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Hops are the flowers of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used as a bittering and stability agent in beer, to which, in addition to bitterness, they impart floral, fruity, or citrus flavours and aromas. Hops are used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine; the hop plant is a vigorous, herbaceous perennial trained to grow up strings in a field called a hopfield, hop garden, or hop yard when grown commercially. Many different varieties of hops are grown by farmers around the world, with different types used for particular styles of beer; the first documented use of hops in beer is from the 9th century, though Hildegard of Bingen, 300 years is cited as the earliest documented source. Before this period, brewers used a "gruit", composed of a wide variety of bitter herbs and flowers, including dandelion, burdock root, horehound, ground ivy, heather. Early documents include mention of a hop garden in the will of Charlemagne's father, Pepin III. Hops are used in brewing for their antibacterial effect over less desirable microorganisms and for purported benefits including balancing the sweetness of the malt with bitterness and a variety of flavours and aromas.

Traditional herb combinations for beers were believed to have been abandoned when beers made with hops were noticed to be less prone to spoilage. The first documented hop cultivation was in 736, in the Hallertau region of present-day Germany, although the first mention of the use of hops in brewing in that country was 1079. However, in a will of Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne, hop gardens were left to the Cloister of Saint-Denis in 768. Not until the 13th century did hops begin to start threatening the use of gruit for flavouring. Gruit was used. Whichever was taxed made the brewer quickly switch to the other. In Britain, hopped beer was first imported from Holland around 1400, yet hops were condemned as late as 1519 as a "wicked and pernicious weed". In 1471, England, banned use of the plant in the brewing of ale. In Germany, using hops was a religious and political choice in the early 16th century. There was no tax unlike on gruit. For this reason the Protestants preferred hopped beer.

Hops used in England were imported from France and Germany with import duty paid for those. Therefore, in the hop industry there are many words which were Dutch words. Hops were grown as far north as Aberdeen, near breweries for convenience of infrastructure. According to Thomas Tusser's 1557 Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry: "The hop for his profit I thus do exalt,It strengtheneth drink and it flavoureth malt. In England there were many complaints over the quality of imported hops, the sacks of which were contaminated by stalks, sand or straw to increase their weight; as a result, in 1603, King James I approved an Act of Parliament banning the practice by which "the Subjects of this Realm have been of late years abused &c. to the Value of £20,000 yearly, besides the Danger of their Healths". Hop cultivation was begun in the present-day United States in 1629 by Dutch farmers. Before prohibition, cultivation was centred around New York, California and Washington state. Problems with powdery mildew and downy mildew devastated New York's production by the 1920s, California only produces hops on a small scale.

Hop bars were used. Hops production is concentrated in moist temperate climates, with much of the world's production occurring near the 48th parallel north. Hop plants prefer the same soils as potatoes and the leading potato-growing states in the United States are major hops-producing areas. Hops were not grown in Ireland, but were imported from England. In 1752 more than 500 tons of English hops were imported through Dublin alone. Important production centres today are the Hallertau in Germany, the Žatec in the Czech Republic, the Yakima and Willamette valleys, western Canyon County, Idaho; the principal production centres in the UK are in Kent and Worcestershire. All of the harvested hops are used in beer making. Although hops are grown in most of the continental United States and Canada, cultivation of hops for commercial production requires a particular environment; as hops are a climbing plant, they are trained to grow up trellises made from strings or wires that support the plants and allow them greater growth with the same sunlight profile.

In this way, energy that would have been required to build structural cells is freed for crop growth. The hop plant's reproduction method is that male and female flowers develop on separate plants, although a fertile individual will develop which contains both male and female flowers; because pollinated seeds are undesirable for br

Luella Johnston

Luella Johnston, was an early 20th-century American businesswoman, civic reformer, suffragette, the first woman elected to the Sacramento City Council, where she served from 1912 to 1913. Her election was the first time a woman was elected to a city council in California or of any major American city. In 1912, one year after women won the right to vote in California, Johnston ran for a position on the new City Commission, she was elected as part of a slate of Progressive candidates, defeating the railroad-aligned incumbents. Her campaign had the backing of the Woman's Council, an association of women's clubs she helped found. While in office Johnston "focused on education, flood control, street lighting, playgrounds, cultural facilities, utility rates, advancement of city morals."Johnston's one year in office made her powerful enemies in the Southern Pacific Railroad, Pacific Gas & Electic, local saloon owners. Despite a well-organized campaign, she was defeated for re-election in 1913. Despite Johnston being one of the first women elected to municipal office in the United States, for more than 100 years after her historic election there were no memorials commemorating her in Sacramento.

In 2018, led by Councilwoman Angelique Ashby, the City Council voted to rename the City Council Chambers in Historic City Hall after Johnston. Nicolas Heidorn, "California’s First Councilwoman – Part I," Sacramentality

List of NCIS: Los Angeles episodes

NCIS: Los Angeles is an American television series that premiered on CBS on September 22, 2009. The series is set in Los Angeles and follows the stories of the members of the Office of Special Projects, an undercover division of the Naval Criminal Investigative Service; the program and its characters were introduced in a two-part episode during the sixth season of the television series NCIS on April 28 and May 5, 2009. As of March 1, 2020, 256 episodes of NCIS: Los Angeles have aired. NCIS: Los Angeles was renewed for an eleventh season on April 22, 2019, which premiered on September 29, 2019. NCIS: Los Angeles and its characters were introduced during the sixth-season episodes of NCIS titled "Legend" and "Legend"; these episodes served as a backdoor pilot for the series. Official website at CBS NCIS: Los Angeles on IMDb

Giacomo Cipriani

Giacomo Cipriani is an Italian footballer who played as a forward. Cipriani started his career at Bologna, his impression in youth national teams led Juventus to buy half of his registration rights in 2000 for 4.5 billion lire, Alex Pederzoli and Alessandro Gamberini, Cipriani and Gamberini remained on loan at Bologna as part of Jonatan Binotto's permanent deal for 10 billion lire. After consecutive loans to Piacenza and Sampdoria in 2003-04 season, Bologna bought back Cipriani from Juventus for €417,000 and signed a contract extension in September 2004, into 30 June 2007. In January 2008, Cipriani was loaned again, this time to Serie B's Avellino. In July 2008 he agreed a one-year deal with Rimini, he left the club on June 2009. He stayed without a team until October 2009, when he was announced as being signed by Lega Pro Prima Divisione club SPAL 1907 in a free transfer, he left SPAL in 2011 to join Benevento, but managed to make just 19 appearances in two seasons at the club. Another unimpressive season at financially stricken Lega Pro Prima Divisione club Ascoli followed, with just seven appearances and a spare goal.

On 4 September 2014, he signed a contract for newly promoted Lega Pro club Savoia. FIGC profile

Swedish West India Company

The Swedish West India Company was a Swedish chartered company, based in the West Indies. It was the main operator in the Swedish slave trade during its existence. Between 1786 and 1805, the company operated from the Swedish island of Saint-Barthélemy; the company was a private enterprise with royal monopoly on all Swedish trade via Saint Barthélemy. Three quarters of profits went to one quarter to the Swedish state; the company should not be confused with the 17th-century Swedish South Company called New Sweden Company, best known for establishing New Sweden in the Delaware region, which operated between 1638 and 1655. List of trading companies Swedish colony of Saint Barthélemy Mémoire St Barth | History of St Barthélemy, Comité de Liaison et d'Application des Sources Historiques

Sheridan County Airport

Sheridan County Airport is in Sheridan County, two miles southwest of Sheridan, Wyoming. Sheridan once again has scheduled passenger service with nonstop flights to Denver on Key Lime Air 30 seat Fairchild Dornier 328JETs. Recent air service was subsidized by the federal Essential Air Service program until February 2007, when Big Sky Airlines began providing subsidy free service The Big Sky service was suspended in January 2008 when this air carrier went out of business. Great Lakes Airlines was the only other carrier at Sheridan but this carrier abruptly ceased all flights on March 31, 2015. Many Sheridan residents were confused regarding the lack of replacement service, believing that service to Sheridan was still subsidized under Essential Air Service. Federal law had been changed in 2012 so that once Sheridan County had left the EAS program, it could not re-enter it and commercial air service to Sheridan is not funded by EAS anymore. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 17,710 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 14,181 in 2009 and 14,146 in 2010.

The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a primary commercial service airport. Sheridan County Airport covers 1,550 acres at an elevation of 4,021 feet, it has two asphalt runways: 15/33 is 8,301 by 100 feet and 6/24 is 5,039 by 75 feet. In 2017 the airport had 30,008 aircraft operations, average 82 per day: 95% general aviation, 5% air taxi, <1% military. 100 aircraft were based at this airport: 77% single-engine, 18% multi-engine, 1% jet, 2% helicopter, 2% glider. Bighorn Airways offers airplane and helicopter charter service and an aircraft repair and installation center. SkyWest Airlines, operating as United Express, replaced Key Lime Air service to Denver on January 12, 2020 when the company took over the Essential Air Service contract for both Riverton and Sheridan. Sheridan first received airline service in 1931 when Wyoming Air Service began a route from Denver to Billings, Montana via Cheyenne and Sheridan; the carrier changed its name to Inland Airlines in 1938 and was bought by Western Airlines in 1944.

Aircraft operated by Western to the airport included Douglas DC-3s and DC-6Bs followed by Lockheed L-188 Electras and Boeing 737-200s, an example being Denver-Cheyenne-Casper-Sheridan-Billings-Great Falls with some Electras continuing to Calgary. In 1966 Western Electras flew Los Angeles-San Diego-Phoenix-Denver-Cheyenne-Casper-Sheridan-Billings. Western was the only airline to operate mainline jets to Sheridan. Aspen Airways flew BAe 146-100s Sheridan to United Airlines hub in Denver at times in the late 1980s. Commuter and regional airlines served Sheridan after Western, with flights to Denver, many via Gillette, Wyoming. Trans-America Airways in 1976 and 1977 Denver-Cheyenne-Douglas-Casper-Sheridan with Cessna 402s. Big Sky Airlines in 1980 Billings-Sheridan-Casper with Swearingen Metroliners. Air US 1977-1984 Handley Page Jetstreams and Grumman Gulfstream Is. Pioneer Airlines in 1981, Beechcraft 99s. Frontier Commuter flying for the original Frontier Airlines October, 1983 to January, 1985.

Aspen Airways 1984 to March 1990, Convair 580s and British Aerospace BAe 146-100s. Aspen became a United Express affiliate in September, 1986. Pioneer Airlines returned to Sheridan operating Continental Commuter service for Continental Airlines April, 1985 to May 1986. Continental Express, operated by Rocky Mountain Airways April, 1990 to mid-1991: Beechcraft 1900s and ATR-42s. Continental Express operated by Britt Airways mid-1991 to 1994: Beechcraft 1900s and ATR-42s. Continental Connection operated by GP Express Airlines March, 1994 to January, 1995: Beechcraft 1900s. United Express, operated by Mesa Airlines, April, 1990 to May, 1998: Beechcraft 1900s, Embraer EMB-120 Brasilias, de Havilland Canada DHC-8 Dash 8s. United Express, operated by Air Wisconsin June to October 1998: Dornier 328s. United Express, operated by Great Lakes Airlines, October 1998 to April 2005: Beechcraft 1900s and Embraer EMB-120 Brasilias. Great Lakes lost their designation as a United Express affiliate in February, 2002 but continued to operate an indirect code-share with United Airlines.

Big Sky Airlines returned to Sheridan late 2005 to January 2008: Beechcraft 1900D nonstops to Denver and a single flight to Billings. Great Lakes Airlines resumed service in May 2007 operating as an independent air carrier flying Beechcraft 1900Ds and Embraer EMB-120 Brasilias. Great Lakes dropped Sheridan in spring 2015 and the airport had no airline until Key Lime Air began flights to Denver in November 2015. Denver Air Connection began a code-share service with United Airlines in 2018. Sheridan County Airport, official site Aerial image as of July 1994 from USGS The National Map FAA Airport Diagram, effective February 27, 2020 FAA Terminal Procedures for SHR, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for SHR AirNav airport information for KSHR ASN accident history for SHR FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures