Gaviota is an unincorporated community in Santa Barbara County, California located about 30 miles west of Santa Barbara and 15 miles south of Buellton. 70 people live in Gaviota. The town is east of Gaviota State Park; the road to Hollister Ranch, the large private land holding along the coast between Gaviota and Point Conception, connects with U. S. 101 just west of Gaviota, at the turnoff to Gaviota State Park. Industries include organic farming and woodworking. Free range cattle can be seen grazing throughout the area. Gaviota is home to a marine mammal rehabilitation center named The Channel Islands Marine & Wildlife Institute which opened in 2006 at the historic Vista Del Mar School grounds. Gaviota was once the location of the Gaviota Marine Terminal, being decommissioned and abandoned, with intent to become public open space. On the mountain side of the freeway is the Gaviota Oil Heating Facility known as the "Gaviota Gas Plant", built by Chevron Corp. and owned by Plains Exploration & Production Company.
The former purpose of the facility was to heat and process the heavy crude oil produced offshore so that it could flow through the All American Pipeline to refineries in the Bakersfield area. The Gaviota Coast remains undeveloped and is the longest remaining rural coastline in southern California. In 2016, the twenty-one miles of Highway 101 that runs through the Gaviota Coast, bounded by the City of Goleta’s western boundary and Las Cruces where Route 1, was declared a State Scenic Highway; the preservation of this area is the subject of "The Twenty," a film by The Surfrider Foundation. Gaviota tarweed, a rare and endangered subspecies of Deinandra increscens endemic to Santa Barbara County, is found here; the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, camped at Gaviota Creek on August 24, 1769. On the return journey to San Diego, the party again stopped there on January 6, 1770. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi noted in his diary, "I called this place San Luis Rey, the soldiers know it as La Gaviota, because they killed a seagull there."
Gaviota is the Spanish word for "seagull". Gaviota Tunnel Gaviota Peak Hollister Ranch
Summerland is a census designated place in Santa Barbara County, United States. The population was 1,448 at the 2010 census, down from 1,545 at the 2000 census; the town includes a Presbyterian Church. There are many small businesses. Tar from natural oil seeps in the Summerland area was long used as a sealant, both by the native Chumash peoples and by the Spanish builders of the Mission Santa Barbara, who used it as waterproofing for the roof. In 1883, spiritualist and real estate speculator H. L. Williams founded the town of Summerland. In 1888 he divided his land tract, on a moderately sloping hill facing the ocean, into numerous parcels, he promoted the tiny lots – 25 x 60 – to fellow Spiritualists, who bought them in quantity and moved to the area. The spiritual center of the town was a Spiritualist Church, with séance room, demolished only when Highway 101 was put through in the 1950s. In the 1890s, oil development began at the Summerland Oil Field. Numerous wooden oil derricks were built on the beach, on piers stretching into the ocean.
The world's first offshore oil well, drilled into the sea floor, was at this location. Production at this beach area peaked before 1910. Peak production from the onshore portion of the Summerland Field did not occur until 1930. In 1957, Standard Oil Co. of California found the large Summerland Offshore Oil Field, several miles offshore, shut down in the 1990s. In January 1969, a blowout at the Dos Cuadras Field, about five miles offshore, caused the Santa Barbara Oil Spill, a formative event for the modern environmental movement. In August 2015, Summerland's beach was closed for several days by County of Santa Barbara health officials due to large amounts of oil washed onshore. Local residents suspect the petroleum source is a leaking capped oil well in the tidal area below Lookout Park. Summerland was the home of artist Julian Ritter. Summerland is located at 34°25′17″N 119°35′45″W, it is on the coast directly east at Ortega Ridge Road at the unincorporated community of Montecito and west-northwest of the city of Carpinteria.
Summerland has a higher population density than the surrounding area. U. S. Route 101 goes through Summerland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.0 square miles, of which, 2.0 square miles of it is land and 0.33% is water. The community is built on a set of coastal bluffs right next to the ocean. Surrounding it and Montecito are the cities of Carpinteria and Santa Barbara. Raccoons and foxes appear in yards. In the wild, there are bobcats, mountain lions, American black bears; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Summerland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Summerland had a population of 1,448. The population density was 727.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Summerland was 1,295 White, 3 African American, 7 Native American, 41 Asian, 6 Pacific Islander, 51 from other races, 45 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 192 persons. The Census reported that 1,448 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 687 households, out of which 128 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 270 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 55 had a female householder with no husband present, 23 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 54 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 9 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 230 households were made up of individuals and 62 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11. There were 348 families; the population was spread out with 211 people under the age of 18, 119 people aged 18 to 24, 315 people aged 25 to 44, 546 people aged 45 to 64, 257 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.
There were 823 housing units at an average density of 413.7 per square mile, of which 362 were owner-occupied, 325 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.2%. 790 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 658 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,545 people, 715 households, 368 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 764.7 people per square mile. There were 784 housing units at an average density of 388.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.78% White, 0.45% African American, 0.26% Native American, 2.39% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 2.27% from other races, 2.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.44% of the population. There were 715 households out of which 17.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.2% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.5% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5%
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is described as Mediterranean, the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera"; as of 2014, the city had an estimated population of 91,196, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch and others, has an approximate population of 220,000; the population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895. In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, technology, health care, agriculture and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 35% of local employment.
Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of higher learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, Santa Barbara Aviation provides jet charter aircraft and train service is provided by Amtrak the Pacific Surfliner which runs from San Diego to San Luis Obispo). U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains several remote wilderness areas. Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. An estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area. The present-day area of Santa Barbara City College was the village of Mispu. Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name "Santa Barbara" to the channel and to one of the Channel Islands. A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited around 1769, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town "Laguna de la Concepcion". Cabrillo's earlier name, however, is the one; the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio of Santa Barbara.
The Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4, 1786. It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans, it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds; the Chumash laborers built a connection between the canyon creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam and an aqueduct. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity; the most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town. The Mission was rebuilt by 1820 after the earthquake. Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions, still functioning as an active church by the Franciscans.
After the Mexican government secularized the missions in the 1830s, the baptismal and burial records of other missions were transferred to Santa Barbara, now found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. C-SPAN has produced a program on the mission archive-library; the Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years. Santa Barbara street names reflect this time period as well; the names de le Guerra and Carrillo come from citizens of the town of this time. They were instrumental in building up the town, so they were honored by having streets after them. After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833
Goleta is a city in southern Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It was incorporated as a city in 2002, after a long period as the largest unincorporated populated area in the county; as of the 2000 census, the census-designated place had a total population of 55,204. The population was 29,888 at the 2010 census, it is known for being near the University of California, Santa Barbara campus, although the CDP of Isla Vista is closer to the campus. The area of present-day Goleta was populated for thousands of years by the native Chumash people. Locally they became known by the Spanish as Canaliños because they lived along the coast adjacent to the Channel Islands. One of the largest villages, S'axpilil, was north of the Goleta Slough, not far from the present-day Santa Barbara Airport; the first European visitor to the Goleta area was the Spanish mariner Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who spent time around the Channel Islands in 1542, died there in 1543. During the 1980s, discovery of some 16th-century cannon on the beach led to the advancement of a theory that Sir Francis Drake sailed into the Goleta Slough in 1579.
Goleta is one of many alternative locations proposed for Drake's "New Albion" believed to be today's Drake's Bay, north of San Francisco. In 1602, another sailing expedition, led by Sebastian Vizcaino, visited the California Coast. Vizcaino named the channel Santa Barbara. Spanish ships associated with the Manila Galleon trade stopped in the area intermittently during the next 167 years, but no permanent settlements were established; the first land expedition to California, led by Gaspar de Portolà, spent several days in the area in 1769, on its way to Monterey Bay, spent the night of August 20 near a creek to the north of the Goleta estuary. At that time, the estuary was a large open-water lagoon that covered most of what is now the city of Goleta, extended as far north as Lake Los Carneros. There were at least five native towns in the area, the largest on an island in the middle of the lagoon. For that reason, expedition engineer Miguel Costanso called the group of towns Pueblos de la Isla.
Some of the soldiers called the island town Mescaltitlan, after a similar Aztec island town in Mexico. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, gave the towns the name Santa Margarita de Cortona; the island retained the name Mescalitan Island until it was bulldozed flat in 1941 to provide fill for the military airfield, now Goleta airport. The Wastewater Treatment Plant of the Goleta Sanitary District is located on what used to be the island. Portola returned to San Diego by the same route in January 1770, mounted a second expedition to Monterey that year. A second Spanish expedition came to the Santa Barbara area of Alta California in 1774, led by Juan Bautista de Anza. De Anza returned the next year, the road along the coast of Santa Barbara County soon became the El Camino Real, connecting the string of Spanish missions. An expedition in 1782, led by military governor Felipe de Neve, founded the Presidio of Santa Barbara and, soon thereafter, the Santa Barbara Mission.
The Goleta area, along with most of the coastal areas of today's Santa Barbara County, was placed in the jurisdiction of the presidio and mission. Sometime after the De Anza expeditions, a sailing ship was wrecked at the mouth of the lagoon, remained visible for many years, giving the area its current name. After Mexico became independent of Spain in 1821, most of the former mission ranch lands were divided up into large grants; the Goleta area became part of two adjacent ranchos. To the east of today's Fairview Avenue was Rancho La Goleta, named for the shipwreck and granted to Daniel A. Hill, the first American resident of Santa Barbara. An 1840s diseño of the rancho shows the wrecked ship; the parts of Goleta to the west of Fairview Avenue were in Rancho Dos Pueblos, granted in 1842 to Nicholas Den, son-in-law of Daniel Hill. Rancho Dos Pueblos included the lagoon, airport, UCSB and Isla Vista, extending to the west as far as the eastern boundary of today's El Capitan State Beach; the Goleta Valley was a prominent lemon-growing region during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was agricultural.
Several areas the Ellwood Mesa, were developed for oil and natural gas extraction. In the 1920s, aviation pioneers started using portions of the Goleta Slough that had silted-in due to agriculture to land and takeoff; as former tidelands, the title to these lands was unclear. Starting in 1940, boosters from the city of Santa Barbara lobbied and obtained federal funding and passed a bond measure to formally develop an airport on the Goleta Slough; the necessity for an airport – or at least a military airfield – became more apparent after a Japanese submarine shelled the Ellwood Oil Field in 1942. This was one of the few direct-fire attacks on the U. S. mainland during WWII. The Marine Corps undertook completion of the airport and established Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara on the site of the current airport and University of California, Santa Barbara campus. After the war, Goleta Valley residents supported the construction of Lake Cachuma, which provided water, enabling a housing boom and the establishment of research and aerospace firms in the area.
In 1954, the University of California, Santa Barbara moved to part of the former Marine base. Along with the boom in aerospace, the character changed from rural-agricultural to high-tech. Goleta remains a center for high-tech firms, a bedroom community for neighboring Santa Barbara. Go
Montecito is an affluent unincorporated community and census-designated place in Santa Barbara County, located east of the City of Santa Barbara. The population was 8,965 at the 2010 census. Montecito occupies the eastern portion of the coastal plain south of the Santa Ynez Mountains. Parts of the community are built on the lower foothills of the range. Montecito however does not include areas such as Coast Village Road, which while considered part of Montecito, are within the city limits of Santa Barbara. Notable roads spanning Montecito include East Valley Road, Mountain Drive, Sycamore Canyon Road, all of which form part of State Route 192. In addition, the U. S. 101 Freeway runs along the south end of town, connecting it with other cities in Santa Barbara County and the rest of Southern California. The site of present-day Montecito, along with the entire south coast of Santa Barbara County, was inhabited for over 10,000 years by the Chumash Indians; the Spanish arrived in the 18th century but left the region unsettled while they built the Presidio and Mission Santa Barbara farther west.
In the middle of the 19th century, the area was known as a haven for bandits and highway robbers, who hid in the oak groves and canyons, preying on traffic on the coastal route between the towns that developed around the missions. By the end of the 1860s, the bandit gangs were gone, Italian settlers arrived. Finding an area reminiscent of Italy, they built farms and gardens similar to those they had left behind in Italy. Around the end of the 19th century, wealthy tourists from the eastern and midwestern United States began to buy land in the area, it was near enough to Santa Barbara for essential services. Desirable weather and several nearby hot springs offered the promise of comfortable, healthy living, in addition to the availability of affordable land; the Montecito Hot Springs Hotel was built near the largest of the springs, in a canyon north of the town center and directly south of Montecito Peak, in Hot Springs Canyon. The hotel burned down in 1920; the architect George Washington Smith is noted for his residences around Montecito, for popularizing the Spanish Colonial Revival style in early 20th century America, as is Lutah Maria Riggs, who started as a draftsman in Smith's firm, rose to partner, started her firm.
Montecito was evacuated five times in four months between December, 2017, March, 2018, because of weather-related events, which included the Thomas Fire, the 2018 Southern California mudflows, flooding related to the Pineapple Express. The mudflows resulted in 20 reported deaths. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 9.3 square miles, 99.94% of it land and 0.06% of it water. Montecito experiences a cool Mediterranean climate characteristic of coastal Southern California; because of Montecito's proximity to the ocean, onshore breezes moderate temperatures, resulting in warmer winters and cooler summers compared with places further inland. With its gentle Mediterranean climate, Montecito has long been a desirable location for horticulturists. March and April are the months to watch gray whales migrate north from Mexico through Santa Barbara Channel; the 2010 United States Census reported that Montecito had a population of 8,965. The population density was 967.7 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Montecito was 8,267 White, 55 African American, 38 Native American, 218 Asian, 6 Pacific Islander, 156 from other races, 225 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 605 persons; the Census reported that 8,033 people lived in households, 932 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, none were institutionalized. Of the 3,432 households, 831 had children under the age of 18 living in them. There were 110 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 36 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 941 households were made up of individuals and 527 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34. There were 2,263 families; the age spread of the population accounts 1,515 people under the age of 18, 1,234 people aged 18 to 24, 1,169 people aged 25 to 44, 2,716 people aged 45 to 64, 2,331 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males.
4,238 housing units represented an average density of 457.5 per square mile, of which 2,522 were owner-occupied, 910 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.4%. 6,081 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,952 people lived in rental housing units. The census of 2000 counted 10,000 people, 3,686 households, 2,454 families residing in the census-designated place; the population density was 1,072.3 people per square mile. There were 4,193 housing units at an average density of 449.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.0% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islan
Santa Ynez, California
Santa Ynez is a census-designated place in the Santa Ynez Valley of Santa Barbara County, California. The town of Santa Ynez is one of the communities of the Santa Ynez Valley, it features the Santa Ynez Airport for general aviation, with a paved 2,804 by 75 feet runway. The population was 4,418 at the 2010 census, down from 4,584 at the 2000 census, it is named after Santa Inés in the Spanish language. Santa Ynez is located at 34°36′43″N 120°5′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.1 square miles, 99.86% of it land, 0.14% of it covered by water. Santa Ynez is located about 40 miles north of Santa Barbara, is known for its world-class wineries; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Santa Ynez has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated Csb on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Santa Ynez had a population of 4,418.
The population density was 859.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Santa Ynez was 3,797 White, 12 African American, 234 Native American, 51 Asian, 4 Pacific Islander, 147 from other races, 173 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 639 persons; the Census reported that 4,418 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,741 households, out of which 524 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,052 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 137 had a female householder with no husband present, 81 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 82 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 18 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 367 households were made up of individuals and 186 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54. There were 1,270 families; the population was spread out with 916 people under the age of 18, 280 people aged 18 to 24, 785 people aged 25 to 44, 1,559 people aged 45 to 64, 878 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 47.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. There were 1,886 housing units at an average density of 366.7 per square mile, of which 1,327 were owner-occupied, 414 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%. 3,434 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 984 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,584 people, 1,627 households, 1,277 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 586.7 people per square mile. There were 1,670 housing units at an average density of 213.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.84% White, 0.17% African American, 1.22% Native American, 1.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.08% from other races, 2.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.21% of the population. There were 1,627 households out of which 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.0% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.5% were non-families.
15.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.09. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $80,284, the median income for a family was $84,467. Males had a median income of $56,286 versus $45,688 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $33,811. About 3.0% of families and 5.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over. The Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Mission Indians, a federally recognized Chumash tribe is headquartered in Santa Ynez, they operate the local Chumash Casino Resort.
In the California State Legislature, Santa Ynez is in the 19th Senate District, represented by Democrat Hannah-Beth Jackson, in the 37th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Monique Limón. In the United States House of Representatives, Santa Ynez is in California's 24th congressional district, represented by Democrat Salud Carbajal. Bob Falkenburg, Wimbledon champion tennis player Ed Fitz Gerald, baseball player Eion Bailey, actor Neverland Ranch Lake Cachuma California State Route 154 Rancho del Cielo Santa Ynez Valley Santa Barbara County, California Santa Ynez Valley News Santa Ynez Valley Online News and Information Chumash Casino Santa Ynez Airport
Chaparral is a shrubland or heathland plant community found in the US state of California and in the northern portion of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. It is shaped by a Mediterranean climate and wildfire, featuring summer-drought-tolerant plants with hard sclerophyllous evergreen leaves, as contrasted with the associated soft-leaved, drought-deciduous, scrub community of coastal sage scrub, found below the chaparral biome. Chaparral covers 5% of the state of California and associated Mediterranean shrubland an additional 3.5%. The name comes for evergreen oak shrubland. In its natural state, chaparral is characterized by infrequent fires, with intervals ranging between 30-150+ years. Mature chaparral is characterized by dense thickets; these plants are flammable during the late summer and autumn months when conditions are characteristically hot and dry. They grow as woody shrubs with thick and small leaves, contain green leaves all year, are drought resistant. After the first rains following a fire, the landscape is dominated by small flowering herbaceous plants, known as fire followers, which die back with the summer dry period.
Similar plant communities are found in the four other Mediterranean climate regions around the world, including the Mediterranean Basin, central Chile, the South African Cape Region, in Western and Southern Australia. According to the California Academy of Sciences, Mediterranean shrubland contains more than 20 percent of the world's plant diversity; the word chaparral is a loan word from Spanish chaparro, meaning both "small" and "dwarf" evergreen oak, which itself comes from a Basque word, that has the same meaning. Conservation International and other conservation organizations consider chaparral to be a biodiversity hotspot – a biological community with a large number of different species –, under threat by human activity; the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, of the Mediterranean forests and scrub biome, has three sub-ecoregions with ecosystem—plant community subdivisions: California coastal sage and chaparral:In coastal Southern California and northwestern coastal Baja California, as well as all of the Channel Islands off California and Guadalupe Island.
California montane chaparral and woodlands:In southern and central coast adjacent and inland California regions, including covering some of the mountains of the California Coast Ranges, the Transverse Ranges, the western slopes of the northern Peninsular Ranges. California interior chaparral and woodlands:In central interior California surrounding the Central Valley, covering the foothills and lower slopes of the northeastern Transverse Ranges and the western Sierra Nevada range. For the numerous individual plant and animal species found within the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, see: Flora of the California chaparral and woodlands Fauna of the California chaparral and woodlands; some of the indicator plants of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion include: Quercus species – oaks: Quercus agrifolia – coast live oak Quercus berberidifolia – scrub oak Quercus chrysolepis – canyon live oak Quercus douglasii – blue oak Quercus wislizeni – interior live oak Artemisia species – sagebrush: Artemisia californica – California sagebrush, coastal sage brush Arctostaphylos species – manzanitas: Arctostaphylos glauca – bigberry manzanita Arctostaphylos manzanita – common manzanita Ceanothus species – California lilacs: Ceanothus cuneatus – buckbrush Ceanothus megacarpus – bigpod ceanothus Rhus species – sumacs: Rhus integrifolia – lemonade berry Rhus ovata – sugar bush Eriogonum species – buckwheats: Eriogonum fasciculatum – California buckwheat Salvia species – sages: Salvia mellifera – black sage Another phytogeography system uses two California chaparral and woodlands subdivisions: the cismontane chaparral and the transmontane chaparral.
Cismontane chaparral refers to the chaparral ecosystem in the Mediterranean forests and scrub biome in California, growing on the western sides of large mountain range systems, such as the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada in the San Joaquin Valley foothills, western slopes of the Peninsular Ranges and California Coast Ranges, south-southwest slopes of the Transverse Ranges in the Central Coast and Southern California regions. In Central and Southern California chaparral forms a dominant habitat. Members of the chaparral biota native to California, all of which tend to regrow after fires, include: Adenostoma fasciculatum, chamise Adenostoma sparsifolium, redshanks Arctostaphylos spp. manzanita Ceanothus spp. ceanothus Cercocarpus spp. mountain mahogany Cneoridium dumosum, bush rue Eriogonum fasciculatum, California buckwheat Garrya spp. silk-tassel bush Hesperoyucca whipplei, yucca Heteromeles arbutifolia, toyon Acmispon glaber, deerweed Malosma laurina, laurel sumac Marah macrocarpus, wild cucumber Mimulus aurantiacus, bush monkeyflower Pickeringia montana, chaparral pea Prunus ilicifolia, islay or hollyleaf cherry Quercus berberidifolia, scrub oak Q. dumosa, scrub oak Q. wislizenii var. frutescens Rhamnus californica, California coffeeberry Rhus integrifolia, lemonade berry Rhus ovata, sugar bush Salvia apiana, white sage Salvia mellifera, black sage Xylococcus bicolor, mission manzanita The complex ecology of chaparral habitats supports a large number of animal species.