Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. These depictions are done by writers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more "the Middle East", was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern and North African societies. In Said's analysis, the West essentializes these societies as static and undeveloped—thereby fabricating a view of Oriental culture that can be studied and reproduced. Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the idea that Western society is developed, rational and superior. Orientalism refers in reference and opposition to the Occident; the word Orient entered the English language as the Middle French orient.
The root word oriēns, from the Latin Oriēns, has synonymous denotations: The eastern part of the world. In the "Monk's Tale", Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: "That they conquered many regnes grete / In the orient, with many a fair citee." The term "orient" refers to countries east of the Mediterranean Southern Europe. In Place of Fear, Aneurin Bevan used an expanded denotation of the Orient that comprehended East Asia: "the awakening of the Orient under the impact of Western ideas". Edward Said said that Orientalism "enables the political, economic and social domination of the West, not just during colonial times, but in the present." In art history, the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. In that time and scholars were described as Orientalists in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary. Despite such social disdain for a style of representational art, the French Society of Orientalist Painters was founded in 1893, with Jean-Léon Gérôme as the honorary president.
The formation of the French Orientalist Painters Society changed the consciousness of practitioners towards the end of the 19th century, since artists could now see themselves as part of a distinct art movement. As an art movement, Orientalist painting is treated as one of the many branches of 19th-century academic art. Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: the realists who painted what they observed and those who imagined Orientalist scenes without leaving the studio. French painters such as Eugène Delacroix and Jean-Léon Gérôme are regarded as the leading luminaries of the Orientalist movement. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the term Orientalist identified a scholar who specialized in the languages and literatures of the Eastern world. Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Company, who said that the Arab culture, the culture of India, the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe. Among such scholars is the philologist William Jones, whose studies of Indo-European languages established modern philology.
British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the 1820s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education. Additionally and Jewish studies gained popularity among British and German scholars in the 19th and 20th centuries; the academic field of Oriental studies, which comprehended the cultures of the Near East and the Far East, became the fields of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies. In the book Orientalism, the cultural critic Edward Said redefined the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition — academic and artistic — of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries; the thesis of Orientalism develops Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony, Michel Foucault's theorisation of discourse to criticise the scholarly tradition of Oriental studies.
Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo-Islamic cultures Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami. The analyses are of Orientalism in European literature French literature, do not analyse visual art and Orientalist painting. In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results". In the academy, the book Orientalism became a foundational text of post-colonial cultural studies. Moreover, in relation to the cultural institution of citizenship, Orientalism has rendered the concept of citizenship as a problem of epistemology, because citizenship originated as a social institution of the Western world. Furthermore, Said said that Orientalism, as an "idea of representation is a theoretical one: The Orient is a stage on which the whole East is confined" in order to make the Eastern world "les
Battle of the Alma
The Battle of the Alma was a battle in the Crimean War between an allied expeditionary force and Russian forces defending the Crimean Peninsula on 20 September 1854. The allies had made a surprise landing in Crimea on 14 September; the allied commanders, Maréchal Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud and Lord FitzRoy Somerset Raglan marched toward the strategically important port city of Sevastapol, 45 km away. Russian commander Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov rushed his available forces to the last natural defensive position before the city, the Alma Heights, south of the Alma River; the allies made a series of disjointed attacks. The French turned the Russian left flank with an attack up cliffs that the Russians had considered unscalable; the British waited to see the outcome of the French attack twice unsuccessfully assaulted the Russians' main position on their right. Superior British rifle fire forced the Russians to retreat. With both flanks turned, the Russian position collapsed and they fled.
The lack of cavalry meant. The battle cost the French 1,600 casualties, the British 2,000, the Russians some 5,000; the allied fleet of 400 ships left the Ottoman port of Varna on 7 September 1854 with no clear objective or specified landing point. The allies had been planning to capture Sevastopol in a coup de main, but decided instead to sail to Evpatoria, which a landing party captured on 13 September. Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov, commander of Russian forces in the Crimea, was taken by surprise, he had not thought the allies would attack so close to the onset of winter, had failed to mobilize sufficient troops to defend Crimea. He had only 38,000 soldiers and 18,000 sailors along the southwestern coast, 12,000 more around Kerch and Theodosia. Allied forces reached Kalamita Bay on the western coast of the Crimea, 45 km north of Sevastopol, started disembarking on 14 September; the French disembarked first, by nightfall, Gen. François Canrobert's 1st Division, Gen. Pierre François Bosquet's 2nd Division and Prince Napoleon's 3rd Division were ashore with their artillery.
The British landing took much longer to complete compared to the French, as the infantry was landed first, when the sea was calm, but by the time the British tried to get their cavalry ashore, the wind was up and the horses struggled in the heavy surf. The British troops and cavalry took 5 days to disembark. Many of the men had to be carried off the boats. No facilities for moving equipment overland existed, so parties had to be sent out to steal carts and wagons from the local Tatar farms; the only food or water for the men was the three days' rations. No tents or kitbags were offloaded from the ships, so the soldiers spent their first nights without shelter, unprotected from the heavy rain or the blistering heat. Despite the plans for a surprise attack on Sevastopol being undermined by the delays, six days on 19 September, the army started to head south, with its fleets supporting them; the French were on the right of the allied line near the shore, with the Turks following them, the British were on the left further inland.
The march involved crossing five rivers: the Bulganak, the Alma, Kacha and Chernaya Rivers. By midday, the allied army reached the Bulganak and had its first sight of the Russians when a Cossack vanguard opened fire on the 13th Light Dragoons' scouting party; as the Light Brigade prepared to charge the Cossacks, Lord Raglan sent an order for it to retreat when a large Russian infantry force was discovered in a dip in the terrain ahead. The next morning, the Allied army marched down the valley to engage the Russians, whose forces were on the other side of the river, on the Alma heights. At the Alma, Prince Menshikov, commander-in-chief of Russian forces in the Crimea, decided to make his stand on the high ground south of the river. Although the Russian Army was numerically inferior to the combined Franco-British force, the heights they occupied were a natural defensive position, the last natural barrier to the allied armies on their approach to Sevastopol. Furthermore, the Russians had more than one hundred field guns on the heights they could employ with devastating effect from the elevated position.
The allies bivouacked on the northern bank of the Bulganak, next day marching the 6.4 km to the north bank of the Alma, where the ground sloped down to the river. The precipitous cliffs running along the southern bank of the river were 350 ft high and continued inland from the river's mouth for two mi, where they met a less steep, but high hill known as Telegraph Hill across the river from the village of Bourliouk. To its east lay Kourgane Hill, a natural strongpoint with fields of fire covering most approaches, the key to the whole position. Two redoubts had been constructed to protect Kourgane Hill from infantry assault; the road to Sevastopol ran between Telegraph and Kourgane Hills, covered by Russian batteries located on the hills and in the narrow valley between them. By mid-morning, the allied army was assembling on the plain, the British on the left of the Sevastopol Road, the French and the Turks on the right, stretching out towards the coast. According to the plan that the allies had agreed upon the day before, the two armies were to advance on a broad front and try to turn the enemy's flank on the left further inland.
At the final moment
The Adventure of the Greek Interpreter
"The Adventure of the Greek Interpreter", one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is one of 12 stories in the cycle collected as The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes. The story was serialised in Strand Magazine in 1893; this story introduces Holmes's elder brother Mycroft. Doyle ranked "The Greek Interpreter" seventeenth in a list of his nineteen favourite Sherlock Holmes stories. On a summer evening, while engaged in an aimless conversation that has come round to the topic of hereditary attributes, Doctor Watson learns that Sherlock Holmes, far from being a one-off in terms of his powers of observation and deductive reasoning, in fact has an elder brother whose skills, or so Holmes claims, outstrip his own; as a consequence of this, Watson becomes acquainted with the Diogenes Club and his friend's brother, Mycroft. Mycroft, as Watson learns, does not have the energy of his younger brother and as a consequence is incapable of using his great skills for detective work: If the art of the detective began and ended in reasoning from an arm-chair, my brother would be the greatest criminal agent that lived.
But he has no energy. He will not go out of his way to verify his own solution, would rather be considered wrong than take the trouble to prove himself right. In spite of his inertia, the elder Holmes has delivered the correct answer to a problem that Sherlock has brought to him. On this occasion, however, it is Mycroft. Mr. Melas, a Greek interpreter and neighbour of Mycroft, tells of a rather unnerving experience he has gone through. Melas was called upon one evening by a man named Harold Latimer to go to a house in Kensington, to translate on a business matter. On the way there in Latimer’s coach, Melas noticed that the windows were papered over so that he could not see where he was. Latimer produced a bludgeon, laying it beside him as an implied threat. Melas protested; the kidnapper replied that he would make it up to Melas, but threatened him with unspecified retribution should the evening’s business be made public. For two hours they drove, at last arriving at a house, it was dark, Melas only got a general impression of a large property as he was hustled out of the coach and into the house.
The house itself was poorly lit. In the room into which he was led by Latimer and another, giggling gentleman — whose name is discovered to be Wilson Kemp — Melas noticed a deep-pile carpet, a high marble mantel, a suit of Japanese armour. Another man was brought into the room, he was thin and emaciated and had sticking plaster all over his face, a bandage sealing his mouth. Melas knew that things were not right. Melas was sly enough to observe that his kidnappers were utterly ignorant of Greek, used this to find out some information. While Latimer and his giggling companion had Melas translate demands that this man sign some papers, Melas added his own short questions to the dialogue; the man not only answered Latimer that he would never sign these papers, but he answered Melas that his name was Kratides, that he had been in London for three weeks, that he had no idea what house he was in, that his captors at the house were starving him. He wrote all his answers. Much could be inferred from Kratides’s answers to Latimer, too.
Evidently, Latimer was trying to coerce Kratides into signing over property to him, a woman was involved. Latimer had warned Kratides. Melas would have extracted the whole story from this stranger had the woman herself not burst in unexpectedly, but that event furnished new information, she recognised Kratides as "Paul", whereupon he managed to get the bandage off his mouth and he called her "Sophia". They both behaved. Melas was ushered back into the coach for another interminable ride and was deposited far from his home on Wandsworth Common, he made it to Clapham Junction just in time for the last train to Victoria. He has now presented his story at the Diogenes Club to Mycroft, who asks his brother Sherlock to look into it. An advertisement has been placed begging the public for information, it yields a result. A Mr. Davenport knows the woman in question, she is residing at the Myrtles, a house in Beckenham. Sherlock Holmes and his brother Mycroft, who received the message from Davenport, decide that they must go to Beckenham to see about this.
Watson comes and they decide to pick up Inspector Gregson, Melas as well in case some translating needs to be done. They find, that he has been picked up, by a nervous, giggling man brandishing a bludgeon. Holmes knows; the thugs know that Melas has betrayed them. After the necessary legal procedures for securing a search warrant have been completed, the group proceeds to Beckenham only to discover that the house, which indeed turns out to be as Melas has described, has been abandoned. Tracks indicate that a loaded coach has pulled out of the drive. Breaking in, they discover Melas and Kratides bound in a closed room where some charcoal has been lit to gas the two of them: Melas recovers thanks to Watson's timely intervention, but Kratides is dead. Kratides never signed any papers, it turns out that Sophia’s friends contacted Kratides, Sophia’s brother, in Greece to tell of what they thought was a bad situation for her with Latimer. He came to England and wound up in Latimer’s power. Latimer tried to force Kratides to sign over his sister’s property
Charles-Joseph Natoire was a French painter in the Rococo manner, a pupil of François Lemoyne and director of the French Academy in Rome, 1751–1775. Considered during his lifetime the equal of François Boucher, he played a prominent role in the artistic life of France, he is remembered above all for the series of the History of Psyche for Germain Boffrand's oval salon de la Princesse in the Hôtel de Soubise and for the tapestry cartoons for the series of the History of Don Quixote, woven at the Beauvais tapestry manufacture, most of which are at the Château de Compiègne. He was born in Nîmes, his sister, was a pastellist. Natoire's father Florent Natoire, a sculptor, gave him his fundamental training in drawing sent him to Paris in 1717 to complete his training, first in the atelier of Louis Galloche, peintre du Roi and professor at the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, in the atelier of François Lemoyne, whose training shaped Natoire's style. In 1721 he obtained the Prix de Rome with a Sacrifice of Manoah to obtain a son.
On 30 June 1723 he was appointed a pensionnaire at the French Academy in Rome, at the time lodged in the Palazzo Mancini, where he arrived in October. During his stay he executed a copy of Pietro da Cortona's Rape of the Sabine Women. In December 1725 he won a first prize from the Accademia di San Luca with a Moses Returning from Sinai. In 1728 he painted for the French ambassador, the prince de Polignac, an Expulsion of the Money-Changers from the Temple. Natoire returned to Paris via Venice in the early part of 1729, he was received into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture on 30 September 1730. His reputation was established, he received major commissions. From 1731 to 1740 he provided several suites of canvasses for Philibert Orry, contrôleur général des finances, to succeed the duc d'Antin as general director of the Bâtiments du Roi in 1736. For Orry's Château de La Chapelle-Godefroy at Saint-Aubin Natoire provided a series of nine canvasses of Histories of the Gods, six more of the History of Clovis, six of a History of Telemachus and four Seasons.
During the same period, in 1732 he provided three overdoors on Old Testament subjects for the duc d'Antin in Paris. In June 1734, Natoire submitted to an Exposition de la Jeunesse in place Dauphine a Galatea. In the same year his first royal commission arrived, for the Chambre de la Reine at Versailles and was made a full member of the Académie on 31 December with a Venus Commanding from Vulcan the Arms of Aeneas. Henceforth, numerous royal commissions came his way for the petits appartements at the Château de Fontainebleau, for the Cabinet du Roi and the royal dining-room at Versailles, decorations for Marly, for the Cabinet des Médailles in the royal library in Paris, others. In 1735, Natoire carried out the first of his tapestry cartoons for the series Histoire de Don Quichotte woven at the Manufacture de Beauvais, the first set for the fermier général Pierre Grimod du Fort. In 1737 he received the commission at the Hôtel de Soubise. From 1741, he produced a series of cartoons for the History of Mark Anthony woven at the Gobelins.
In 1747, he painted the portrait of Dauphin of France. In a more familiar vein, he provided a Saint Stephen and the False Witnesses for the chapelle Saint-Symphorien in the Church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, 1745. A major loss was his illusionistic decor for the chapel in the Hôpital des Enfants-Trouvés, built by Germain Boffrand but demolished in the 19th century. In 1747 he participated in the competition organized by the new general director of the Bâtiments du Roi, Le Normant de Tournehem, with the Triumph of Bacchus, now in the Musée du Louvre. In 1751, Natoire was appointed director of the French Academy in Rome, a prestigious position, but one, to set a seal on his active career. Far from court, Natoire witnessed his rivals Carle Van Loo François Boucher named premier peintre du Roi in turn, he all but ceased painting, turning his energies instead to the Academy, pressing the pensionnaires to produce the envoies that were forwarded to Paris as proof of their progress and sending them out to draw in the countryside of the Roman campagna.
He was ennobled in April 1753 and received the Order of Saint-Michel,an honour he had impatiently awaited, but he found himself out of sympathy with the new neoclassical style, being developed by the Academy's pensionnaires. His own fresco of the Apotheosis of Saint Louis for the French national Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, 1754–1756, came in for criticism. Natoire's late work, in the two decades that remained to him was confined to numerous drawings of the Campagna for his own pleasure, few canvasses, he became more religious. In 1767, the architect Adrien Mouton, expelled from the Academy, brought a suit that he won in 1770: Natoire was fined 20,000 livres and court costs with interest, accused of administrative errors; the new general director of the Bâtiments, the comte d'Angiviller retired Natoire from office in June 1775. He withdrew to Castel Gandolfo; this article depends in large part on a translation from French Wikipedia, where a list of Natoire's paintings may be found
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. Many historians disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism. By the late 20th century some were celebrating it as leading example of a modernizing regime. Historians have given the Empire negative evaluations on its foreign-policy, somewhat more positive evaluations of domestic policies after Napoleon liberalized his rule after 1858, he promoted French business, exports. The greatest achievements came in material improvements, in the form of a grand railway network that facilitated commerce and tied the nation together and centered it on Paris, it had the effect of stimulating economic growth, bringing prosperity to most regions of the country. The Second Empire is given high credit for the rebuilding of Paris with broad boulevards, striking public buildings, attractive residential districts for upscale Parisians. In international policy, Napoleon III tried to emulate his uncle, engaging in numerous imperial ventures around the world as well as several wars in Europe.
Using harsh methods, he built up the French Empire in North Africa and in Southeast Asia. Napoleon III sought to modernize the Mexican economy and bring it into the French orbit, but this ended in a fiasco, he badly mishandled the threat from Prussia, by the end of his reign, Napoleon III found himself without allies in the face of overwhelming German force. On 2 December 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, elected President of the Republic, staged a coup d'état by dissolving the National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so, he thus became sole ruler of France, re-established universal suffrage abolished by the Assembly. His decisions were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. At that same referendum, a new constitution was approved. Formally enacted in January 1852, the new document made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, with no restrictions on reelection, it concentrated all governing power in his hands. However, Louis-Napoléon was not content with being an authoritarian president.
As soon as he signed the new document into law, he set about restoring the empire. In response to inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support; as with the December 1851 referendum, most of the "yes" votes were manufactured out of thin air. The empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, the Prince-President became "Napoléon III, Emperor of the French"; the constitution had concentrated so much power in his hands that the only substantive changes were to replace the word "president" with the word "emperor" and to make the post hereditary. The popular referendum became a distinct sign of Bonapartism, which Charles de Gaulle would use. With dictatorial powers, Napoleon III made building a good railway system a high priority, he consolidated three dozen incomplete lines into six major companies using Paris as a hub. Paris grew in terms of population, finance, commercial activity, tourism. Working with Georges-Eugène Haussmann, Napoleon III spent lavishly to rebuild the city into a world-class showpiece.
The financial soundness for all six companies was solidified by government guarantees. Although France had started late, by 1870 it had an excellent railway system, supported as well by good roads and ports. Napoleon, in order to restore the prestige of the Empire before the newly awakened hostility of public opinion, tried to gain the support from the Left that he had lost from the Right. After the return from Italy, the general amnesty of August 16, 1859 had marked the evolution of the absolutist or authoritarian empire towards the liberal, parliamentary empire, to last for ten years; the idea of Italian unification – based on the exclusion of the temporal power of the popes – outraged French Catholics, the leading supporters of the Empire. A keen Catholic opposition sprang up, voiced in Louis Veuillot's paper the Univers, was not silenced by the Syrian expedition in favour of the Catholic Maronite side of the Druze–Maronite conflict. Ultramontane Catholicism, emphasizing the necessity for close links to the Pope at the Vatican played a pivotal role in the democratization of culture.
The pamphlet campaign led by Mgr Gaston de Ségur at the height of the Italian question in February 1860 made the most of the freedom of expression enjoyed by the Catholic Church in France. The goal was to mobilize Catholic opinion, encourage the government to be more favorable to the Pope. A major result of the ultramontane campaign was to trigger reforms to the cultural sphere, the granting of freedoms to their political enemies: the Republicans and freethinkers; the Second Empire favored Catholicism, the official state religion. However, it tolerated Protestants and Jews, there were no persecutions or pogroms; the state dealt with the small Protestant community of Calvinist and Lutheran churches, whose members included many prominent businessmen who supported the regime. The emperor's Decree Law of 26 March 1852 led to greater government interference in Protestant church affairs, thus reducing self-regulation. Catholic bureaucrats both were biased against it; the administration of their policies affected not only church-state relations but the internal lives of Protestant communities.
Napoleon III manipulated a range of politicized poli