The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The Doric is most recognized by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns. Originating in the western Dorian region of Greece, it is the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above; the Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, had no base, dropping straight into the stylobate or platform on which the temple or other building stood. The capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion, wide in early versions, but more restrained. Above a plain architrave, the complexity comes in the frieze, where the two features unique to the Doric, the triglyph and guttae, are skeuomorphic memories of the beams and retaining pegs of the wooden constructions that preceded stone Doric temples. In stone they are purely ornamental; the uncommon Roman and Renaissance Doric retained these, introduced thin layers of moulding or further ornament, as well as using plain columns.
More they used versions of the Tuscan order, elaborated for nationalistic reasons by Italian Renaissance writers, in effect a simplified Doric, with un-fluted columns and a simpler entablature with no triglyphs or guttae. The Doric order was much used in Greek Revival architecture from the 18th century onwards. Since at least Vitruvius it has been customary for writers to associate the Doric with masculine virtues, it is normally the cheapest of the orders to use. When the three orders are used one above the other, it is usual for the Doric to be at the bottom, with the Ionic and the Corinthian above, the Doric, as "strongest", is used on the ground floor below another order in the storey above. In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement of a temple without a base. With a height only four to eight times their diameter, the columns were the most squat of all the classical orders; the Parthenon has the Doric design columns. It was most popular in the Archaic Period in mainland Greece, found in Magna Graecia, as in the three temples at Paestum.
These are in the Archaic Doric, where the capitals spread wide from the column compared to Classical forms, as exemplified in the Parthenon. Pronounced features of both Greek and Roman versions of the Doric order are the alternating triglyphs and metopes; the triglyphs are decoratively grooved with two vertical grooves and represent the original wooden end-beams, which rest on the plain architrave that occupies the lower half of the entablature. Under each triglyph are peglike "stagons" or "guttae" that appear as if they were hammered in from below to stabilize the post-and-beam construction, they served to "organize" rainwater runoff from above. The spaces between the triglyphs are the "metopes", they may be left plain. The spacing of the triglyphs caused problems. A triglyph is centered above every column, with another between columns, though the Greeks felt that the corner triglyph should form the corner of the entablature, creating an inharmonious mismatch with the supporting column; the architecture followed rules of harmony.
Since the original design came from wooden temples and the triglyphs were real heads of wooden beams, every column had to bear a beam which lay across the centre of the column. Triglyphs were arranged regularly; this was regarded as the ideal solution. Changing to stone cubes instead of wooden beams required full support of the architrave load at the last column. At the first temples the final triglyph was moved, still terminating the sequence, but leaving a gap disturbing the regular order. Worse, the last triglyph was not centered with the corresponding column; that "archaic" manner was not regarded as a harmonious design. The resulting problem is called the doric corner conflict. Another approach was to apply a broader corner triglyph but was not satisfying; because the metopes are somewhat flexible in their proportions, the modular space between columns can be adjusted by the architect. The last two columns were set closer together, to give a subtle visual strengthening to the corners; that is called the "classic" solution of the corner conflict.
Triglyphs could be arranged in a harmonic manner again, the corner was terminated with a triglyph. However, final triglyph and column were not centered. There are many theories as to the origins of the Doric order in temples; the term Doric is believed to have originated from the Greek-speaking Dorian tribes. One belief is. With no hard proof and the sudden appearance of stone temples from one period after the other, this becomes speculation. Another belief is. With the Greeks being present in Ancient Egypt as soon the 7th-century BC, it is possible that Greek traders were inspired by the structure
Moore Park, New South Wales
Moore Park is a small suburb located 3 kilometres southeast of the Sydney central business district, in the south-eastern suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is part of local government area of the City of Sydney. Moore Park is a large area of parkland, part of Centennial Parklands, a collective of three parks being Moore Park, Centennial Park and Queen's Park. Centennial Parklands is administered by the Centennial Park & Moore Park Trust, a NSW government agency; the only exception is the land on which the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sydney Football Stadium are sited. Moore Park has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Driver Avenue: Sydney Cricket Ground Members' Stand and Lady Members' Stand Moore Park is the former location of the Royal Agricultural Society's Sydney Showground, which hosted the annual Sydney Royal Easter Show until 1998, it moved to Homebush Bay. The old showgrounds have since been redeveloped as Fox Studios, a commercial venture designed at supporting Australia's film industry.
The Entertainment Quarter is a retail and entertainment precinct beside the studios. It contains cinemas, live venues, cafes and retailers of fashion and homewares; the Farmer's Market operates every Saturday in the old showground showing. The south-western corner of the suburb boasts a large shopping centre called the'Moore Park Supa Centre', on South Dowling Street, it specialises in showrooms for home furnishings and home renovations. This was the site of the former Dowling Street depot for trams; the Eastern Distributor and Anzac Parade are major arterial roads on the western border of the suburb. State Transit operate frequent services to Moore Park from the Sydney CBD and special services for sporting events run from Central railway station. On 13 December 2012, the NSW Government announced a commitment to build a $1.6 billion light rail from Circular Quay down George Street to Central station across to Moore Park and down Anzac Parade. South of Moore Park the line will spit into two branches - one continuing down Anzac Parade to the nine ways at Kensington, the second heading to Randwick via Alison Road.
Construction commenced in 2015. Moore Park is the location of two of Sydney's largest sporting venues, the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sydney Football Stadium; the Sydney Roosters Rugby league team in the National Rugby League, The Sydney Swans in the Australian Football League, Sydney FC A-League football team, NSW Waratahs rugby union team have their administration offices at Moore Park and Sydney Football Stadium is their home ground. The Moore Park Magpies are a local junior rugby league team; the Hordern Pavilion is a multipurpose entertainment venue, while next door the Royal Hall of Industries hosts a range of exhibitions and commercial events and shows. Moore Park houses Kippax Lake, the ES Marks Athletics Field, the Moore Park Golf, the Parklands Sports Centre and a number of sports fields. Moore Park, served by the Department of Education, is the location of Sydney Boys High School, Sydney Girls High School
Three Dog Night
Three Dog Night is an American rock band. They formed in 1967 with a line-up consisting of vocalists Danny Hutton, Cory Wells, Chuck Negron; this lineup was soon augmented by Jimmy Greenspoon, Joe Schermie, Michael Allsup, Floyd Sneed. The band registered 21 Billboard Top 40 hits between 1969 and 1975; because Three Dog Night recorded many songs written by outside songwriters, they helped introduce mainstream audiences to writers such as Paul Williams and Hoyt Axton. The official commentary included in the CD set Celebrate: The Three Dog Night Story, 1964–1975 states that vocalist Danny Hutton's girlfriend, actress June Fairchild suggested the name after reading a magazine article about indigenous Australians, in which it was explained that on cold nights they would customarily sleep in a hole in the ground while embracing a dingo, a native species of feral dog. On colder nights they would sleep with two dogs and, if the night were freezing, it was a "three dog night"; the three vocalists, Danny Hutton, Chuck Negron and Cory Wells first came together in 1967 and made some recordings with Brian Wilson while the Beach Boys were working on the album Wild Honey, went by the name of Redwood.
Shortly after abandoning the Redwood moniker in 1968, the vocalists hired a group of backing musicians – Ron Morgan on guitar, Floyd Sneed on drums, Joe Schermie from the Cory Wells Blues Band on bass, Jimmy Greenspoon on keyboards – and soon took the name Three Dog Night, becoming one of the most successful bands in the United States during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Ron Morgan left the band early on and subsequently went on to join the Electric Prunes. Michael Allsup was recruited to replace him on guitar. Three Dog Night earned 12 gold albums and recorded 21 consecutive Billboard Top 40 hits, seven of which went gold, their first gold record was "One", written and recorded by Harry Nilsson. The group had three US #1 songs, each of which featured a different lead singer: "Mama Told Me Not to Come", their only Top 10 hit in the UK. Dunhill Records claimed; as its members wrote just a handful of songs on the albums, most songs Three Dog Night recorded were written by outside songwriters.
Notable hits by outside writers include Harry Nilsson's "One", the Gerome Ragni-James Rado-Galt MacDermot composition "Easy to Be Hard" from the musical Hair, Laura Nyro's "Eli's Comin'", Randy Newman's "Mama Told Me Not to Come", Paul Williams' "Out in the Country", "The Family Of Man", "An Old Fashioned Love Song", Hoyt Axton's "Joy to the World" and "Never Been to Spain", Arkin & Robinson's "Black and White", Argent's Russ Ballard's "Liar", Elton John and Bernie Taupin's "Lady Samantha" and "Your Song", Daniel Moore's "Shambala", Leo Sayer's "The Show Must Go On", John Hiatt's "Sure As I'm Sittin' Here", Bush's "I Can Hear You Calling", Allen Toussaint's "Play Something Sweet". Three Dog Night made its official debut in 1968 at the Whiskey a Go Go, at a 5 p.m. press party hosted by Dunhill Records. They were still in the process of making their first album Three Dog Night when they heard the favorable reactions from the hypercritical audience; the album Three Dog Night was a success with its hit songs "One", "Try A Little Tenderness", "Nobody" and helped the band gain recognition and become one of the top drawing concert acts of their time.
In December, 1972, Three Dog Night hosted Dick Clark's first New Year's Eve special, entitled Three Dog Night's New Year's Rockin' Eve. In 1973, Three Dog Night filed a $6 million lawsuit against their former booking agent, American Talent International for continuing to advertise in the media that the band was still with their agency when in fact they signed with William Morris Agency in October 1972. Other damages were sought due to ATI taking deposits for booking Three Dog Night, whom they no longer represented. Joe Schermie left in late 1972 due to "problems arising that were unresolvable", he was replaced by Jack Ryland in 1973, the band became an eight-piece with the inclusion of another keyboard player, Skip Konte, in late 1973. In late 1974, Allsup and Sneed left to form a new band, SS Fools, with Schermie and Bobby Kimball of Toto. New guitarist James "Smitty" Smith and drummer Mickey McMeel were recruited, but by 1975, Smith was replaced by Al Ciner from Rufus and the American Breed, Ryland by Rufus bassist Dennis Belfield.
By 1973, Danny Hutton was becoming sick on a regular basis and had developed Jaundice from incessant and uncontrolled drug abuse. The band was forced to hire a registered nurse to administer Vitamin B12 shots to Danny and take care of him so the band could continue touring. For the upcoming albums Cyan, Hard Labor, Coming Down Your Way, Danny began to not show up for the recording sessions and would sometimes be present only to record just one song disappear; this explains why, on all of the aforementioned albums, Danny only sings sole lead vocals on just one track off of each. Cory Wells became fed up with his frequent absence and Danny was fired from the band in late 1975, he was replaced by Jay Gruska. Hours before the first concert of their 1975 tour, Chuck Negron was arrested for the possession
McKinley Morganfield, known professionally as Muddy Waters, was an American blues singer-songwriter and musician, cited as the "father of modern Chicago blues", an important figure on the post-war blues scene. Muddy Waters grew up on Stovall Plantation near Clarksdale, by age 17 was playing the guitar and the harmonica, emulating the local blues artists Son House and Robert Johnson, he was recorded in Mississippi by Alan Lomax for the Library of Congress in 1941. In 1943, he moved to Chicago to become a full-time professional musician. In 1946, he recorded his first records for Columbia Records and for Aristocrat Records, a newly formed label run by the brothers Leonard and Phil Chess. In the early 1950s, Muddy Waters and his band—Little Walter Jacobs on harmonica, Jimmy Rogers on guitar, Elga Edmonds on drums and Otis Spann on piano—recorded several blues classics, some with the bassist and songwriter Willie Dixon; these songs included "Hoochie Coochie Man", "I Just Want to Make Love to You" and "I'm Ready".
In 1958, he traveled to England, laying the foundations of the resurgence of interest in the blues there. His performance at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1960 was recorded and released as his first live album, At Newport 1960. Muddy Waters' influence is incalculable, on blues as well as other American idioms—such as Rock and roll and Rock music. Muddy Waters' birthplace and date are not conclusively known, he stated that he was born in Rolling Fork, Mississippi, in 1915, but other evidence suggests that he was born in Jug's Corner, in neighboring Issaquena County, in 1913. In the 1930s and 1940s, before his rise to fame, the year of his birth was reported as 1913 on his marriage license, recording notes, musicians' union card. A 1955 interview in the Chicago Defender is the earliest in which he stated 1915 as the year of his birth, he continued to say this in interviews from that point onward; the 1920 census lists him as five years old as of March 6, 1920, suggesting that his birth year may have been 1914.
The Social Security Death Index, relying on the Social Security card application submitted after his move to Chicago in the mid-1940s, lists him as being born April 4, 1913. His gravestone gives his birth year as 1915, his grandmother, Della Grant, raised him. Grant gave him the nickname "Muddy" at an early age because he loved to play in the muddy water of nearby Deer Creek. "Waters" was added years as he began to play harmonica and perform locally in his early teens. The remains of the cabin on Stovall Plantation where he lived in his youth are now at the Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale, Mississippi, he had his first introduction to music in church: "I used to belong to church. I was a good Baptist. So I got all of my good moaning and trembling going on for me right out of church," he recalled. By the time he was 17, he had purchased his first guitar. "I sold the last horse. Made about fifteen dollars for him, gave my grandmother seven dollars and fifty cents, I kept seven-fifty and paid about two-fifty for that guitar.
It was a Stella. The people ordered them from Sears-Roebuck in Chicago." He started playing his songs in joints near his hometown on a plantation owned by Colonel William Howard Stovall. In August 1941, Alan Lomax went to Stovall, Mississippi, on behalf of the Library of Congress to record various country blues musicians. "He brought his stuff down and recorded me right in my house," Muddy recalled for Rolling Stone magazine, "and when he played back the first song I sounded just like anybody's records. Man, you don't know how I felt that Saturday afternoon when I heard that voice and it was my own voice. On he sent me two copies of the pressing and a check for twenty bucks, I carried that record up to the corner and put it on the jukebox. Just played it and played it and said,'I can do it, I can do it.'" Lomax came back in July 1942 to record him again. Both sessions were released by Testament Records as Down on Stovall's Plantation; the complete recordings were reissued by Chess Records on CD as Muddy Waters: The Complete Plantation Recordings.
The Historic 1941–42 Library of Congress Field Recordings in 1993 and remastered in 1997. In 1943, Muddy Waters headed to Chicago with the hope of becoming a full-time professional musician, he recalled arriving in Chicago as the single most momentous event in his life. He lived with a relative for a short period while driving a truck and working in a factory by day and performing at night. Big Bill Broonzy one of the leading bluesmen in Chicago, had Muddy Waters open his shows in the rowdy clubs where Broonzy played; this gave Muddy Waters the opportunity to play in front of a large audience. In 1944, he bought his first electric guitar and formed his first electric combo, he felt obliged to electrify his sound in Chicago because, he said, "When I went into the clubs, the first thing I wanted was an amplifier. Couldn't nobody hear you with an acoustic." His sound reflected the optimism of postwar African Americans. Willie Dixon said that "There was quite a few people around singing the blues but most of them was singing all sad blues.
Muddy was giving his blues a little pep." Three years in 1946, he recorded some songs for Mayo Williams at Columbia Records, with an old-fashioned combo consisting of clarinet and piano. That year, he began recording for Aristocrat Records, a newly formed label run by the brothers Leonard and Phil Chess. In 1947, he played guitar w
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
The Guess Who
The Guess Who is a Canadian rock band, formed in Winnipeg in 1965. Gaining recognition in Canada, the group found international success from the late 1960s through the mid-1970s with many hit singles, including "No Time", "American Woman", "Laughing", "These Eyes", "Undun" and "Share the Land"; the band have continued to perform and record to the present day, at various times have included many well-known musicians, including Burton Cummings and Randy Bachman. Formed as a garage rock band, their musical style encompassed the pop rock and psychedelic rock genres; the band was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame in 1987. In 2002, Randy Bachman, Burton Cummings, Garry Peterson, Donnie McDougall and Bill Wallace received the Governor General's Performing Arts Award for Lifetime Artistic Achievement for The Guess Who's contribution to popular music in Canada; the Guess Who started out as a local Winnipeg band formed by singer/guitarist Chad Allan in 1958 and called Allan and the Silvertones.
This was changed to Chad Allan and the Reflections in 1962, by which point the band consisted of five Winnipeg-born musicians: Chad Allan, Bob Ashley, Randy Bachman, Jim Kale, Garry Peterson. The Reflections name was chosen; the band's debut single was released on Canadian-American Records in 1962. Chad Allan and the Reflections signed with Quality Records and released several singles in 1963/64, which were regional hits but did not make much of a mark across Canada. Quality released an instrumental single, "Inside Out", on their Reo subsidiary, deliberately miscredited to Bob Ashley & The Reflections. In 1965, the group changed their name to Chad Allan & the Expressions after a US group called the Reflections released the hit single " Romeo and Juliet"; that year the band produced their first hit, a 1965 rendition of Johnny Kidd & the Pirates' "Shakin' All Over". This track reached No. 1 in Canada, No. 22 in the United States, No. 27 in Australia. Mimicking a ploy the previous year by "The You Know Who Group" in the United States, Quality Records credited the single only to Guess Who? in an attempt to build a mystique around the record.
In 1965 The Four Seasons attempted a similar masking by recording under the similar nom de disque The Wonder Who? After Quality Records revealed the band to be Chad Allan & The Expressions, disc jockeys continued to announce the group as Guess Who? forcing the band to accept the new name. The immediate follow-ups to "Shakin' All Over" met with major success in Canada but little elsewhere. Unwilling to participate in the resulting long tours through western Canada, southern Ontario and the United States, Bob Ashley left the group in late 1965. Burton Cummings joined the band as keyboardist in early January 1966 and shared lead vocal work with Chad Allan; this line-up lasted only a few months. By this point, the band's name had become The Guess Who?, though the question mark would be dropped in 1968. Burton Cummings' The Deverons bandmate, guitarist Bruce Decker, was brought in after Allan left but was let go by the end of that summer and the group was a quartet for the next four years, with Randy Bachman teaching Cummings any extra guitar parts needed for live shows.
Having performed many times in various venues in Winnipeg, the band began playing in Regina, Saskatchewan, in 1966, performing in some of the same venues as Joni Mitchell and Neil Young. The group continued to release top 40 singles in Canada, including "Clock on the Wall". One single called "His Girl" entered the UK charts in 1967. A trip to the United Kingdom to promote this single in February 1967 proved to be a financial mistake, as the single dropped off the charts after only one week, The Guess Who found themselves unable to get airplay or to book paying gigs without work visas, they returned to Canada within a matter of thousands of dollars in debt. In 1967, they were hired as the house band on the CBC radio show The Swingers and as the house band on CBC television program Let's Go, a music show oriented toward teenagers. 39 weekly shows aired each year and the paycheques allowed the Guess Who to pay off their debts and gave them further exposure in Canada. The band was hired to perform the chart hits of the day, in arrangements as close as possible to the actual hit records.
The Guess Who stayed with Let's Go for two years. After seeing The Guess Who on Let's Go, record producer/sales executive Jack Richardson contacted the band about participating in an advertising project for Coca-Cola; the resulting album was called A Wild Pair, featured The Guess Who on one side and The Staccatos on the other. The album was available for purchase only through mail-order for the price of 10 Coca Cola bottle cap liners and $1; because the album was not sold through normal retail channels, no certified sales figures are availab
Richard Wayne Penniman, known as Little Richard, is an American recording artist, singer and actor. An influential figure in popular music and culture for seven decades, Penniman's most celebrated work dates from the mid-1950s, when his dynamic music and charismatic showmanship laid the foundation for rock and roll, his music played a key role in the formation of other popular music genres, including soul and funk. Penniman influenced numerous musicians across musical genres from rock to hip hop. Penniman has been honored by many institutions, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as part of its first group of inductees in 1986. He was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, he is the recipient of a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Recording Academy and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation. Little Richard's "Tutti Frutti" was included in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2010, which stated that his "unique vocalizing over the irresistible beat announced a new era in music."
In 2015, the National Museum of African American Music honored Little Richard with a Rhapsody & Rhythm Award for his pivotal role in the formation of popular music genres and in helping to shatter the color line on the music charts, changing American culture significantly. Little Richard was born Richard Wayne Penniman on December 5, 1932, in Georgia, he was the third of twelve children of Charles "Bud" Penniman. His father was a church deacon who sold bootlegged moonshine on the side and owned a nightclub, the Tip In Inn, his mother was a member of Macon's New Hope Baptist Church. Penniman's first name was supposed to have been "Ricardo" but an error resulted in "Richard" instead; the Penniman children were raised in a neighborhood of Macon called Pleasant Hill. In childhood, he was nicknamed "Lil' Richard" by his family, because of his skinny frame. A mischievous child who played pranks on neighbors, Penniman began singing in church at a young age; as a result of complications at birth, Penniman had a slight deformity that left one of his legs shorter than the other.
This produced an unusual gait. Penniman's family was religious, joining various A. M. E. Baptist and Pentecostal churches, with some family members becoming ministers. Penniman enjoyed the Pentecostal churches the most, because of their charismatic worship and live music, he recalled that people in his neighborhood during segregation sang gospel songs throughout the day to keep a positive outlook, because "there was so much poverty, so much prejudice in those days". He had observed that people sang "to feel their connection with God" and to wash their trials and burdens away. Gifted with a loud singing voice, Penniman recalled that he was "always changing the key upwards" and that they once stopped him from singing in church for "screaming and hollering" so loud, earning him the nickname "War Hawk"; as a child, Penniman would "beat on the steps of the house, on tin cans and pots and pans, or whatever", while singing, annoying neighbors. Penniman's initial musical influences were gospel performers such as Brother Joe May, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, Mahalia Jackson and Marion Williams.
May, who as a singing evangelist was known as "the Thunderbolt of the Middle West" because of his phenomenal range and vocal power, inspired the boy to become a preacher. Penniman attended Macon's Hudson High School. Penniman learned to play alto saxophone joining his school's marching band while in fifth grade. While in high school, Penniman obtained a part-time job at Macon City Auditorium for local secular and gospel concert promoter Clint Brantley. Penniman sold Coca-Cola to crowds during concerts of star performers of the day such as Cab Calloway, Lucky Millinder and his favorite singer, Sister Rosetta Tharpe. In October 1947, 14-year-old Penniman performed with Tharpe at the Macon City Auditorium. After the show Tharpe paid him. A year he began performing in Doctor Nubillo's traveling show. Penniman was inspired to wear turbans and capes in his career by Nubillo, who "carried a black stick and exhibited something he called'the devil's child' - the dried-up body of a baby with claw feet like a bird and horns on its head."
Nubillo told Penniman he was "gonna be famous" but that he would have to "go where the grass is greener."Before entering the tenth grade, Penniman left his family home and joined Dr. Hudson's Medicine Show in 1949, performing Louis Jordan's "Caldonia". Penniman recalled the song was the first secular R&B song he learned, since his family had strict rules against playing R&B music, which they considered "devil music." Penniman performed in drag during this time, performing under the name "Princess LaVonne". In 1950, Penniman joined his first musical band, Buster Brown's Orchestra, where Brown gave him the name Little Richard. Performing in the minstrel show circuit, Penniman, in and out of drag, performed for various vaudeville acts such as Sugarfoot Sam from Alabam, the Tidy Jolly Steppers, the King Brothers Circus and Broadway Follies. Having settled in Atlanta, Georgia at this point, Penniman began listening to rhythm and blues and frequented Atlanta clubs, including the Harlem Theater and the Royal Peacock where he saw performers such as Roy Brown and Billy Wright onstage.
Penniman was further influenced by Brown's and Wright's flashy style of showmanship and was more influenced by Wright