Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. On, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others; the presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges produces a magnetic field; when a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge, thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is measured in volts.
Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for: electric power where electric current is used to energise equipment. Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity were few, it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use; the rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an limitless set of applications which include transport, lighting and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BCE referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile", described them as the "protectors" of all other fish.
Electric fish were again reported millennia by ancient Greek and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and electric rays, knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them; the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning ra‘ad applied to the electric ray. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales of Miletus made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BCE, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing.
Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According to a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature. Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber, he coined the New Latin word electricus to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted in the 17th and early 18th centuries by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay.
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand showed that lightning was indeed electrical in nature, he explained the paradoxical behavior of the Leyden jar as a device for storing large amounts of electrical charge in terms of electricity consisting of both positive and negative charges. In 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines used; the recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric
Amorphous silicon is the non-crystalline form of silicon used for solar cells and thin-film transistors in LCDs. Used as semiconductor material for a-Si solar cells, or thin-film silicon solar cells, it is deposited in thin films onto a variety of flexible substrates, such as glass and plastic. Amorphous silicon cells feature low efficiency, but are one of the most environmentally friendly photovoltaic technologies, since they do not use any toxic heavy metals such as cadmium or lead; as a second-generation thin-film solar cell technology, amorphous silicon was once expected to become a major contributor in the fast-growing worldwide photovoltaic market, but has since lost its significance due to strong competition from conventional crystalline silicon cells and other thin-film technologies such as CdTe and CIGS. Amorphous silicon differs from other allotropic variations, such as monocrystalline silicon—a single crystal, polycrystalline silicon, that consists of small grains known as crystallites.
Silicon is a fourfold coordinated atom, tetrahedrally bonded to four neighboring silicon atoms. In crystalline silicon this tetrahedral structure continues over a large range, thus forming a well-ordered crystal lattice. In amorphous silicon this long range order is not present. Rather, the atoms form a continuous random network. Moreover, not all the atoms within amorphous silicon are fourfold coordinated. Due to the disordered nature of the material some atoms have a dangling bond. Physically, these dangling bonds represent defects in the continuous random network and may cause anomalous electrical behavior; the material can be passivated by hydrogen, which bonds to the dangling bonds and can reduce the dangling bond density by several orders of magnitude. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a sufficiently low amount of defects to be used within devices such as solar photovoltaic cells in the protocrystalline growth regime. However, hydrogenation is associated with light-induced degradation of the material, termed the Staebler–Wronski effect.
Amorphous alloys of silicon and carbon are an interesting variant. Introduction of carbon atoms adds extra degrees of freedom for control of the properties of the material; the film could be made transparent to visible light. Increasing the concentration of carbon in the alloy widens the electronic gap between conduction and valence bands; this can increase the light efficiency of solar cells made with amorphous silicon carbide layers. On the other hand, the electronic properties as a semiconductor, are adversely affected by the increasing content of carbon in the alloy, due to the increased disorder in the atomic network. Several studies are found in the scientific literature investigating the effects of deposition parameters on electronic quality, but practical applications of amorphous silicon carbide in commercial devices are still lacking; the density of amorphous Si has been calculated as 4.90×1022 atom/cm3 at 300 K. This was done using thin strips of amorphous silicon; this density is 1.8±0.1% less dense than crystalline Si at 300 K.
Silicon is one of the few elements that expands upon cooling and has a lower density as a solid than as a liquid. Unhydrogenated a-Si has a high defect density which leads to undesirable semiconductor properties such as poor photoconductivity and prevents doping, critical to engineering semiconductor properties. By introducing hydrogen during the fabrication of amorphous silicon, photoconductivity is improved and doping is made possible. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a-Si:H, was first fabricated in 1969 by Chittick and Sterling by deposition using a silane gas precursor; the resulting material increased conductivity due to impurities. Interest in a-Si:H came when, LeComber and Spear discovered the ability for substitutional doping of a-Si:H using phosphine or diborane; the role of hydrogen in reducing defects was verified by Paul's group at Harvard who found a hydrogen concentration of about 10 atomic % through IR vibration, which for Si-H bonds has a frequency of about 2000 cm−1. Starting in the 1970s, a-Si:H was developed in solar cells by RCA by which climbed in efficiency to about 13.6% in 2015.
While a-Si suffers from lower electronic performance compared to c-Si, it is much more flexible in its applications. For example, a-Si layers can be made thinner than c-Si, which may produce savings on silicon material cost. One further advantage is that a-Si can be deposited at low temperatures, e.g. as low as 75 degrees Celsius. This allows deposition on not only glass, but plastic as well, making it a candidate for a roll-to-roll processing technique. Once deposited, a-Si can be doped in a fashion similar to c-Si, to form p-type or n-type layers and to form electronic devices. Another advantage is that a-Si can be deposited over large areas by PECVD; the design of the PECVD system has great impact on the production cost of such panel, therefore most equipment suppliers put their focus on the design of PECVD for higher throughput, that leads to lower manufacturing cost when the silane is recycled. Arrays of small a-Si photodiodes on glass are used as visible-light image sensors in some flat panel detectors for fluoroscopy and radiography.
Amorphous silicon has been used as a photovoltaic solar cell material for devices which require little power, such as pocket calculators, because their lower performance compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells is more than offset by thei
Wan Chai is a metropolitan area situated at the western part of the Wan Chai District on the northern shore of Hong Kong Island, in Hong Kong. Its other boundaries are Canal Road to the east, Arsenal Street to the west and Bowen Road to the south; the area north of Gloucester Road is referred to as Wan Chai North. Wan Chai is one of the busiest commercial areas in Hong Kong with offices of many small and medium-sized companies. Wan Chai North features office towers, hotels and an international conference and exhibition centre; as one of the first areas developed in Hong Kong, the locale is densely populated yet with noticeable residential zones facing urban decay. Arousing considerable public concern, the government has undertaken several urban renewal projects in recent years. There are various landmarks and skyscrapers within the area, most notably the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Central Plaza and Hopewell Centre. Wan Chai began as Ha Wan meaning "a bottom ring" or "lower circuit".
As one of the earliest developed areas in Hong Kong along the Victoria Harbour, Sheung Wan, Sai Wan and Wan Chai are collectively known as the four rings by the locals. Wan Chai means "a cove" in Cantonese from the shape of its coastal line; the area is no longer a cove, due to drastic city development and continual land reclamation. Wan Chai was first home to the many Chinese villagers living along the undisturbed coastlines in proximity to Hung Shing Temple. Most of them were fishermen, who worked around the area near Hung Shing Temple overlooking the entire harbour. Hung Shing Ye, the God of the Sea, was one of the deities worshiped by the locals. With the growth of the British Hong Kong administration, centred in old Victoria, Wan Chai attracted those on the fringes of society, such as "coolie" workers, who came to live on Queen's Road East. A focal point of development at that time was a red-light zone. By the 1850s the area was becoming a Chinese residential area. There were dockyards on McGregor Street for building and repairing ships.
The edge of Sun Street, Moon Street and Star Street was the original site of the first power station in Hong Kong, operated by the Hongkong Electric Company, which began supplying power in 1890. One of the first water-front hospitals was the Seaman's Hospital, built in 1843, funded by the British merchant group Jardine's, it was sold to the British Royal Navy in 1873 and subsequently redeveloped into the Royal Naval Hospital. After the Second World War, the hospital was revitalised as the Ruttonjee Hospital and became one of the main public hospitals in Hong Kong; the district was home to several well-known schools. One of these schools was established by Mo Dunmei. Started as a shushu in 1919, the school was renamed Dunmei School in 1934 after him, it taught Confucian ethics. In 1936, the Chinese Methodist Church moved its building from Caine Road, Mid-levels Central, to Hennessy Road, Wanchai, a thoroughfare of the district running from west to east; this church building became the landmark of the district.
In 1998, this building was replaced by a 23-storey building. During the Japanese occupation in the early 1940s, many bombardments took place in Wan Chai. There were abundant incidences of cannibalism, starvation and abuses of the local population by the Japanese soldiers, including the illegal use of child labour. Senior residents could recall vividly how they survived the hardships: this oral history became an important, first-hand source of the harsh life conditions in Hong Kong under the Japanese period; the Dunmei school was closed during the Japanese occupation period. After the war, the school continued to provide Chinese education for children from families of higher income. During the 1950s the pro-Communist underground cell network Hailiushe established their headquarters at the rooftop of a multi-story house on Spring Garden Lane; this group was raided by the Hong Kong police. Prostitution has been one of the oldest occupations in Wan Chai. There are numerous historical accounts of women trading sex for western merchandise with sailors from trading ships visiting this area.
In the 1960s, Wan Chai became legendary for its exotic night life for the US servicemen resting there during the Vietnam War. Despite rapid changes of Wan Chai's demography from reclamation and redevelopment, the presence of sex workers operating among ordinary residential areas has continued to be a distinctive feature; some of the lifestyle was illustrated in past movies such as The World of Suzie Wong. Wan Chai's HKCEC has been home to major economic events, it was the site of the Hong Kong handover ceremony in 1997, in which the last governor of Hong Kong, Chris Patten, formally concluded the British chapter and transferred Hong Kong to China. The WTO Ministerial Conference in 2005 was one of the largest international events hosted in Hong Kong, with delegates from 148 countries participating. In May 2009, 300 guests and staff members at the Metropark Hotel in Wan Chai were quarantined, suspected of being infected or in contact with the H1N1 virus during the global outbreak of swine flu.
A 25-year-old Mexican man who had stayed at the hotel was found to have caught the viral infection. He had travelled to Hong Kong from Mexico via Shanghai. Wan Chai's coastal line has been extended outward after a series of land reclamation schemes. Early in 1841, the coastline was located at Queen's Road East; the first reclamation took place and new land
The Peak Tram is a funicular railway in Hong Kong, which carries both tourists and residents to the upper levels of Hong Kong Island. Running from Garden Road Admiralty to Victoria Peak via the Mid-Levels, it provides the most direct route and offers good views over the harbour and skyscrapers of Hong Kong; the Peak Tram is owned and operated by Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels, the owner of Hong Kong's famous Peninsula Hotel along with many other properties. The line, along with HSH's Peak Tower leisure complex at the line's summit, is promoted using the brand The Peak; the Peak Tram's route from Central district to Victoria Peak covers a distance of about 1.4 kilometres and an elevation of just under 400 metres. The line has two pronounced curves, one to the left after leaving the lower terminus, the other to the right in the upper half of the ascent; the gradient varies throughout the ascent. It is a passing loop, with two trams; the lower terminus station, Garden Road, is located on Garden Road near St. John's Cathedral.
The original station was incorporated into St. John's Building, an office tower, with the tram terminus at the ground level; the station comprises a single track, with platforms on both sides. One platform is used for the other for exiting the tram; the upper terminus, The Peak, is located below the Peak Tower shopping and leisure complex at Victoria Gap, some 150 meters below the summit of Victoria Peak. The station has the same arrangement of alighting platforms as the lower terminus; the haulage and control equipment for the funicular is located in a basement below the station. There are four intermediate stops, each of, a request stop consisting of a single stepped platform and a shelter: Kennedy Road. Located on Kennedy Road, named after Arthur Edward Kennedy, a former Governor of Hong Kong. MacDonnell Road. Located on MacDonnell Road, named after Richard Graves MacDonnell, a former Governor of Hong Kong. May Road. Located on May Road, named after Francis Henry May, a former Governor of Hong Kong.
Barker Road. Located on Barker Road, named after George Digby Barker, a former military commander and acting administrator of Hong Kong. In 1881 Alexander Findlay Smith first put the project of a Peak Railway into shape and presented a petition for a concession to the governor of Hong Kong; the necessary legislation was passed two years later. Findlay Smith did not approach the project rashly. Travelling extensively in Europe and America, he made himself conversant with nearly every existing method of railway employed for mountain ascent — San Francisco, Rigi, Lucerne, the Rhine, Mount Vesuvius — and returned to Hong Kong convinced of the feasibility of his idea; the actual construction was begun in September 1885 and in May 1888 the line was opened. Smith's business partner, N. J. Ede and lived in the house next to the Upper Terminus named Dunheved, which they converted into the original Peak Hotel, it took three years to build the Peak Tram. Most of the heavy equipment and rails needed for the construction were hauled uphill by the workers with no mechanical support.
As a revolutionary new form of transport for Asia at the time, the tramway was considered a marvel of engineering upon its completion. A wooden structure was built for the terminal. According to photographs, the Garden Road terminus was an unadorned building, a large clock face was added to the edifice between the 1910s and 1920s; the Peak Tram was opened for public service on 28 May 1888 by the governor Sir George William des Voeux. As built, the line used a static steam engine to power the haulage cable, it was at first used only for residents of Victoria Peak. Despite that, it carried 800 passengers on its first day of operation, about 150,000 in its first year, transported in the line's original wooden-bodied cars; the tram's existence accelerated the residential development of the Mid Levels. From its opening in 1888 until 1926, the Peak Tram divided into three classes: First Class: British colonial officials and residents of Victoria Peak Second Class: British military and the Hong Kong Police Force personnel Third Class: Other people and animalsThe initial round trip charges, HKD 30 cents, 20 cents and 10 cents, had risen 50 per cent by 1926.
From 1908 to 1949, the first two seats in the front of the tram were reserved for the governor of Hong Kong, to, attached a bronze plaque reading: "This seat is reserved for His Excellency the Governor". The seats were not available to ordinary passengers until two minutes before departure. In the course of its history, the tram has been a victim of two natural disasters, caused by floods from heavy rainfall, which washed away steep sections of the track between Bowen Road and Kennedy Road; the first was in 1899, the second occurred on 12 June 1966. In 1926, the steam engine was replaced by an electric motor. On 11 December 1941, during the Battle of Hong Kong, the engine room was damaged in an attack. Services were not resumed until 25 December 1945, after the end of the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong. In 1956, the Peak Tram was equipped with a new generation of lightweight metal-bodied cars, each of which seated 62 passengers. Unusually for a funicular line, three such cars were provided, only two of which were in use at any one time.
The third spare car was kept in a car shed near Kennedy Road station. The system was comprehensively rebuilt in 1989 by the Swiss company, Von Roll, with a new track, a computerized control system, two new two-car trams with a capacity of 120 passe
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. A photovoltaic module is a packaged, connected assembly of 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications; the most common application of solar energy collection outside agriculture is solar water heating systems. Photovoltaic modules use light energy from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect; the majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural member of a module can either be the back layer. Cells must be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones based on thin-film cells are available; the cells must be connected electrically in one to another. A PV junction box is attached to the back of the solar panel and it is its output interface.
Externally, most of photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors type to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system. USB power interface can be used. Module electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage or in parallel to provide a desired current capability; the conducting wires that take the current off the modules may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. Bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial module shading, to maximize the output of module sections still illuminated; some special solar PV modules include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto smaller cells. This enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area in a cost-effective way. Solar panels use metal frames consisting of racking components, reflector shapes, troughs to better support the panel structure. In 1839, the ability of some materials to create an electrical charge from light exposure was first observed by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel.
Though the premiere solar panels were too inefficient for simple electric devices they were used as an instrument to measure light. The observation by Becquerel was not replicated again until 1873, when Willoughby Smith discovered that the charge could be caused by light hitting selenium. After this discovery, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day published "The action of light on selenium" in 1876, describing the experiment they used to replicate Smith's results. In 1881, Charles Fritts created the first commercial solar panel, reported by Fritts as "continuous, constant and of considerable force not only by exposure to sunlight but to dim, diffused daylight." However, these solar panels were inefficient compared to coal-fired power plants. In 1939, Russell Ohl created the solar cell design, used in many modern solar panels, he patented his design in 1941. In 1954, this design was first used by Bell Labs to create the first commercially viable silicon solar cell; each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, ranges from 100 to 365 Watts.
The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 24% Depending on construction, photovoltaic modules can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but cannot cover the entire solar range. Hence, much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar modules, they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into six to eight different wavelength ranges that will produce a different color of light, direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges; this has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power. A photovoltaic system includes an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter, a battery pack for storage, interconnection wiring, optionally a solar tracking mechanism.
Scientists from Spectrolab, a subsidiary of Boeing, have reported development of multi-junction solar cells with an efficiency of more than 40%, a new world record for solar photovoltaic cells. The Spectrolab scientists predict that concentrator solar cells could achieve efficiencies of more than 45% or 50% in the future, with theoretical efficiencies being about 58% in cells with more than three junctions; the best achieved sunlight conversion rate is around 21.5% in new commercial products lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The most efficient mass-produced solar modules have power density values of up to 175 W/m2. Research by Imperial College, London has shown that the efficiency of a solar panel can be improved by studying the light-receiving semiconductor surface with aluminum nanocylinders similar to the ridges on Lego blocks; the scattered light travels along a longer path in the semiconductor which means that more photons can be absorbed and converted into current.
Although these nanocylinders have been used the light scattering occurred in the near infrared region and visible light was absorbed strongly. Aluminum was found to have absorbed the ultraviolet part of the spectrum, while the visible and near infrared parts o
Ap Lei Chau
Ap Lei Chau or Aberdeen Island is an island of Hong Kong, located off Hong Kong Island next to Aberdeen Harbour and Aberdeen Channel. It has an area of 1.30 square kilometres. Administratively, it is part of the Southern District. Ap Lei Chau is the 2nd-most-densely-populated island in the world. Before the First Opium War, Ap Lei Chau was a small fishing village, with its harbour forming an excellent natural typhoon shelter; the island appears on a Ming-era map with its primary settlement labelled "Fragrant Harbour Village". This is the probable origin of the name for Hong Kong, although the town took the name of its island. Under the terms of the 1841 Treaty of Nanking, it was ceded to the British together with Hong Kong Island, it was sometimes known as c. from an alternative name for the island. The island had a uneventful history under British rule. In 1968, Hongkong Electric opened a power station on Ap Lei Chau to provide electricity for the whole of Hong Kong Island. In 1980 and 1994, a bridge was constructed to connect the island to the Hong Kong Island, this created momentum for rapid economic development.
Public housing estates were built to accommodate people, including some who had suffered in a fire in the Aberdeen shelter. In 1989, the generators of the power station were relocated to Lamma Island, the old power station was demolished; the site was re-developed into the South Horizons residential area, with the addition of some land reclaimed from the sea. Ap Lei Chau was named after the shape of the island. Ap means duck, Lei means tongue, Chau means island; the northern part has the highest population, while the southern part of the island is less densely populated. The highest point on the island is Yuk Kwai Shan, with an altitude of 196 metres, it comprises four main residential estates — Lei Tung Estate, Ap Lei Chau Main Street, South Horizons and Ap Lei Chau Estate, each of which comprises several highrise towers. There is an industrial estate on the southern tip of the island; the population of Ap Lei Chau is 86,782 as of 2007, its area is 1.30 square kilometres, giving it a population density of 66,755 people / km², making it the second most densely populated island in the world.
Ap Lei Chau lends its name to the Ap Lei Chau geologic formation, which covers most of Hong Kong Island. The Hung Shing Temple located on Hung Shing Street, off Main Street, Ap Lei Chau, is a notable site. Dating back to 1773, it is the oldest temple in the Aberdeen and Ap Lei Chau areas and is a declared monument; the Shui Yuet Temple aka. Kwun Yum Temple is located at Ap Lei Chau. Dedicated to Guan Yin, it was built at the end of the 19th century and is a Grade III historic building; the temple site is adjacent to the site of the former Aberdeen Police Station. Chosen for its feng shui, the superior dragons were seen as being protection from the'threat of the tiger's jaw' from the police station. Although the police station has now been demolished, the dragons are still present and seen as enduring feng shui guards. Apart from Guan Yin, the temple houses Kwan Tai, Tin Hau, Ji Gong and Wong Tai Sin. Ap Lei Chau and Hong Kong Island are connected by the four-lane Ap Lei Chau Bridge. Opened in 1983, it only had two lanes, was widened to four in 1994.
Buses are the main form of transport for the residents in Ap Lei Chau. Bus routes depart from the six bus termini on the island to various places on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon: Ap Lei Chau Estate Ap Lei Chau and Ap Lei Chau in the industrial area Ap Lei Chau Main Street Lei Tung Estate South HorizonsGreen minibuses and taxis are available. Red minibuses are prohibited from entering the island. There is a regular sampan service running between Aberdeen; the MTR South Island Line opened on December 28, 2016 links Admiralty of Hong Kong Island to Ap Lei Chau by Aberdeen Channel Bridge. There are two stations on the island: Lei Tung and South Horizons serving the development of the same name. Ap Lei Pai List of buildings and areas in Hong Kong List of islands and peninsulas of Hong Kong Shek Pai Wan Hayes, James. "Rope-making and Dyeing/Calendering on Ap Lei Chau, Hong Kong". Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 11. Hong Kong. Pp. 199–200. Retrieved 15 September 2014. History and Memories of Ap Lei Chau
Upper Albert Road
Upper Albert Road is a road on the Government Hill in the Central area of Hong Kong. It is named after husband of Queen Victoria. Surrounding Government House, the residence of former Governors of Hong Kong and present Chief Executive of Hong Kong, the road is used as a destination for various protests which sometimes results in traffic congestion, as such Upper Albert Road is used as a synonym of the Chief Executive's Office; the road is irregularly U-shaped and encircles Government House. Starting from Lower Albert Road, the road winds up the hills and turns near the Consulate General of United States of America building, it intersects with Kennedy Road and Cotton Tree Drive. On the upper part of the road, its north side is covered by the Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens and ends in the junction with Caine Road and Arbuthnot Road near the headquarters of Caritas Hong Kong; as it forms part of the early development of the city of Victoria, some old curtain fig trees stand beside the road.
List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Media related to Upper Albert Road at Wikimedia Commons List of old and valuable tree Network of tunnels for air raids. Google Maps of Upper Albert Road