2015, this has decreased to 3. 4%, the momentum in improving working conditions, Occupational Safety and health and employees rights and benefits has been kept up through an extensive programme of labour legislation. Some 42 pieces of legislation were enacted between 1997 and 2001, Hong Kong aims at applying relevant International labour standards as the local circumstances allow.
As of 28 April 2000, Hong Kong is following 40 Conventions, the Employment Ordinance provides the framework for a comprehensive code of employment. It governs the payment of wages, the termination of employment contracts, the law provides statutory holidays with pay, sick leave, maternity protection, rest days, paid annual leave and employment protection for employees. All employees have statutory protection against anti-union discrimination, the Employment of Children Regulations prohibit the employment of children aged under 15 in all industrial undertakings. Subject to certain restrictions, children aged 13 and 14 who are attending school may take up part-time employment in the non-industrial sectors. The Employment of Young Persons Regulations govern the employment conditions of persons aged 15 to 17 in industrial undertakings. These young persons are not allowed to more than eight hours a day and 48 hours a week. Overtime work for them is prohibited, Hong Kong people have the right and freedom to form and join trade unions.
At the end of December As of 2001 there were 654 registered trade unions, consisting of 610 employees unions,25 employers associations and 19 mixed organisations of employers, the total estimated membership was around 683,000. Hong Kong has a record of industrial peace. In 2001, it lost 0.26 working day per 1,000 workers, during the year, the Labour Department dealt with 31,698 labour problems, most of which were grievances involving claims of wages in arrears, wages in lieu of notice and holiday pay
Politics of Hong Kong
Executive power is exercised by the government. On July 1,1997, sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the China, ending over one and a half centuries of British rule. Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of the PRC with a degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign affairs and defence. For instance, the International Olympic Committee recognises Hong Kong as a participating dependency under the name, Hong Kong, separate from the delegation from the China. The Basic Law, Hong Kongs constitutional document, was approved in March 1990 by National Peoples Congress of China, the Hong Kong government is economically liberal, but currently universal suffrage is only granted in District Council elections, and in elections for part of the Legislative Council. The head of the government is elected through a college with the majority of its members elected by a limited number of voters mainly within business. The Executive Council, the top policy organ of the government that advises on policy matters, is entirely appointed by the Chief Executive.
The franchise for the other 30 seats is limited to about 230,000 voters in the functional constituencies. The Judiciary consists of a series of courts, of which the court of final adjudication is the Court of Final Appeal and this caused widespread concerns among the public on the social and economic consequences. The NPCSC issued an interpretation in favour of the Hong Kong Government in June 1999, while the full powers of NPCSC to interpret the Basic Law is provided for in the Basic Law itself, some critics argues this undermines judicial independence. The Hong Kong 1 July March is an annual protest rally led by the Civil Human Rights Front since the 1997 handover on the HKSAR establishment day, however, it was only in 2003 when it drew large public attention by opposing the bill of the Article 23. In 2003, the HKSAR Government proposed to implement Article 23 of the Basic Law by legislating against acts such as treason, subversion and sedition. However, there were concerns that the legislation would infringe human rights by introducing the concept of national security into the HKSAR.
Together with the dissatisfaction with the Tung administration, about 500,000 people participated in this protest. Article 23 enactment was temporarily suspended, towards the end of 2003, the focus of political controversy shifted to the dispute of how subsequent Chief Executives get elected. The Basic Laws Article 45 stipulates that the goal is universal suffrage. Under the Basic Law, electoral law could be amended to allow for this as soon as 2007, arguments over this issue seemed to be responsible for a series of Mainland Chinese newspapers commentaries in February 2004 which stated that power over Hong Kong was only fit for patriots. On 26 April 2004, the Standing Committee of National Peoples Congress denied the possibility of universal suffrage in 2007 and 2008, in 2007 Chief Executive Sir Donald Tsang requested for Beijing to allow direct elections for the Chief Executive