Hannah (biblical figure)
Hannah is one of the wives of Elkanah mentioned in the First Book of Samuel. According to the Hebrew Bible she was the mother of Samuel; the narrative about Hannah can be found in 1 Samuel 1:2-2:21. Outside of the first two chapters of 1 Samuel, she is never mentioned in the Bible. Elkanah had two wives. In the biblical narrative, Hannah is one of two wives of Elkanah; the other, had given birth to Elkanah's children, but Hannah remained childless. Elkanah preferred Hannah. According to Lillian Klein, the use of this chiasmus underscores the standing of the women: Hannah is the primary wife, yet Peninnah has succeeded in bearing children. Hannah’s status as primary wife and her barrenness recall Sarah and Rebecca in Genesis 17 and Genesis 25 respectively. Klein suggests; every year, Elkanah would offer a sacrifice at the Shiloh sanctuary, give Penninah and her children a portion but he gave Hannah a double portion "because he loved her, the LORD had closed her womb". One day Hannah went up to the temple, prayed with great weeping, while Eli the High Priest was sitting on a chair near the doorpost.
In her prayer, she asked God for a son and in return she vowed to give the son back to God for the service of God. She promised. According to Lillian Klein, the value of women is demonstrably enhanced by their child-bearing capacities; the narrative takes her pain and places it in her personal failure and draws it out in a communal context. The desperation of Hannah’s vow indicates that bearing a male child would establish her in the community. Eli questioned her; when she explained herself, he sent her home. Hannah conceived and bore a son, named him Samuel Heard by God, "since she had asked the Lord for him"; the role of women giving names in premonarchic Israel suggests an authoritative social role, at least within the family. She raised him until he was brought him to the temple along with a sacrifice. Hannah is considered to be a prophetess: in her song of thanksgiving she is inspired “to discern in her own individual experience the universal laws of the divine economy, to recognise its significance for the whole course of the Kingdom of God".
This song may be compared to the Magnificat, Mary's song of thanksgiving in the New Testament, but biblical commentator A. F. Kirkpatrick notes that "the Magnificat should be compared with Hannah’s song, of which it is an echo rather than an imitation; the resemblance lies in thought and tone more than in actual language, supplies a most delicate and valuable testimony to the appropriateness of this hymn to Hannah’s circumstances". Eli announced another blessing on Hannah, she conceived 3 more sons and 2 daughters, making six in total. Hannah's conflict with her rival, her barrenness, her longing for a son are stereotypical motifs. According to Michelle Osherow, Hannah represents the character of the earnest petitioner and grateful celebrant of divine glory. Hannah was an important figure for early English Protestantism, which emphasized the importance of private prayer; the Jerusalem Talmud took Hannah as an exemplar of prayer. The story of Hannah is the Haftarah reading for Rosh Hashanah; the Hebrew form of the name "Saul" is shaul, the story of Samuel's birth contains repeated uses the related verbal root sh-'-l in various forms, including in the verse in which Hannah explains her son's name.
In verse 28, the form shaul itself is found, identical to the Hebrew name of Saul. As a result, it has been suggested by critical commentators the story was about the birth of Saul, but that the name "Samuel" was substituted for Saul at a date. Numbers 30:11-13 allows a husband to nullify a vow made by his wife, if he registers his objection when he learns of it. However, if he says nothing, the vow is allowed as valid; the next time Elkanah goes to Shiloh, Hannah remains home to care for her child, but tells him that she will present the boy to the Lord when he is weaned. Elkanah responds, "Do what you think best." By the time "the child was weaned" - there is some debate as to what age Samuel was dedicated to the Temple. It is unlikely that it meant weaned from the breast, more when Hannah felt he was weaned from her as a mother - somewhere between the age of 6–12 years. Hannah serves the soundness of her promise by bringing a viable child to serve in the sanctuary educated in the ways of the Lord.
The quality of one's sacrifice reflected the quality of one's faith. In Leviticus, provisions were made for redeeming vows or pledges in money that would go to the support of the priests and the sanctuary. So Hannah could have chosen that option to fulfill her vow, if on calm reflection, once she had her son, she felt unable to part with him. William Wailes created a stained-glass window depicting Hannah and Eli for the Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Ambleside, Great Britain. Tel Arad Midrash Samuel Song of Hannah
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Philistine captivity of the Ark
The Philistine captivity of the Ark was an episode described in the biblical history of the Israelites, in which the Ark of the covenant was in the possession of the Philistines, who had captured it after defeating the Israelites in a battle at a location between Eben-ezer, where the Israelites encamped, Aphek, where the Philistines encamped. The ark narrative does not include any mention of Samuel. Many scholars put 1 Samuel 4 - 6 together with 2 Samuel 6 and believe that it reflects an old source, incorporated into the History of David's Rise or into the Deuteronomistic History. According to 1 Samuel 4, prior to the battle the Ark had been residing at the ancient sanctuary of Shiloh, but was brought out by the Israelites in hope of victory in the war; the Israelites suffered a significant defeat. The news of the ark's capture was such a shock to Eli that he fell off his chair and died, while Phinehas' wife died in childbirth as she heard the news, giving birth to Ichabod, whose name means "Where is the glory?"
Robert Alter argues that 1 Samuel 4:22 should be translated as "Glory is exiled from Israel," and that the story of the Philistine captivity of the ark is one of exile. Peter Leithart suggests that Israel deserved to go into exile, but the ark did so instead: "Yahweh went into exile, taking on the curse of the covenant for His people, while in exile He fought for them and defeated the gods of Philistia." 1 Samuel 5 and 6 describe the Philistines as having to move the Ark to several parts of their territory, as tumours or hemorrhoids afflicted the people in each town to which it was taken: Ashdod Gath Ekron. The Septuagint adds that "mice sprang up in the midst of their country". Stirrup points out that the "severity of the punishments increases through the passage": tumours in Ashdod, extensive tumours and panic in Gath, which had volunteered to take on the Ark, tumours on those who did not die and deathly panic in Ekron, which was'volunteered' to take the Ark; the text explicitly ascribes the plague to "Yahweh's hand".
In Ashdod, when the Ark was placed in the temple of Dagon, the statue of Dagon was found prostrate in front of the Ark the next morning. Leithart provides a number of parallels between the Philistine captivity of the Ark and the Plagues of Egypt in the Book of Exodus; the ark brings about plagues, humbles the gods of the Philistines and returns full of treasure. In fact, the Philistine diviners refer to the events of the Exodus in 1 Samuel 6:6. On the advice of these diviners about how to end the plagues, the Philistines made a guilt offering of five golden tumors and five gold mice, they placed the gold along with the ark on a cart drawn by two milch cows, who head straight for Israel and do not waver. The ark stops at Beth Shemesh before finding a more permanent home at Kiriath-Jearim
Funk & Wagnalls
Funk & Wagnalls was an American publisher known for its reference works, including A Standard Dictionary of the English Language, the Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia. The encyclopedia was renamed Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Encyclopedia in 1931 and in 1945, it was known as New Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia, Universal Standard Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia; the last printing of Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia was in 1997. As of 2018, annual Yearbooks are still in production; the I. K. Funk & Company, founded in 1875, was renamed Funk & Wagnalls Company after two years, became Funk & Wagnalls Inc. Funk & Wagnalls Corporation. Isaac Kaufmann Funk founded the business in 1875 as I. K. Funk & Company. In 1877, Adam Willis Wagnalls, one of Funk's classmates at Wittenberg College, joined the firm as a partner and the name of the firm was changed to Funk & Wagnalls Company. During its early years, Funk & Wagnalls Company published religious books.
The publication of The Literary Digest in 1890 marked a shift to publishing of general reference dictionaries and encyclopedias. The firm published The Standard Dictionary of the English Language in 2 volumes in 1893 & 1895 and Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia in 1912. In 1913, the New Standard Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language was published under the supervision of Isaac K. Funk; the New Standard Unabridged Dictionary was revised until 1943, a edition, supervised by Charles Earl Funk. The encyclopedia was based upon Chambers's Encyclopaedia: "Especially are we indebted to the famous Chambers's Encyclopaedia... With its publishers we have arranged to draw upon its stores as as we have found it of advantage so to do."Wilfred J. Funk, the son of Isaac Funk, was president of the company from 1925 to 1940. Unicorn Press obtained the rights to publish the encyclopedia, by 1953 that firm began to sell the encyclopedia through a supermarket continuity marketing campaign, encouraging consumers to include the latest volume of the encyclopedia on their shopping lists.
Grocery stores in the 1970s in the Midwest kept about four volumes in a rotation, dropping the last and adding the latest until all volumes could be acquired with the initial first volume being 99 cents. The first several volumes were gold painted along the edges and the volumes were not; these volumes were $2.99 and toward the volumes the price had increased with the inflation of the 1970s. If one did not go shopping on a weekly basis, or delivery was spotty, there was a good chance that a volume might be missed to complete the set. In 1965, Funk & Wagnalls Co. was sold to Reader's Digest. In 1971, the company, now Funk and Wagnalls, was sold to Dun & Bradstreet. Dun and Bradstreet retained Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, but other reference works were relinquished to other publishers. In 1984, Dun & Bradstreet sold Funk & Wagnalls, Inc. to a group of Funk & Wagnalls executives, who in turn sold it to Field Corporation in 1988. In 1991, the company was sold to K-III Holdings, in 1993 Funk & Wagnalls Corporation acquired the World Almanac.
In 1998, as part of the Information division of Primedia Inc. the encyclopedia content appeared on the Web site "funkandwagnalls.com". This short-lived venture was shut down in 2001. Ripplewood Holdings bought Primedia's education division in 1999, which became part of Reader's Digest Association in 2007. In 2009, Funk & Wagnalls was acquired by World Book Encyclopedia. After failing to purchase rights to the text of the Encyclopædia Britannica and World Book Encyclopedia for its Encarta digital encyclopedia, Microsoft reluctantly used the text of Funk & Wagnalls encyclopedia for the first editions of its encyclopedia; this licensed text was replaced over the following years with content Microsoft created itself. 18?? – The Preacher's Homiletic Commentary on the Old Testament 18?? – The Preacher's Homiletic Commentary on the New Testament 1890 – The Literary Digest 1891 – The Encyclopedia of Missions 1893-95 – The Standard Dictionary of the English Language 1901/1906 – The Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 volumes 1906 – The World's Famous Orations, 10 volume set 1909 – Standard Bible Dictionary 1912 – Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia 1913 - 1943 The New Standard Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Two volumes 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 1 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 2 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 3 1920 – Funk and Wagnall's Student's Standard Dictionary of the English language 1927 – The World's One Hundred Best Short Stories, 10 volumes 1929 – Pocket Library of the World's Essential Knowledge, 10 volumes 1929 – The World's 1000 Best Poems, 10 volumes 1936 – A New Standard Bible Dictionary 1946 - Funk and Wagnalls New Practical Standard Dictionary, 2 volumes Re-Copyrighted in 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954 1955 ***First hand account from volumes dated 1955.
1949/50 – Funk & Wagnalls standard dictionary of folklore and legend, 2 volumes. A one-volume edition with minor revisions was released in 1972. 1957 – The Fashion Dictionary 19?? – Funk & Wagnalls standard handbook of synonyms and prepositions 1968 – Handbook of Indoor Games & Stunts 1971 – Standard Dictionary of the English Language
Eben-Ezer is the name of a location, mentioned by the Books of Samuel as the scene of battles between the Israelites and Philistines. It is specified as having been less than a day's journey by foot from Shiloh, near Aphek, in the neighbourhood of Mizpah, near the western entrance of the pass of Bethoron. However, its location has not been identified in modern times with much certainty, with some identifying it with Beit Iksa, others with Dayr Aban, it appears in the Books of Samuel in two narratives: In the first narrative, the Philistines defeat the Israelites though the Israelites brought the Ark of the Covenant onto the battlefield in hope of it bringing them a divinely assured victory. As a result of the Philistine victory and the Ark's presence on the battlefield, it was captured by the Philistines, not returned until many months later. In the second narrative, the Israelites defeat the Philistines, after Samuel has offered a sacrifice. Samuel puts up a stone in memorial and names it Eben-Ezer.
This monument is referred to in the hymn Come Thou Fount of Every Blessing. It is accepted among many Israeli archaeologists and historians to place the Eben-Ezer of the first narrative in the immediate neighborhood of modern-day Kafr Qasim, near Antipatris, while the second battle's location is deemed to be insufficiently well-defined in the Biblical text; the other proposed site is called "Isbet Sartah". Some scholars hold. C. R. Conder identified the Aphek of Eben-Ezer with a ruin some 3.7 miles distant from Dayr Aban, known by the name Marj al-Fikiya. Eusebius, when writing about Eben-ezer in his Onomasticon, says that it is "the place from which the Gentiles seized the Ark, between Jerusalem and Ascalon, near the village of Bethsamys", a locale that corresponds with Conder's identification; the same site, near Beth Shemesh, has been identified by Epiphanius as being Eben-ezer. Song of Moses Ebenezer Media related to Eben Ezer churches at Wikimedia Commons "Ebenezer"; the American Cyclopædia.
1879. "Ebenezer". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
New King James Version
The New King James Version is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1982 by Thomas Nelson. The New Testament was published in 1979, the Psalms in 1980, the full Bible in 1982, it took seven years to complete. The anglicized edition was known as the Revised Authorized Version, but the NKJV title is now used universally; the NKJV translation project was conceived by Arthur Farstad. It was inaugurated in 1975 with two meetings of 130 biblical scholars and theologians; the men who were invited prepared the guidelines for the NKJV. The aim of its translators was to update the vocabulary and grammar of the King James Version, while preserving the classic style and literary beauty of the original 1611 KJV; the 130 translators believed in faithfulness to the original Greek and Hebrew texts including the Dead Sea Scrolls. Agreed upon for most New King James Bibles were easier event descriptions, a history of each book, added dictionary and updated concordance. According to its preface, the NKJV uses the 1967/1977 Stuttgart edition of the Biblia Hebraica for the Old Testament, with frequent comparisons made to the Ben Hayyim edition of the Mikraot Gedolot published by Bomberg in 1524–25, used for the King James Version.
Both the Old Testament text of the NKJV and that of the KJV come from the ben Chayyim text. However, the 1967/1977 Stuttgart edition of the Biblia Hebraica used by the NKJV uses an earlier manuscript than that of the KJV; the New King James Version uses the Textus Receptus for the New Testament, just as the original King James Version had used. As explained in the preface, notes in the center column acknowledge variations from Novum Testamentum Graece and the Majority Text; the translators have sought to follow the principles of translation used in the original King James Version, which the NKJV revisers call "complete equivalence" in contrast to "dynamic equivalence" used by many contemporary translations. The task of updating the English of the KJV involved significant changes in word order, grammar and spelling. One of the most significant features of the NKJV was its replacement of early modern second-person pronouns, such as "thou" and "thine"; the Executive Editor of the NKJV, Arthur L. Farstad, addressed textual concerns in a book explaining the NKJV translation philosophy.
While defending the Majority Text, claiming that the Textus Receptus is inferior to the Majority Text, he noted that the NKJV references significant discrepancies among text types in its marginal notes: "None of the three traditions on every page of the New Testament... is labeled'best' or'most reliable.' The reader is permitted to make up his or her own mind about the correct reading." The NKJV translation has become one of the best-selling Bibles. As of July 2012 it is listed as the third best selling Bible after the New International Version and KJV by the CBA. An unabridged audiobook version called "The Word of Promise Audio Bible" has been produced by the publisher, it is narrated by well-known celebrities and dramatized with music and sound effects. Gideons International, an organization that places Bibles in hotels and hospitals, at one stage used the NKJV translation along with the KJV, offering the KJV as the default translation and offering the NKJV when an organization asked for a Bible in newer English to be used.
As of 2013, the Gideons have chosen to start using the English Standard Version instead of the NKJV. 21st Century King James Version Thomas Nelson, Inc. Publisher's website
Battle of Aphek
The Battle of Aphek is a biblical episode described in 1 Samuel 4:1-10 of the Hebrew Bible. During this battle the Philistines captured the Ark of the Covenant. Among biblical scholars, the historicity of the early events in the Book of Samuel is debated, with some scholars leaning toward many events in Samuel being historical, some scholars leaning towards less; the Book of Samuel records that the Philistines were camped at Aphek and the Israelites at Eben-Ezer. The Philistines defeated the Israelites during the first battle; the Israelites brought up the Ark of the Covenant from Shiloh, thinking that through this "they should have the presence of God with them, so success", but the Philistines again defeated the Israelites, this time killing 30,000 and capturing the Ark. Samuel records that the two sons of the judge Eli and Phinehas, died that day, as well as Eli. "And it came to pass, when made mention of the ark of God, that fell from off his seat backward by the side of the gate, his neck broke, he died.
And he had judged Israel forty years." Most scholars agree. C. R. Conder identified the Aphek of Eben-Ezer with a ruin some 3.7 miles distant from Dayr Aban, known by the name Marj al-Fikiya. Eusebius, when writing about Eben-ezer in his Onomasticon, says that it is "the place from which the Gentiles seized the Ark, between Jerusalem and Ascalon, near the village of Bethsamys," a locale that corresponds with Conder's identification. List of battles between Israel and the Philistines Philistine captivity of the Ark