The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, appointed only for the day of coronations; the Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland; the Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. In 2007, there were a number of changes to the legal system and to the office of the Lord Chancellor; the Lord Chancellor was the presiding officer of the House of Lords, the head of the judiciary in England and Wales and the presiding judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker, the Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the High Court respectively.
The current Lord Chancellor is David Gauke, Secretary of State for Justice. One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal of the Realm, kept in the Lord Chancellor's Purse. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor; the two offices entail the same duties. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor may be exercised by a committee of individuals known as Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal when there is a delay between an outgoing Chancellor and their replacement; the seal is said to be "in commission". Since the 19th century, only Lord Chancellors have been appointed, the other offices having fallen into disuse; the office of Lord Chancellor of England may trace its origins to the Carolingian monarchy, in which a Chancellor acted as the keeper of the royal seal. In England, the office dates at least as far back as the Norman Conquest, earlier; some give the first Chancellor of England as Angmendus, in 605. Other sources suggest that the first to appoint a Chancellor was Edward the Confessor, said to have adopted the practice of sealing documents instead of signing them.
A clerk of Edward's, was named "chancellor" in some documents from Edward's reign. In any event, the office has been continuously occupied since the Norman Conquest; the staff of the growing office became separate from the king's household under Henry III and in the 14th century located in Chancery Lane. The chancellor headed chancery; the Lord Chancellor was always a churchman, as during the Middle Ages the clergy were amongst the few literate men of the realm. The Lord Chancellor performed multiple functions—he was the Keeper of the Great Seal, the chief royal chaplain, adviser in both spiritual and temporal matters. Thus, the position emerged as one of the most important ones in government, he was only outranked in government by the Justiciar. As one of the King's ministers, the Lord Chancellor attended Royal Court. If a bishop, the Lord Chancellor received a writ of summons; the curia regis would evolve into Parliament, the Lord Chancellor becoming the prolocutor of its upper house, the House of Lords.
As was confirmed by a statute passed during the reign of Henry VIII, a Lord Chancellor could preside over the House of Lords if not a Lord himself. The Lord Chancellor's judicial duties evolved through his role in the curia regis. Petitions for justice were addressed to the King and the curia, but in 1280, Edward I instructed his justices to examine and deal with petitions themselves as the Court of King's Bench. Important petitions were to be sent to the Lord Chancellor for his decision. By the reign of Edward III, this chancellery function developed into a separate tribunal for the Lord Chancellor. In this body, which became known as the High Court of Chancery, the Lord Chancellor would determine cases according to fairness instead of according to the strict principles of common law; the Lord Chancellor became known as the "Keeper of the King's Conscience." Churchmen continued to dominate the Chancellorship until the 16th century. In 1529, after Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York, was dismissed for failing to procure the annulment of Henry VIII's first marriage, laymen tended to be more favoured for appointment to the office.
Ecclesiastics made a brief return during the reign of Mary I, but thereafter all Lord Chancellors have been laymen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was the last Lord Chancellor, not a lawyer, until the appointment of Chris Grayling in 2012; the three subsequent holders of the position, Michael Gove, Elizabeth Truss and David Lidington are not lawyers. However, the appointment of David Gauke in January 2018 meant that once again the Lord Chancellor was a lawyer; when the office was held by ecclesiastics, a "Keeper of the Great Seal" acted in the Lord Chancellor's absence. Keepers were appointed when the office of Lord Chancellor fell vacant, discharged the duties of the office until an appropriate replacement could be found; when Elizabeth I became queen, Parliament passed an Act providing that a Lord Keeper of the Great Seal would be entitled to "like place, pre-eminence, juri
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Henry Drummond Wolff
Sir Henry Drummond Charles Wolff, known as Henry Drummond Wolff or H. Drummond Wolff, was an English diplomat and Conservative Party politician, who started as a clerk in the Foreign Office. Wolff was the son of Joseph Wolff, his father was a missionary, born Jewish, his mother a descendant of Prime Minister Robert Walpole. Wolff was educated at Rugby School. Wolff sat in parliament for Christchurch from 1874 to 1880 and for Portsmouth from 1880 to 1885. Whilst MP for Christchurch he lived in Boscombe, where he developed the Boscombe Spa estate, he played an active role in the public life of Bournemouth. In 1870 he presented Bournemouth Rowing Club with a four-oared racing boat, he was one of the group known as the Fourth Party. In 1885 he went on a special mission to Constantinople and Egypt in connection with the Eastern Question, as a result various awkward difficulties, hinging on the Sultan's suzerainty, were addressed. Wolff negotiated a settlement whereby Britain and Turkey would each appoint a commissioner to Egypt to help the khedive's government conduct reforms of the army and the government.
Wolff assumed the role of British high commissioner in Egypt from 1885 to 1887. He was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Teheran in 1888, a post he held until 1891, was Ambassador to Madrid from 1892 to 1900. Wolff was a notable raconteur and aided the Conservative Party by helping to found the Primrose League, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1862 for various services abroad. He was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1878 and made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1889. Wolff's only daughter, Lucas Cleeve, was a novelist, her son Algernon Kingscote was a notable tennis player. Wolff's grandson Henry Maxence Cavendish Drummond Wolff was the Conservative Member of Parliament for Basingstoke. Wolff was portrayed by Charles Lloyd-Pack in the 1974 Thames TV mini-series Jennie: Lady Randolph Churchill; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Wolff, Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 774–775. Works by or about Henry Drummond Wolff at Internet Archive Works by Henry Drummond Wolff at LibriVox Works written by or about Henry Drummond Wolff at Wikisource Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Henry Drummond Wolff Sir Henry Drummond Wolff. Rambling Recollections. Macmillan and co. limited. Henry Drummond Wolff; some Notes of the Past. W. Clowes and Sons, Limited Printed for private circulation
Court of Chancery
The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness of the common law. The Chancery had jurisdiction over all matters of equity, including trusts, land law, the estates of lunatics and the guardianship of infants, its initial role was somewhat different: as an extension of the Lord Chancellor's role as Keeper of the King's Conscience, the Court was an administrative body concerned with conscientious law. Thus the Court of Chancery had a far greater remit than the common law courts, whose decisions it had the jurisdiction to overrule for much of its existence, was far more flexible; until the 19th century, the Court of Chancery could apply a far wider range of remedies than common law courts, such as specific performance and injunctions, had some power to grant damages in special circumstances. With the shift of the Exchequer of Pleas towards a common law court and loss of its equitable jurisdiction by the Administration of Justice Act 1841, the Chancery became the only national equitable body in the English legal system.
Academics estimate that the Court of Chancery formally split from and became independent of the curia regis in the mid-14th century, at which time it consisted of the Lord Chancellor and his personal staff, the Chancery. An administrative body with some judicial duties, the Chancery experienced an explosive growth in its work during the 15th century under the House of York, which academics attribute to its becoming an entirely judicial body. From the time of Elizabeth I onwards the Court was criticised for its slow pace, large backlogs, high costs; those problems persisted until its dissolution, despite being mitigated somewhat by reforms during the 19th century. Attempts at fusing the Chancery with the common law courts began in the 1850s, succeeded with the 1873 and 1875 Supreme Court of Judicature Acts, which dissolved the Chancery and created a new unified High Court of Justice, with the Chancery Division – one of three divisions of the High Court – succeeding the Court of Chancery as an equitable body.
For much of its existence the Court was formally led by the Lord Chancellor, assisted by the judges of the common law courts. The staff of the court included a large number of clerks, led by the Master of the Rolls, who heard cases on his own. In 1813 a Vice-Chancellor was appointed to deal with the Chancery's increasing backlogs, two more were appointed in 1841. Offices of the Chancery were sold by the Lord Chancellor for much of its history, raising large amounts of money. Many of the clerks and other officials were sinecures who, in lieu of wages, charged exorbitant fees to process cases, one of the main reasons why the cost of bringing a case to the Chancery was so high; the 19th century saw the abolition of many sinecure offices and the institution of a wage and pension for the Lord Chancellor to curb the sale of offices, the right to appoint officials was transferred from the Chancellor to the Crown. The Court of Chancery originated, as did the other High Courts before 1875, in the Norman curia regis or King's Council, maintained by most early rulers of England after 1066.
Under the feudal system, the Council was made up of the Monarch, the Great Officers of the Crown and anyone else the Monarch allowed to attend. Its jurisdiction was unlimited, with executive and legislative functions; this large body contained lawyers and members of the Church, many of whom lived far from London. It soon became apparent; as a result, a smaller curia was formed to deal with the regular business of the country, this soon split into various courts: first the exchequer of pleas, to deal with finance, the Court of Common Pleas, to deal with "common" cases. The Chancery started as the personal staff of the Lord Chancellor, described as "a great secretarial bureau, a home office, a foreign office, a ministry of justice"; the earliest reference to legal issues being sent to him is from 1280, when Edward I of England, annoyed with the number of cases coming to him which could have been dealt with by other elements of his administration, passed a statute saying that: all petitions that touch the Seal shall go first to the Chancellor, those that touch the Exchequer to the Exchequer, those that touch the justices or the law of the land to the justices, those that touch the Jurie to the justices of the Jurie.
And if the matters are so great, or so much of grace, that the Chancellor and the others cannot do what is asked without the King they shall take them to the King to know his will, that no petition come before the King and his Council except by the hands of the said Chancellor and the other chief ministers. Records show dozens of early cases being sent to the Lord Chancellor and Master of the Rolls, but at the time the Chancellor had no specific jurisdiction to deal with them. Under Edward II the Chancellor dedicated set days to hearing pleas, as documented in the records of the Parliament of Lincoln in 1315, which show that some cases were heard by his personal staff, the Chancery, not by the Chancellor. By 1320 requests were sent there, heard by the judges of the common law courts, with the rules used to settle cases being those of "law or reason", sometimes "reason", a far more liberal and adjustable approach than the common law; the Chancery came to pr
Sir John Wickens was an English barrister and judge. The second son of James Stephen Wickens of Chandos Street, Cavendish Square, London by his wife, Anne Goodenough, daughter of John Hayter of Winterbourne Stoke, was born at his father's house on 13 June 1815, he was educated at Eton College under John Keate. Wickens won in 1832 an open scholarship at Balliol College, matriculating on 30 November, he graduated B. A. with a double first in Michaelmas term 1836, M. A. in 1839, but was an unsuccessful candidate for a Balliol fellowship. Having entered Lincoln's Inn, he was called to the bar in May 1840. A conveyancer and equity draftsman, Wickens had a practice that reaped the benefit when in 1852 a number of leading juniors took silk, he appeared before the House of Lords and the privy council. During the years of his career as barrister he was equity counsel to the treasury. C. nor a parliamentary candidate. Horace Davey was one of his pupils in the late 1850s, when his chambers had a high reputation on the equity side.
In 1868 Wickens was made vice-chancellor of the county palatine of Lancaster on the elevation of Sir William Milbourne James as Lord Justice of Appeal. In 1871 he was elected a bencher of his inn, in April of that year was raised to the bench as Vice-Chancellor of England in succession to Sir John Stuart, was knighted; as a judge he was considered to stay rather close to the case law. Wickens's health broke down within a short period of his appointment, he died at his seat, near Chichester, on 23 October 1873. Wickens married, in 1845, Harriet Frances, daughter of William Davey of Cowley House, Gloucestershire, his daughter, Mary Erskine, married Mr. Justice George Farwell. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Wickens, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 61. London: Smith, Elder & Co
National Liberal Club
The National Liberal Club is a London private members' club, open to both men and women. It was established by William Ewart Gladstone in 1882 to provide club facilities for Liberal Party campaigners among the newly enlarged electorate following the Third Reform Act in 1884; the club's neo-Gothic building on the Embankment of the river Thames is the second-largest clubhouse built. Designed by Alfred Waterhouse, it was completed in 1887, its current facilities include a dining room, a bar, function rooms, a billiards room, a smoking room, a library and an outdoor riverside terrace. It is located at Whitehall Place, close to the Houses of Parliament, the Thames Embankment and Trafalgar Square; the genesis of the club lay with Liberal party activist Arthur John Williams, who proposed the creation of such a club at a Special General Meeting of the short-lived Century Club on 14 May 1882, so as to provide "a home for democracy, void of the class distinction associated with the Devonshire and Reform Clubs".
The first full meeting of the new club was held on 16 November 1882, at the Westminster Palace Hotel on Victoria Street. The Century Club itself merged into the NLC at the end of the year. In its early years, the club declared its objects to be: 1; the provision of an inexpensive meeting place for Liberals and their friends from all over the country. 2. The furtherance of the Liberal cause. 3. The foundation of a political and historical library as a memorial to Gladstone and his work. An initial circular for subscribers meant that by the end of 1882, 2,500 men from over 500 towns and districts had signed up for the new club, membership would reach 6,500 by the time the clubhouse opened in 1887; the club's foundation stone was laid by Gladstone on 9 November 1884, when he declared "Speaking I should say there could not be a less interesting occasion than the laying of the foundation-stone of a Club in London. For, after all, what are the Clubs of London? I am afraid little else than temples of ease.
This, however, is a club of a different character", envisioned the club as a popular institution for the mass electorate. However, another of the club's founders, G. W. E. Russell, noted "We never foresaw the palatial pile of terra-cotta and glazed tiles which now bears that name. Our modest object was to provide a central meeting-place for Metropolitan and provincial Liberals, where all the comforts of life should be attainable at what are called'popular prices'", but added "at the least, we meant our Club to be a place of "ease" to the Radical toiler, but Gladstone insisted that it was to be a workshop dedicated to strenuous labour." Funds for the clubhouse were raised by selling 40,000 shares of £5 each, in a Limited Liability Company, with the unusual stipulation that "No shareholder should have more than ten votes", so as to prevent a few wealthy men from dominating the club. However, this only raised £70,000, so an additional £52,400 was raised for the construction of the clubhouse by the Liberal Central Association.
The remaining £30,000 necessary was raised by mortgage debentures. In the five years between the club's establishment and completion of the building in 1887, it occupied temporary premises on the corner of Northumberland Avenue and Trafalgar Square. During this time, a parliamentary question was asked in the House of Commons about the White Ensign being raised on the club's flagpole as part of a prank; the clubhouse was still unfinished when it opened its doors in 1887, but it was opened early on 20 June to allow members to watch that year's Jubilee processions from the club terrace. It was when the club had only moved to its present address that "Bloody Sunday" ensued on its doorstep during the Trafalgar Square riot of 13 November 1887. NLC members flocked to the windows to watch George Bernard Shaw address the demonstration, in the day, witnessed the bloodshed which ensued. In its late-19th-century heyday, its membership was political, but had a strong journalistic and bohemian character. Members were known to finish an evening's dining by diving into the Thames.
Of the club's political character, George Bernard Shaw remarked at a debate in the club, "I have never yet met a member of the National Liberal Club who did not intend to get into Parliament at some time, except those who, like our chairman Lord Carrington, are there already."On the club's launch, it represented all factions of liberalism, but within four years it was rocked by the Home Rule Crisis of 1886, which saw the Liberal Unionists led by Joseph Chamberlain and the Marquess of Hartington secede from the party and go into alliance with the Conservatives. Indeed, Chamberlain had been one of the NLC's most enthusiastic promoters upon its launch. At the 1884 ceremony of Gladstone's foundation-stone-laying for the club, Hartington had argued that the club would be the future home of Chamberlain's Radical Birmingham Caucus, Chamberlain pointedly refused to contradict him. Chamberlain himself resigned in 1886, shortly after the Home Rule split and other prominent Liberal Unionists followed early in 1887, when a further 130 Unionists seceded from the club in 1889, the Scots Observer called it "one of the most important events that has occurred in home politics", due to its ramifications for the Liberal Party breaking in two.
The club enjoyed a reputation for radicalism, H. V. Emy records that Radicals secured, "a distinct success when the Radical wing of the National Liberal Cl
Stockport (UK Parliament constituency)
Stockport is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1992 by Ann Coffey. Coffey was a member of the Labour Party, but resigned her membership on 18 February 2019 to sit as part of The Independent Group. 1983–1997: The Metropolitan Borough of Stockport wards of Cale Green, Edgeley, Heaton Mersey, Heaton Moor, Manor. 1997–2010: The Metropolitan Borough of Stockport wards of Brinnington, Cale Green, Edgeley, Heaton Mersey, Heaton Moor, Manor. 2010–present: The Metropolitan Borough of Stockport wards of Brinnington and Central and Cale Green and Cheadle Heath, Heatons North, Heatons South, Manor. Stockport was created as a two-member constituency by the Reform Act 1832, it survived as such until 1950, when it was split into single-member seats of Stockport North and Stockport South. The single Stockport seat was recreated in 1983 on a more central ambit, returning one member, with the remainder of the ex-county borough forming part of the new Denton and Reddish seat.
Prominent membersEdward William Watkin was a railway entrepreneur, who helped to fund and plan lines across Britain, in Canada and, to a lesser extent, in the USA. George Whiteley became in his tenure for Stockport Chief Whip between 1905 and 1908 in the Liberal administrations of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith. In the 21st century, Ann Coffey was PPS to the Chancellor of the Exchequer while this role was held by Alastair Darling; the historic town at the centre of the seat now has good links to Manchester city centre and is close to Alderley Edge and close to the Peak District National Park to one side and access to the M6 on the other. The area has a Council, in'No Overall Control'; the most recent opposition has been strong but split between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. The Liberal Democrats have in local elections to date been strongest in Davenport and Cale Green, Manor whereas the Conservatives have been strongest in Heatons North, having had councillors in these wards.
The Labour Party have been strongest in the other two wards to date. Workless claimants, registered jobseekers, were in November 2012 higher than the national average of 3.8%, regional average of 4.4% at 4.9% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian. Constituency recreated; the Coalition had a policy of not publicly endorsing Labour Party candidates but Wardle was a known supporter of the Coalition. Caused by Jennings' death. Caused by Kershaw's death. Caused by Cobden declining the seat after being elected for West Riding of Yorkshire and opting to sit there. Stockport by-election, 1920 Stockport by-election, 1925 List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater Manchester Notes References Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. Election results, 1992–2005 Election results 1983–1992 John McHugh, The Stockport by-election of 1920