Hong Kong Police Force

The Hong Kong Police Force is the primary law enforcement, investigation agency, largest disciplined service under the Security Bureau of Hong Kong. It was established by the British Hong Kong government on 1 May 1844. The'Royal' title was bestowed upon the HKPF for their efforts in quelling communist riots in 1967; the Royal Hong Kong Police Force reverted to its former name after the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to People's Republic of China. Pursuant to the one country, two systems principle, HKPF is independent of the jurisdiction of the of Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China, which may not interfere with Hong Kong's local law enforcement affairs. All HKPF officers are employed as civil servants and hence required to uphold their political neutrality; the HKPF consists of some 34,000 officers, including the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force, civil servants, its Marine Region. A police force has been serving Hong Kong since shortly after the island was established as a colony in 1841.

On 30 April 1841, 12 weeks after the British landed in Hong Kong, Captain Charles Elliot established a policing authority in the new colony, empowering Captain William Caine to enforce Qing law in respect of local inhabitants and "British Police Law" for "non-natives". By October 1842, an organised police force was bringing criminals before the courts for trial. Caine's role as head of the police force ended when its first Superintendent was appointed on 22 February 1844, Captain Haly of the 41st Madras Native Infantry; the formal establishment of the force was gazetted on 1 May 1844. During World War II, the Kempeitai recruited former Chinese and Indian officers in the Japanese military police unit from 1942 to 1945; the 1950s saw the commencement of Hong Kong's 40-year rise to global prominence, during which time the Hong Kong Police tackled many issues that have challenged Hong Kong's stability. Between 1949 and 1989, Hong Kong experienced several huge waves of immigration from mainland China, most notably 1958–62.

In the 1970s and 1980s, large numbers of Vietnamese boat people arrived in Hong Kong, posing challenges first for marine police, secondly for officers who manned the dozens of camps in the territory and lastly for those who had to repatriate them. The force was granted the use of the title ‘royal’ in 1969 for its handling of the Hong Kong 1967 riots—renaming it the Royal Hong Kong Police Force. In 1974, the Independent Commission Against Corruption was created to give government wide-ranging powers to investigate corruption. At the turn of the 1980s, the Hong Kong Police Force began marketing itself as "Asia's Finest"; the recruitment of Europeans to the force ceased in 1994, in 1995 the Royal Hong Kong Police took responsibility for patrolling the boundary with China. Prior to 1995, the British Army had operated the border patrol; the force played a prominent role in the process of the handover of sovereignty in 1997 and continues to perform ceremonial flag-raising on each anniversary. With the handover of sovereignty, the police force dropped the prefix "Royal" from its name.

In the 2010s, the police force played a prominent role in relation to the 2014 Hong Kong protests and 2019 Hong Kong protests. Following Chris Tang's appointment as the Commissioner of Police in November 2019, the police force changed its motto from "We serve with pride and care", used for more than 20 years, to "Serving Hong Kong with honour and loyalty." The Economist suggested. During the 1940s, the HKPF faced a number of corruption scandals involving officers. During the 1950s and 1960s, the force struggled with corruption issues relating to bribes from syndicated drugs and illegal gambling operations. Police corruption again emerged as a major concern in the early 1970s when the Commissioner ordered investigations to break the culture of corruption, causing forty-odd officers to flee Hong Kong with more than HK$80 million cash. More the Hong Kong Police Force has faced extensive allegations of misconduct during the 2019 protests including excessive force, brutality and falsified evidence.

In particular, the police were criticized for their failure to respond during the mob attack at the Yuen Long MTR station in July 2019. Several lawsuits were filed in October 2019 against the HKPF for failure to refusal to show identification during protests; the Commissioner of Police serves as the commander of the HKPF and reports directly to the Secretary for Security. The HKPF is divided into 5 primary departments: Operations and Support and Security, Personnel and Training, Management Services, Finance, Administration & Planning. Police officers enjoy remuneration far exceeding median incomes in the Special Administrative Region, the base rate for newly recruited police constables with minimal high school education being HK$24,110 per month and that for high school matriculants being HK$42,655. In addition, all officers enjoy extensive housing benefits, free medical and dental benefits, with substantial vacation and maternity leave allowances exceeding statutory minimums. In addition and their families enjoy substantial fringe benefits through the statutorily entrenched Police Welfare Fund which has current assets exceeding HK$200 million.

Attracting funds in excess of HK$50 million per annum entirely donations, the fund trustee, the Commissio

Townsend North House

The Townsend North House is a private house located at 325 North Main Street in Vassar, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Townsend North was born in 1814 in New York. In 1835, his family moved to Washtenaw County, where North and his father established a construction contracting company which, among other things, built the first dormitory on the University of Michigan's campus. North's father retired in 1839, but Townsend North continued in the contracting business until 1845, when he moved to Flint. There, he became part of a venture to construct a bridge across the Cass River at Bridgeport. North chose this location in Tuscola County, established the town of Vassar. North contributed to the economy of the town, he established the first sawmill in 1849, selling it in 1865. He founded a woolen mill in 1867, by 1875 opened the first bank in Vassar and the first successful general store, he held public office, ranging from serving as the Tuscola County Register of Deeds in 1850 to serving as State Senator from 1874 to 1875.

In 1865, North constructed a house at this location, on a high bluff overlooking Vassar. In 1880, he expanded the house into this stylish mansion; the house had the first central heating system in the town, as well as its own hot and cold water system. Townsend North died in 1889; the house is owned and occupied by Roger and Pat Goggans. The Townsend North House is a 2-1/2-story L-shaped Eastlake structure with asymmetrical massing, clad in clapboard; the facade dominated by an narrow, ornate center tower, located in the center of the L, with a steeply sloped hip roof. To the left of the tower is a two-story, two-bay section capped by a gable roof with the eavesline to the front. To the right of the tower is another two-story, two-bay section capped by a gable roof, but with the gable end to the front. Gables are clad with vertical boards. Shutters cover the four bay windows. Two front porches haves heavy cornices. On the interior, the house has hardwood woodwook of cherry and oak. Etched glass is used throughout for decoration, with a fine example on the front door.

Doorframes are elaborately carved, with fine Eastlake detail. In the master bedroom, the fireplace surround displays the ornate carving, an ornately crafted mirror surround is located above the fireplace


Viperin known as RSAD2, is a multifunctional protein in viral processes, which could be induced in a variety of cell types by different cellular factors, such as type I II and III interferon, DNA and RNA viral proteins and polysaccharide. It is reported that viperin could be induced in either IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathway. Viperin is a cellular protein which could inhibit many DNA and RNA viruses such as CHIKV, HCMV, HCV, DENV, WNV, SINV, influenza, HIV LAI strain, so on. Identified as an IFN-γ induced antiviral protein in human cytomegalovirus infected macrophages, viperin is reported that it could be induced by HCMV glycoprotein B in fibroblasts but inhibits HCMV viral infection and down-regulates viral structural proteins, essential for viral assembling and maturation; the mechanism of how the virus protein induces viperin against itself is still not clear. However, the viral induced redistribution of Viperin is found in HCMV infected cells, which may reflect the mechanism of virus evading antiviral activities of Viperin.

Viperin could be induced, interact with HCMV viral proteins and relocate to mitochondria in HCMV viral infected cells, enhance viral infectivity by the disrupted cellular metabolism. In the inhibition of influenza virus budding and release, viperin could disrupt the lipid rafts on cell plasma membrane by decreasing the enzyme activities of farnesyl diphosphate synthase, an essential enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. Besides, viperin can inhibit the viral replication of HCV via the interaction with host protein hVAP-33 and NS5A and disruption of the formation of the replication complex. Viperin is a radical SAM enzyme, capable of producing inhibitory ddhCTP, an elongation inhibitor for the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Human Viperin consists of 361 amino acids, it is a single polypeptide chain with a predicted 42kDa molecular mass; the first 42 residues of human viperin is the N-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix, less conserved in different species and has a minor effect on the antiviral ability of viperin against HCV, WNV and DENV.

The N-terminal domain of viperin is required for the viperin localization in ER and the lipid droplets. The residues 77-209 constitute the radical S-adenosylmethionine domain, in which there are four conserved motifs. Motif 1 contains three conserved cysteine residues, CxxCxxC, the Fe-S binding motif and essential for the antiviral activities against HCV and HCMV infections; the 218-361 residues constitute the C-terminal domain of viperin, conserved in different species of viperin and essential for viperin dimerization. The last residue 361 of the C-terminal, a tryptophan, is essential for the antiviral activities against HCV since a C-terminal flag tagged of viperin lost its antiviral activities. Viperin forms homodimers in ER, the over expression of viperin could lead the formation of a crystalloid ER. Viperin is localized in endoplasmic reticulum via its N-terminal domain, localized to lipid droplet, derived from ER. However, it is found in mitochondria in the HCMV infected fibroblasts by a viral mediated mechanism