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A "Hooverville" was a shanty town built during the Great Depression by the homeless in the United States. They were named after Herbert Hoover, President of the United States during the onset of the Depression and was blamed for it; the term was coined by publicity chief of the Democratic National Committee. There were hundreds of Hoovervilles across the country during the 1930s and hundreds of thousands of people lived in these slums. Homelessness was present before the Great Depression, was a common sight before 1929. Most large cities built municipal lodging houses for the homeless, but the Depression exponentially increased demand; the homeless clustered in shanty towns close to free soup kitchens. These settlements were trespassing on private lands, but they were tolerated or ignored out of necessity; the New Deal enacted special relief programs aimed at the homeless under the Federal Transient Service, which operated from 1933 to 1935. Some of the men who were forced to live in these conditions possessed construction skills, were able to build their houses out of stone.

Most people, resorted to building their residences out of wood from crates, scraps of metal, or whatever materials were available to them. They had a small stove, bedding and a couple of simple cooking implements. Men and children alike lived in Hoovervilles. Most of these unemployed residents of the Hoovervilles relied on public charities or begged for food from those who had housing during this era. Democrats coined many terms based on opinions of Herbert Hoover such as "Hoover blanket". A "Hoover flag" was an empty pocket turned inside out and "Hoover leather" was cardboard used to line a shoe when the sole wore through. A "Hoover wagon" was an automobile with horses hitched to it with the engine removed. After 1940 the economy recovered, unemployment fell, shanty housing eradication programs destroyed all the Hoovervilles. Among the hundreds of Hoovervilles across the U. S. during the 1930s were those in: Anacostia in the District of Columbia: The Bonus Army, a group of World War I veterans seeking expedited benefits, established a Hooverville in 1932.

Many of these men came from afar, illegally by riding on railroad freight trains to join the movement. At its maximum there were 15,000 people living there; the camp was demolished by units of the U. S. Army, commanded by Gen. Douglas MacArthur. Central Park, New York City: Scores of homeless families camped out at the Great Lawn at Central Park an empty reservoir. Riverside Park, New York City: A shantytown occupied Riverside Park at 72nd Street during the depression. Seattle had eight Hoovervilles during the 1930s, its largest Hooverville on the tidal flats adjacent to the Port of Seattle lasted from 1932 to 1941. St. Louis in 1930 had the largest Hooverville in America, it consisted of four distinct sectors. St. Louis's racially integrated Hooverville depended upon private philanthropy, had an unofficial mayor, created its own churches and other social institutions, remained a viable community until 1936, when the federal Works Progress Administration allocated slum clearance funds for the area.

Hoovervilles have featured in popular culture, still appear in editorial cartoons. Movies such as My Man Godfrey and Sullivan's Travels sometimes sentimentalized Hooverville life. Man's Castle, a 1933 film directed by Frank Borzage, focuses on a number of down-and-out characters living in a New York City Hooverville. In My Man Godfrey, a 1936 screwball comedy, "Forgotten man" Godfrey Smith is living in a Hooverville when he is patronised and "adopted" by Irene. In Sullivan's Travels, a 1941 comedy film written and directed by Preston Sturges, John L. Sullivan, a wanderlust movie director, played by Joel McCrea, visits a Hooverville and accidentally becomes a genuine tramp; the musical Annie has a song called "We'd Like to Thank You, Herbert Hoover", which takes place in a Hooverville beneath the 59th Street Bridge. In the song, the chorus sings of the hardships they now suffer because of the Great Depression and their contempt for the former president. In 1987, the Liverpool group The Christians had a British hit with the song "Hooverville".

In "Daleks in Manhattan" and "Evolution of the Daleks", two Series 3 episodes of Doctor Who, The Doctor and his companion Martha Jones travel back in time to New York City during the 1930s and visit the Hooverville in Central Park to investigate several mysterious disappearances of its inhabitants. In the episodes, it is stated that Hooverville is "a place for anyone who has nowhere else to go." In the episode, people from the Hooverville were being used as cheap labor for construction of the Empire State Building as well as subjects for the creation of Dalek-human hybrids and "pig-slaves". During a temporary housing crisis, the comic strip Piled Higher and Deeper refers to a fictional solution to the resulting housing crisis at Stanford University as "Hooverville" due to its proximity to Stanford's Hoover Tower; the 2005 version of King Kong, directed by Peter Jackson, depicts the Hooverville in New York's Central Park at the beginning of the film. The 2005 movie Cinderella Man referenced the Central Park encampment.

In the novel Bud, Not Buddy, set during the Great Depression, an early scene involves the police dismantling a Hooverville. Bud calls it "Hooperville". In Nelson Algren's A Walk on the Wild Side, the main character Dove Linkhorn is described as descending from "Forest solitaries spare and swart, left landless as in sandland and Ho

47th Missouri Volunteer Infantry

The 47th Missouri Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 47th Missouri Infantry was recruited in Missouri and organized in August and September 1864, it was attached to the District of St. Louis until December 1864. On September 19, 1864, a detachment of the regiment along with soldiers from the 3rd Missouri State Militia Cavalry Regiment under the command of First Lieutenant Erich Pape, captured the town of Doniphan and burned most of it, including the court house, to the ground; this was done in retaliation for pro-Confederate guerrilla activity in Ripley County. The Union horse soldiers retreated, burning farm houses and barns as they went. Confederate cavalry under Gen. Joseph Shelby caught up with them the next morning at Ponder's Mill, in Butler County and killed four, wounded four and captured six. Shelby's men suffered five wounded. Elements of the regiment participated in the Battle of Pilot Knob and in delaying maneuvers before St. Louis during Price's Missouri Raid.

Other elements guarded important railroad bridgeheads. In December 1864, the regiment was transferred to Tennessee; the regiment performed guard duty at Spring Hill and Pulaski, Tennessee through March 1865. The regiment was mustered out on March 28–30 of that same year. During the course of its service, the regiment lost 10 men killed and mortally wounded, 83 men by disease, for a total loss of 93. Dyer, Frederick H.. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, V. III, p. 1338

Wicked Witch of the West

The Wicked Witch of the West is a fictional character and the main antagonist of the classic children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, created by American author L. Frank Baum. In Baum's subsequent Oz novels, it is the Nome King, the principal villain; the witch's most popular depiction was in the classic 1939 film based on Baum's novel, where she was portrayed by Margaret Hamilton. Hamilton's characterization introduced green skin and this has been continued in literary and dramatic representations, including Gregory Maguire's revisionist Oz novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West and its musical stage adaptation Wicked, the 2013 film Oz the Great and Powerful, the television series Once Upon a Time and Emerald City; the Wicked Witch of the West is the malevolent ruler of the Winkie Country. Her castle is described as beautiful instead of being the sinister fortress shown in the movie. In all versions, she is aquaphobic; the Wicked Witch of the West was not related to the Wicked Witch of the East, but leagued together with her, the Wicked Witch of the South, the Wicked Witch of the North to conquer the Land of Oz and divide it among themselves, as recounted in L. Frank Baum's Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.

She shows no interest in the death of the Eastern Witch and all she cares about is obtaining the Silver Shoes which will increase her power. W. W. Denslow's illustrations for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz depict her as a paunched old hag with three pigtails and an eye-patch. L. Frank Baum himself specified that she only had one eye, but that it "was as powerful as a telescope", enabling the witch to see what was happening in her kingdom from her castle windows. Other illustrators, such as Paul Granger, placed her eye in the center of her forehead, as a cyclops, she is shown wearing an eye patch, however some illustrations show her with two eyes. Most of her power resides in the creatures, she has a pack of 40 great wolves, a swarm of black bees, a flock of 40 crows, an army of Winkies. She possesses the enchanted Golden Cap, which compels the winged monkeys to obey her on three occasions. First, the witch commanded the creatures to help her enslave the Winkies and to seize control of the western part of the Land of Oz.

Second, she made the winged monkeys drive Oz out of the Winkie Country, when he attempted to overthrow her. When Dorothy Gale and her companions were sent by the Wizard to destroy her, the Witch attacked them with a pack of 40 great wolves, a flock of 40 crows, a swarm of black bees, a group of Winkie slaves; each of these attempts were thwarted, but the protagonists are subdued by the Witch's third and final permitted use of the Winged Monkeys. The old witch cannot kill Dorothy because the girl is protected by the Good Witch of the North's kiss, she therefore settles for enslaving Dorothy, tries to force the Cowardly Lion into submission by starving him, though Dorothy sneaks him food. Upon seeing the Silver Shoes on the girl's feet, the Wicked Witch decides to steal them, thereby acquire more power; when she succeeds in acquiring one silver shoe by making Dorothy trip over an invisible bar, the little girl angrily throws a bucket of water onto the Wicked Witch. This causes the old witch to melt away.

The Wicked Witch's dryness was enumerated in some clues before this. Furthermore, when Toto had bitten her, she had not bled. L. Frank Baum did not explain why water had this effect on her, nor did he imply that all evil witches could be destroyed. However, the wicked witch Mombi is disposed of in The Lost King of Oz and the wicked witch Singra is afraid of the same fate in the early chapters of The Wicked Witch of Oz; the most explanation of Baum making water the Achilles' heel of these witches is the long-held belief amongst major religions that water is effective for purifying the soul and combating evil. The Witch did not carry a broom in the novel, but rather an umbrella, which she uses on one occasion to strike Dorothy's dog Toto, her nature is a yet somewhat cowardly one. Despite her immense power, she avoids face-to-face contact with her enemies, is frightened of Dorothy at first when she sees the girl wearing the Silver Shoes, she is afraid of the dark in Baum's original story for reasons unknown.

For that reason, the Witch never tried to steal the Silver Shoes. Despite her fear of water and the dark, the Wicked Witch of the West was one of the most powerful witches in all of Oz. In ensuing Oz books, her power is described as having been so great that Glinda the Good Witch of the South feared her. In Alexander Melentyevich Volkov's 1939 novel The Wizard of the Emerald City, her given name is Bastinda. March Laumer uses this name for the witch in his novel Aunt Uncle Henry in Oz. Like in the 1939 movie, she is the sister of the Wicked Witch of the East. Sherwood Smith uses this name for a new Wicked Witch of the West in her 2005 book The Emerald Wand of Oz. Gregory Maguire's September 1995 revisionist novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West takes the familiar Oz story and inverts it, with the Wicked Witch as the novel's protagonist and Dorothy as a hapless child; the name is retained in the musical Wicked. In the novel The Unknown Witches of Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West is named Old Snarl-Spats.

In the comic book series Grimm Fairy Tales presents Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West is named Lynessa. In the novel The Living House of Oz there is witch named Mordra who comes from an alternat

Padmanabha Gautam

Wing Commander Padmanabha Gautam, MVC, VSM, was an officer in the Indian Air Force. He was born on 23 July 1933 in Chennai, Tamil Nadu to Neelkanta Padmanabha and was commissioned into the Indian Air Force on 1 April 1953. In 1961, he served as a Flight Lieutenant which as deployed in Congo and was awarded the Vayu Sena Medal for his service. On 25 November 1972, he died in an air-crash due to internal bleeding; the engine of his MIG-21FL flamed shortly after take-off and he was forced to crash land. The citation for the first Maha Vir Chakra awarded to him reads: Gazette Notification: 126 Pres/65,22-9-65 Operation: Operation Riddle, Date of Award: 6 September 1965 Citation: Squadron Leader P. Gautam, Commanding Officer of a bomber conversion-training unit led it in a number of difficult and dangerous missions, he undertook six important offensive and tactical close-support operations over Pakistani territory during the period from 6 to 21 September 1965. In complete disregard of personal safety in the face of heavy enemy ground fire and of the risk of attack by Pakistani Sabrejets, he carried out his missions with courage and determination.

These missions included reconnaissance deep into enemy territory and the bombing of Akwal and Gujarat airfields and enemy troops concentrations in the Gujarat and Chawinda areas. Throughout the operations, Squadron Leader P Gautam's devotion to duty, professional skill and gallantry were in the finest traditions of the Air Force; the citation for the second Maha Vir Chakra awarded to him reads: Gazette Notification: 22 Pres/72,12-2-72 Operation: 1971 Cactus Lily Date of Award: 5 December 1971 Citation: Commander P/ Gautam, Commanding Officer of a bomber squadron, led many missions deep into enemy territory. Notable among these were two raids on the night of the 5 and 7 December 1971 when Wing Commander Gautam led attacks on the Mianwali airfield. On both these occasions, he and his formation were met with intense anti-aircraft fire. Despite that, the target was attacked with great precision, at low level and heavy damage was inflicted. On the other missions, he carried out rocket and four gun attacks on railway marshalling yards in the Montgomery-Raiwind area with conspicuous success.

Throughout the operation, Wing Commander Gautam displayed conspicuous gallantry, exemplary flying skill and leadership in the highest traditions of the Air Force

Lost Children (1956 film)

Lost Children is a 1956 Czechoslovak historical drama anti-war film directed by Miloš Makovec and based on Jiří Brdečka's adaptation of a short story by Alois Jirásek. The film was screened in the main competition section of the 1957 Cannes Film Festival. During a war between Austria and Prussia, three soldiers desert their units after being defeated by the Prussian army and find the shelter in a lonely farmhouse, they do not share the pacifist belief of the farmer, but they do not want to fight anymore. After the farm house is attacked by plundering Prussian hussars, the three soldiers decide to fight and die, not for glory or money or their empress, but for innocent people. Stanislav Fišer as The infantryman Vladimír Hlavatý as The hussar Gustáv Valach as The cuirassier Ladislav Gzela as Zieten Hussar #1 Vladimír Klemens as Zieten Hussar #2 Radovan Lukavský as Jíra Alena Vránová as Baruška Lost Children on IMDb

From Dusk Till Dawn 3: The Hangman's Daughter

From Dusk Till Dawn 3: The Hangman's Daughter is a 1999 American Western horror film directed by P. J. Pesce, it serves as a prequel to the 1996 film From Dusk till Dawn. It was released directly to video and was nominated at the 26th Saturn Awards for "Best Home Video Release". In late 2010, the production of a fourth film in the series was discussed, but, as of August 2012, further work on this possibility has not been revealed. In late 2013, it was reported; the prequel is set in Mexico in the early 1900s and begins with an American author, Ambrose Bierce, experiencing a nightmare in which he dies at the hands of Pancho Villa. Bierce wakes and talks to a local bartender about his intentions to join Pancho Villa's revolutionary army, he joins a stagecoach transporting a newly-wed couple and Mary Newlie, who are traveling to Mexico to preach Christianity. Meanwhile, Johnny Madrid, a dangerous local outlaw, escapes from the gallows and kidnaps his hangman's beautiful nineteen years old teenage daughter, Esmeralda.

Madrid receives assistance from Reece, a young woman who wants to become Madrid's apprentice as an outlaw. With the hangman and a local posse on their trail, Madrid meets with his gang, they rob Bierce's stagecoach because of Reece's belief that Bierce possesses an invaluable object. The gang doesn't find anything of value, with Bierce claiming he is the invaluable object, as he intends to join with Pancho Villa. Annoyed by this, Madrid leaves Reece hanging in the desert, she is found by the posse. As night falls, all the parties coincidentally seek shelter in an isolated inn that serves as a brothel, they meet Ezra Traylor, a businessman heading to the U. S; the hangman is the only one who knows that the establishment is run by a group of vampires led by the high priestess, who targets Esmeralda. As night falls John gets into a fight with one of Madrid's men; the vampires reveal themselves, lock the exit and attack the patrons. All of the hangman's men and the remnants of Madrid's gang are killed by the vampires.

Ezra is overcome by vampire women, is fed on and turns. His newly-undead form bites her. Madrid, Reece, Esmeralda, the hangman and one other patron manage to escape into the dungeons beneath the building and try to work together to find a way out. Mary rises as a vampire and goes after the group, revealing that John is a fraud who has only married Mary for her father's money. John is forced to kill her; the patron who escaped with them hides a bite. As they continue through the catacombs, he bites John. John kills the patron. Doomed, he persuades Madrid to stake; as the remaining survivors keep going, Bierce admits to reading in the papers that Reece is an outlaw who has killed her entire family. The group ends up back at the bar entrance, only to find Quixtla and the vampires in wait for them, she reveals that Esmeralda is a half-human, half-vampire princess, Santanico Pandemonium, the daughter of Quixtla and the hangman, Mauricio. The hangman had taken her away in the hope of raising her as a normal human but, thanks to his mistreatment and Madrid's kidnapping, she has been led back to Quixtla.

Madrid, the hangman and Reece are hung upside-down to be fed on as Quixtla transforms Esmeralda into the vampire princess. Madrid manages to free the others. Reece is bitten in the scuffle and becomes a vampire. Esmeralda bites and turns the hangman into a vampire, but he manages to open the entrance way and kill Quixtla before the change is complete, allowing Madrid and Bierce to escape; as the film ends, Esmeralda screams. Madrid joins Ambrose's quest to join Pancho Villa's army; as they leave, the camera zooms out to show the Mayan temple behind the building that houses the vampires, a reference to the first film. After the closing credits, Ambrose Bierce's legendary disappearance has an answer, he has been telling a patron the story. The patron doesn't believe him, as he leave, Ambrose tells him he has proof, he reveals that Quixtla bit him as they fell outside of the bar, because he is now a vampire. He bites it as the film ends. Marco Leonardi as Johnny Madrid Michael Parks as Ambrose Bierce Ara Celi as Esmeralda Sônia Braga as Quixtla Rebecca Gayheart as Mary Newlie Orlando Jones as Ezra Traylor Temuera Morrison as The Hangman Lennie Loftin as John Newlie Danny Trejo as Razor Charlie Jordana Spiro as Catherine Reece Danny Keogh as Bartender Peter Butler as Pancho Villa Melissa Gilbert as Wedding Dress Whore P. J. Pesce as Man in Bar The American Cinematheque held the West Coast premiere at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre on October 30, 1999.

Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 22% of nine surveyed critics gave the film a positive review. Mike Emery of the Houston Chronicle wrote that the film "isn't bad" but is too derivative and only for gore hounds. Matt Serafini of Dread Central rated it 2/5 stars and wrote that the original film should not have had any sequels. Nathan Rabin of The A. V. Club wrote, "Being competent is no great achievement, but for undiscriminating gore fans, it should be enough to make Dawn 3 a passable evening's entertainment." G. Noel Cross of DVD Talk rated it 4/5 stars and called it "a smart sequel that delivers mucho bang for the peso." Gordon Sullivan of DVD Verdict called it "a serviceable little action horror flick that takes a timeworn premise and adds