Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, felicitously daring in his choice of words."Horace crafted elegant hexameter verses and caustic iambic poetry. The hexameters are amusing yet serious works, friendly in tone, leading the ancient satirist Persius to comment: "as his friend laughs, Horace slyly puts his finger on his every fault, his career coincided with Rome's momentous change from a republic to an empire. An officer in the republican army defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, he was befriended by Octavian's right-hand man in civil affairs and became a spokesman for the new regime. For some commentators, his association with the regime was a delicate balance in which he maintained a strong measure of independence but for others he was, in John Dryden's phrase, "a well-mannered court slave".

Horace can be regarded as the world's first autobiographer. In his writings, he tells us far more about himself, his character, his development, his way of life, than any other great poet of antiquity; some of the biographical material contained in his work can be supplemented from the short but valuable "Life of Horace" by Suetonius. He was born on 8 December 65 BC in the Samnite south of Italy, his home town, lay on a trade route in the border region between Apulia and Lucania. Various Italic dialects were spoken in the area and this enriched his feeling for language, he could have been familiar with Greek words as a young boy and he poked fun at the jargon of mixed Greek and Oscan spoken in neighbouring Canusium. One of the works he studied in school was the Odyssia of Livius Andronicus, taught by teachers like the'Orbilius' mentioned in one of his poems. Army veterans could have been settled there at the expense of local families uprooted by Rome as punishment for their part in the Social War.

Such state-sponsored migration must have added still more linguistic variety to the area. According to a local tradition reported by Horace, a colony of Romans or Latins had been installed in Venusia after the Samnites had been driven out early in the third century. In that case, young Horace could have felt himself to be a Roman though there are indications that he regarded himself as a Samnite or Sabellus by birth. Italians in modern and ancient times have always been devoted to their home towns after success in the wider world, Horace was no different. Images of his childhood setting and references to it are found throughout his poems. Horace's father was a Venutian taken captive by Romans in the Social War, or he was descended from a Sabine captured in the Samnite Wars. Either way, he was a slave for at least part of his life, he was evidently a man of strong abilities however and managed to gain his freedom and improve his social position. Thus Horace claimed to be the free-born son of a prosperous'coactor'.

The term'coactor' could denote various roles, such as tax collector, but its use by Horace was explained by scholia as a reference to'coactor argentareus' i.e. an auctioneer with some of the functions of a banker, paying the seller out of his own funds and recovering the sum with interest from the buyer. The father spent a small fortune on his son's education accompanying him to Rome to oversee his schooling and moral development; the poet paid tribute to him in a poem that one modern scholar considers the best memorial by any son to his father. The poem includes this passage: If my character is flawed by a few minor faults, but is otherwise decent and moral, if you can point out only a few scattered blemishes on an otherwise immaculate surface, if no one can accuse me of greed, or of prurience, or of profligacy, if I live a virtuous life, free of defilement, if I am to my friends a good friend, my father deserves all the credit... As it is now, he deserves from me unstinting praise. I could never be ashamed of such a father, nor do I feel any need, as many people do, to apologize for being a freedman's son.

Satires 1.6.65–92 He never mentioned his mother in his verses and he might not have known much about her. She had been a slave. Horace left Rome after his father's death, continued his formal education in Athens, a great centre of learning in the ancient world, where he arrived at nineteen years of age, enrolling in The Academy. Founded by Plato, The Academy was now dominated by Epicureans and Stoics, whose theories and practises made a deep impression on the young man from Venusia. Meanwhile, he mixed and lounged about with the elite of Roman youth, such as Marcus, the idle son of Cicero, the Pompeius to whom he addressed a poem, it was in Athens too that he acquired deep familiarity with the ancient tradition of Greek lyric poetry, at that time the preserve of grammarians and academic specialists. Rome's troubles following the assassination of Julius Caesar were soon to catch up with him. Marcus Junius Brutus came to Athens seeking support for the republican cause. Brutus was fêted around town in grand receptions and he made a point of attending academic lectures, all the while recruiting supporters am

Donal MacCarthy Reagh

Donal MacCarthy Reagh was the 12th Prince of Carbery from 1505 to his death in 1531. He belonged to the MacCarthy Reagh dynasty, was the son of Finghin MacCarthy Reagh, 10th Prince of Carbery, Lady Catherine FitzGerald, daughter Thomas FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Desmond. In some sources and pedigrees he is known as Donal MacFineere MacCarthy Reagh, although it is not known if this refers to his father or to some other aspect of his upbringing. Donal's troops, commanded by his son Cormac na Haoine, assisted his kinsman Cormac Laidir Oge MacCarthy, Lord of Muskerry in the Battle of Mourne Abbey in 1521 against James FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Desmond; the MacCarthys were victorious. He was an enlightened patron of the arts and letters, like his father. Donal first married Lady Ellen MacCarthy Muskerry, daughter of Cormac Laidir MacCarthy, 4th Lord of Muscry, they had issue two sons and one daughter: Dermod, slain by Walter FitzGerald, son of the Earl of Kildare Donal, who died without issue Ellen, married Teige Mor O'DriscollHe married secondly Lady Eleanor FitzGerald, daughter of Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, they had issue four sons and three daughters: Cormac na Haoine MacCarthy Reagh, 13th Prince of Carbery Finghin, married Lady Catherine MacCarthy Mor, daughter of Donal an Drumin MacCarthy Mor, King of Desmond, but they left no issue Donogh MacCarthy Reagh, 15th Prince of Carbery, father of Florence MacCarthy and Dermot Maol MacCarthy Owen MacCarthy Reagh, 16th Prince of CarberyCatherine, married Teige MacCarthy, 6th Lord of Muscry Shely, married Dermod An-Phudar O'Sullivan Beare Ellinor, married Connor-Fin O'Meagher


Quanbun Station known as Quanbum and Quanbun Downs, is a pastoral lease and cattle station located about 40 kilometres south west of Fitzroy Crossing in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. The station was established at some time prior to 1887. In 1887 Edwin Rose and his brother became part-owners of Quanbun. In 1888 the property occupied an area of 50,000 acres. In 1894 the property was still managed by Rose, was operating as a sheep station; the Calvert expedition arrived at the station in 1896 and set up a search party for a group of men who were supposed to arrive ahead of the main party. In 1905 the property was owned by A. J. Rose who remained in the area until 1911. Roses were managers at Quanbun in 1954 when SP Walker from United Aborigines Mission Station at Fitzroy Crossing visited; the property was owned by Keith Anderson in 2010. Together the properties occupy an area of 2,200 square kilometres and were stocked with 12,000 Droughtmaster cattle. List of ranches and stations List of pastoral leases in Western Australia