SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Horace Greeley

Horace Greeley was an American newspaper editor and publisher, the founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time. Long active in politics, he served as a congressman from New York, was the unsuccessful candidate of the new Liberal Republican party in the 1872 presidential election against incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant, who won by a landslide. Greeley was born to a poor family in New Hampshire, he went to New York City in 1831 to seek his fortune. He wrote for or edited several publications and involved himself in Whig Party politics, taking a significant part in William Henry Harrison's successful 1840 presidential campaign; the following year, he founded the Tribune, which became the highest-circulating newspaper in the country through weekly editions sent by mail. Among many other issues, he urged the settlement of the American West, which he saw as a land of opportunity for the young and the unemployed, he popularized the slogan "Go West, young man, grow up with the country."

He endlessly promoted utopian reforms such as socialism, agrarianism and temperance while hiring the best talent he could find. Greeley's alliance with William H. Seward and Thurlow Weed led to him serving three months in the House of Representatives, where he angered many by investigating Congress in his newspaper. In 1854, he helped may have named the Republican Party. Republican newspapers across the nation reprinted his editorials. During the Civil War, he supported Lincoln, though he urged the president to commit to the end of slavery before he was willing to do so. After Lincoln's assassination, he supported the Radical Republicans in opposition to President Andrew Johnson, he broke with Republican President Ulysses Grant because of corruption and Greeley's sense that Reconstruction policies were no longer needed. Greeley was the new Liberal Republican Party's presidential nominee in 1872, he lost in a landslide despite having the additional support of the Democratic Party. He was devastated by the death of his wife five days before the election and died himself one month before the Electoral College had met.

Horace Greeley was born on February 1811, on a farm about five miles from Amherst, New Hampshire. He could not breathe for the first twenty minutes of his life, it is suggested that this deprivation may have caused him to develop Asperger's syndrome—some of his biographers, such as Mitchell Snay, maintain that this condition would account for his eccentric behaviors in life. His father's family was of English descent, his forebears included early settlers of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, while his mother's family descended from Scots-Irish immigrants from the village of Garvagh in County Londonderry who had settled Londonderry, New Hampshire; some of Greeley's maternal ancestors were present at the Siege of Derry during the Williamite War in Ireland in 1689. Greeley was the son of poor farmers Mary Greeley. Zaccheus was not successful, moved his family several times, as far west as Pennsylvania. Horace was a brilliant student. Seeing the boy's intelligence, some neighbors offered to pay Horace's way at Phillips Exeter Academy, but the Greeleys were too proud to accept charity.

In 1820, Zaccheus's financial reverses caused him to flee New Hampshire with his family lest he be imprisoned for debt, settle in Vermont. As his father struggled to make a living as a hired hand, Horace Greeley read everything he could—the Greeleys had a neighbor who let Horace use his library. In 1822, Horace was told he was too young. In 1826, at age 15, he was made a printer's apprentice to Amos Bliss, editor of the Northern Spectator, a newspaper in East Poultney, Vermont. There, he learned the mechanics of a printer's job, acquired a reputation as the town encyclopedia, reading his way through the local library; when the paper closed in 1830, the young man went west to join his family, living near Erie, Pennsylvania. He remained there only going from town to town seeking newspaper employment, was hired by the Erie Gazette. Although ambitious for greater things, he remained until 1831 to help support his father. While there, he became a Universalist. In late 1831, Greeley went to New York City to seek his fortune.

There were many young printers in New York who had come to the metropolis, he could only find short-term work. In 1832, Greeley worked as an employee of the publication Spirit of the Times, he set up a print shop in that year. In 1833, he tried his hand with Horatio D. Sheppard at editing a daily newspaper, the New York Morning Post, not a success. Despite this failure and its attendant financial loss, Greeley published the thrice-weekly Constitutionalist, which printed lottery results. On March 22, 1834, he published the first issue of The New-Yorker in partnership with Jonas Winchester, it was less expensive than other literary magazines of the time and published both contemporary ditties and political commentary. Circulation reached 9,000 a sizable number, yet it was ill-managed and fell victim to the economic Panic of 1837, he published the campaign newssheet of the new Whig Party in New York for the 1834 campaign, came to believe in its positions, including free markets with government assistance in developing the nation.

Soon after his move to New York City, Greeley met Mary Young Cheney. Both were living at a boarding house run on the diet principles of Sylvester Graham, eschewing meat, coffee and spice

Pleasure Heads Must Burn

Pleasure Heads Must Burn is video/DVD by The Birthday Party. Issued by IKON in 1984 in Betamax and VHS formats. First 6 tracks recorded live at The Haçienda in Manchester on 22 July 1982, tracks 8-14 recorded live at The Haçienda in Manchester on 24 February 1983. "Nick The Stripper" is a promo video shot by Evan English & Paul Goldman in Melbourne-Camberwell on 2 February 1981. "Dead Joe" "A Dead Song" "Junkyard" "Release the Bats" " Pleasure Heads Must Burn" "Big Jesus Trash Can" "Nick The Stripper" "Hamlet" "Pleasure Avalanche" "Six Inch Gold Blade" "Wild World" "The Six Strings That Drew Blood" "Sonny's Burning" "She's Hit" Track 1 is a promo video shot by Evan English & Paul Goldman in Melbourne-Camberwell on 2-Feb-81, tracks 2-3 recorded live at The Ace Cinema in Brixton on 25-Nov-82, track 4 recorded live at the Trade Union Club in Sydney on 14-May-83, track 5 recorded at VPRO TV studios for "Götterdämmerung 2000" TV show in Jul-1982, tracks 6-11 recorded live at The Haçienda in Manchester on 22-Jul-82 and tracks 12-18 recorded live at The Haçienda in Manchester on 24-Feb-83.

"Nick the Stripper" "Fears Of Gun/" "Hamlet" "Deep In The Woods" "Junkyard" "Dead Joe" "A Dead Song" "Junkyard" "Release The Bats" " Pleasure Heads Must Burn" "Big Jesus Trash Can" "Hamlet" "Pleasure Avalanche" "Six Inch Gold Blade" "Wild World" "The Six Strings That Drew Blood" "Sonny's Burning" "She's Hit" Nick Cavevocals, drums Rowland S. HowardGuitar, saxophone Mick HarveyOrgan, guitar, drums Tracy PewBass, double bass Phill Calvert – Drums Des Hefner - Drums on DVD track 4, live 1983 Pleasure Heads Must Burn Pleasure Heads Must Burn at AllMovie

Aled Edwards

Aled Edwards is the founder and Chief Executive of the Structural Genomics Consortium, a charitable public-private partnership. He is Professor of Medical Genetics and Medical Biophysics at the University of Toronto, Visiting Professor of Chemical Biology at the University of Oxford, Adjunct Professor at McGill University. Born in Holyhead, Edwards moved to Canada in 1965 with his parents Undeg and Iwan Edwards, a choral conductor, awarded the Order of Canada in 1995 for his contributions to Canadian music. Edwards earned his bachelor's degree and his Ph. D. in biochemistry from McGill University supervised by Peter Braun. He carried out post-doctoral studies at Stanford University in the laboratory of Roger Kornberg, where he first crystallized RNA polymerase II, a structure for which Kornberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2006. From 1992 to 1997, while a professor at McMaster University, Edwards became interested in developing structural biology methods and was among the first to use mass spectrometry to identify regions of proteins prone to crystallization.

He used this technique to facilitate the crystallography of key proteins involved in DNA replication and repair before becoming interested in applying this and other methods to carry out structural biology on a proteome scale. In 1997, now at the University of Toronto, together with his colleague Cheryl Arrowsmith, collaborated to launch one of the first projects in structural genomics, soon published one of the papers that defined this new field; as a central player in the Protein Structure Initiative, their Toronto team contributed to more than a thousand new microbial protein structures over the next decade, developed new crystallization methods, used structural methods to de-orphanize several nuclear receptors and study ion transport across membranes. As of 2019, Edwards has co-contributed more datasets to the Protein Data Bank than any other scientist. In the late 1990’s, Edwards co-founded and served as CEO of Borealis Biosciences and Chalon Biotech, which he merged to form Affinium Pharmaceuticals, a Toronto-based company.

Affinium developed afabicin, a novel narrow-spectrum antibiotic, now in clinical development at DebioPharm. Several other companies have been spun out of his research programs, including Harbinger Biotechnology and Engineering, acquired by Epiphyte3, 1DegreeBio, acquired by LabX Media Group. More Edwards founded M4K Pharma, a company, developing a brain-penetrant drug targeting the ALK2 kinase, in order to treat children with incurable diffuse-intrinsic pontine glioma; the novel open science business model being developed by M4K Pharma allows its science to be disclosed on an ongoing basis, for any approved drug to be priced affordably. Edwards serves on the Board of the Agora Open Science Trust. Edwards is considered one of the pioneers of open science as it applied to biomedicine and drug discovery. Since 2003, all human protein structural information derived from the SGC has been placed into the public domain, prior to publication and without restriction on use. In 2007, he, together with Richard Gold, created the SGC Open Science Principles, under which the SGC became the first biomedical research organization to adopt open science principles that mandated sharing and eschewed patenting on any activity, including novel chemistry.

In 2016, Edwards both spearheaded the Open Lab Notebook initiative, which now comprises over 20 scientists sharing their experiments as they are done, as well as collaborated with Guy Rouleau at the Montreal Neurological Institute to create the concept of an open research institute. That collaboration led to the formation of the Tanenbaum Open Science Institute, to the broader institutional commitment of The Neuro to open science. In 2017, Edwards and colleagues conceptualized an open trust mechanism to share research reagents, the SGC has been using this mechanism since. In 2018, Max Morgan and Owen Roberts launched the world’s first open science drug discovery company, M4K Pharma, developed a business model, consistent with open science and affordable pricing. In 2019, Morgan and Edwards launched M4ND Pharma, to tackle neurological diseases using open drug discovery approaches. For his leadership role in promoting open access drug discovery, Edwards was named a Senior Ashoka Fellow in 2015.

On the 10th anniversary of the publication of the draft sequence of the human genome and colleagues were asked for their perspective. Their “Roads not Taken” paper, which quantified the “under-studied” parts of the human genome, has led to a number of funding initiatives, including the Illuminating the Druggable Genome initiative at the NIH, presaged a number of studies that examine the unintended consequences of the peer-review system. Edwards is a champion of science reproducibility, focusing considerable attention on the quality of research reagents and the need for transparent standards. Edwards has contributed to science communication. Edwards has been married to Elizabeth Edwards since 1985, they have three children and one grandchild. Elizabeth is director of BioZone and Professor of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at the University of Toronto, winner of Canada’s 2016 Killam Prize for Engineering, among other awards, she is the daughter of Leonhard and Jeanne Wolfe, awarded the Order of Canada in 2009 for her contributions to Canadian planning.

Aled’s brother, Owain Edwards, is an entomologist at CSIRO in Australia