Lumber or timber is a type of wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber, it may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping, it is available in many species hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes for the construction industry – softwood, from coniferous species, including pine and spruce, hemlock, but some hardwood, for high-grade flooring, it is more made from softwood than hardwoods, 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In the United States milled boards of wood are referred to as lumber. However, in Britain and other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is instead used to describe sawn wood products, like floor boards. In the United States and Canada timber describes standing or felled trees. In Canada, lumber describes cut and surfaced wood.
In the United Kingdom, the word lumber is used in relation to wood and has several other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. Referring to wood, Timber is universally used instead. Remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of milled lumber, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing. Structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock, its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength and fire resistance. Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns slower than all treated wood lumber.
Logs are converted into timber by being hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. There are various types of sawing: Plain sawn – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. Quarter sawn and rift sawn – These terms have been confused in history but mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart – The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure. Heart center – the center core of a log. Free of heart center – A side-cut timber without any pith. Free of knots – No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber, cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, 4×4; the length of a board is specified separately from the width and depth.
It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four and twelve feet in length. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. For wall framing, "stud" or "precut" sizes are available, are used. For an eight-, nine-, or ten-foot ceiling height, studs are available in 92 5⁄8 inches, 104 5⁄8 inches, 116 5⁄8 inches; the term "stud" is used inconsistently to specify length. Under the prescription of the Method of Construction issued by the Southern Song government in the early 12th century, timbers were standardized to eight cross-sectional dimensions. Regardless of the actual dimensions of the timber, the ratio between width and height was maintained at 1:1.5. Units are in Song Dynasty inches. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed"; the width of a timber is referred to as one "timber", the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber". The dimensions of timbers in similar application show a gradual diminution from the Sui Dyansty to the modern era.
The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. In general the maximum length is 24 ft. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-
Coleophora is a large genus of moths of the family Coleophoridae. It contains; the genus is represented on all continents, but the majority are found in the Nearctic and Palaearctic regions. Many authors have tried splitting the genus into numerous smaller ones, but most of these have not become accepted; as with most members of the family, the larvae feed on the seeds, flowers or leaves of the host plant, but when larger, they feed externally and construct distinctive protective silken cases incorporating plant material. Many species have specific host plants. For terms see External morphology of Lepidoptera Antennae 4/5, porrected in repose thickened with scales towards base, in male simple, basal joint long with rough scales or projecting tuft. Labial palpi rather long, second joint more or less roughscaled or tufted towards apex beneath, terminal shorter, acute. Posterior tibiae rough - haired. Forewings with costa long - haired beneath. Hindwings 2/3, linear-lanceolate, cilia 3-4. Fauna Europaea Nomina Insecta Nearctica HOSTS - Caterpillar Hostplants Database Coleophora at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera pages
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale. Bracts are different from foliage leaves, they texture. They look different from the parts of the flower, such as the petals or sepals; the state of having bracts is referred to as bracteate or bracteolate, conversely the state of lacking them is referred to as ebracteate and ebracteolate, without bracts. Some bracts are brightly-coloured and serve the function of attracting pollinators, either together with the perianth or instead of it. Examples of this type of bract include Euphorbia pulcherrima and Bougainvillea: both of these have large colourful bracts surrounding much smaller, less colourful flowers. In grasses, each floret is enclosed in a pair of papery bracts, called the lemma and palea, while each spikelet has a further pair of bracts at its base called glumes; these bracts form the chaff removed from cereal grain during winnowing. Bats may detect acoustic signals from dish-shaped bracts such as those of Marcgravia evenia.
A prophyll is a leaf-like structure, such as a bracteole, subtending a single pedicel. The term can mean the lower bract on a peduncle; the showy pair of bracts of Euphorbia species in subgenus Lacanthis are the cyathophylls. Bracts subtend the cone scales in the seed cones of many conifers, in some cases, such as Pseudotsuga, they extend beyond the cone scales. A small bract is called a bractlet. Technically this is any bract. Bracts that appear in a whorl subtending an inflorescence are collectively called an involucre. An involucre is a common feature beneath the inflorescences of many Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Polygonaceae; each flower in an inflorescence may have its own whorl of bracts, in this case called an involucel. In this case they may be called chaff, paleas, or receptacular bracts and are minute scales or bristles. Many asteraceous plants have bracts at the base of each inflorescence; the term involucre is used for a conspicuous bract or bract pair at the base of an inflorescence. In the family Betulaceae, notably in the genera Carpinus and Corylus, the involucre is a leafy structure that protects the developing nuts.
Beggar-tick has narrow involucral bracts surrounding each inflorescence, each of which has a single bract below it. There is a pair of leafy bracts on the main stem and below those a pair of leaves. An epicalyx, which forms an additional whorl around the calyx of a single flower, is a modification of bracteoles In other words, the epicalyx is a group of bracts resembling a calyx or bracteoles forming a whorl outer to the calyx, it is a calyx-like extra whorl of floral appendages. Each individual segment of the epicalyx is called an episepal because they resemble the sepals in them, they are present in the Hibiscus family. Fragaria may not have an epicalyx. A spathe is a large bract or pair of bracts forming a sheath to enclose the flower cluster of such plants as palms, irises and dayflowers. Habranthus tubispathus in the Amaryllidaceae derives its specific name from its tuberous spathe. In many arums, the spathe is petal-like, attracting pollinators to the flowers arranged on a type of spike called a spadix
Svensson's copper underwing
Svensson's copper underwing is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is distributed throughout Europe including Russia east to the Urals; this species has a wingspan of 47–56 mm, the female larger than the male. The forewings are brown, marked with a dark-centred pale stigma; the hindwings are bright copper-coloured. This species is similar to the copper underwing but can be distinguished by the pattern on the underside of the hindwings: A. pyramidea has a pale central area, contrasting with darker margins. A. berbera flies at night from July to September and is attracted to light and to sugar. The larva feeds on a range of shrubs; the species overwinters as an egg. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range. Acer - sycamore maple Carpinus - hornbeam Populus - aspen Quercus - oak Rhododendron Salix - willow Sorbus - rowan Syringa - lilac Tilia - limeSee. Chinery, Michael Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Skinner, Bernard Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles 1984 Svensson's Copper Underwing on UKmoths Fauna Europaea Funet Taxonomy Lepiforum.de Includes photo of genitalia
The hazel is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The genus is placed in the birch family Betulaceae, though some botanists split the hazels into a separate family Corylaceae; the fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut. Hazels have rounded leaves with double-serrate margins; the flowers are produced early in spring before the leaves, are monoecious, with single-sex catkins, the male catkins are pale yellow and 5–12 cm long, the female ones are small and concealed in the buds, with only the bright-red, 1-to-3 mm-long styles visible. The fruits are nuts 1–2.5 cm long and 1–2 cm diameter, surrounded by an involucre which to encloses the nut. The shape and structure of the involucre, the growth habit, are important in the identification of the different species of hazel; the pollen of hazel species, which are the cause for allergies in late winter or early spring, can be identified under magnification by their characteristic granular exines bearing three conspicuous pores.
Corylus has 14–18 species. The circumscription of species in eastern Asia is disputed, with WCSP and the Flora of China differing in which taxa are accepted; the species are grouped as follows: Nut surrounded by a soft, leafy involucre, multiple-stemmed, suckering shrubs to 12 m tall Involucre short, about the same length as the nut Corylus americana—American hazel, eastern North America Corylus avellana—Common hazel and western Asia Corylus heterophylla—Asian hazel, Asia Corylus yunnanensis—Yunnan hazel and southern China Involucre long, twice the length of the nut or more, forming a'beak' Corylus colchica—Colchican filbert, Caucasus Corylus cornuta—Beaked hazel, North America Corylus maxima—Filbert, southeastern Europe and southwest Asia Corylus sieboldiana—Asian beaked hazel, northeastern Asia and Japan Nut surrounded by a stiff, spiny involucre, single-stemmed trees to 20–35 m tall Involucre moderately spiny and with glandular hairs Corylus chinensis—Chinese hazel, western China Corylus colurna—Turkish hazel, southeastern Europe and Asia Minor Corylus fargesii—Farges' hazel, western China Corylus jacquemontii—Jacquemont's hazel, Himalaya Corylus wangii—Wang's hazel, southwest China Involucre densely spiny, resembling a chestnut burr Corylus ferox—Himalayan hazel, Himalaya and southwest China.
Several hybrids exist, can occur between species in different sections of the genus, e.g. Corylus × colurnoides; the oldest confirmed hazel species is Corylus johnsonii found as fossils in the Ypresian-age rocks of Ferry County, Washington. The nuts of all hazels are edible; the common hazel is the species most extensively grown for its nuts, followed in importance by the filbert. Nuts are harvested from the other species, but apart from the filbert, none is of significant commercial importance. A number of cultivars of the common hazel and filbert are grown as ornamental plants in gardens, including forms with contorted stems. Hazel is a traditional material used for making wattle, withy fencing and the frames of coracle boats; the tree can be coppiced, regenerating shoots allow for harvests every few years. Hazels are used as food plants by the larvae of various species of Lepidoptera; the Celts believed hazelnuts gave one inspiration. There are numerous variations on an ancient tale that nine hazel trees grew around a sacred pool, dropping into the water nuts that were eaten by salmon, which absorbed the wisdom.
A Druid teacher, in his bid to become omniscient, caught one of these special salmon and asked a student to cook the fish, but not to eat it. While he was cooking it, a blister formed and the pupil used his thumb to burst it, which he sucked to cool, thereby absorbing the fish's wisdom; this boy was called Fionn Mac Cumhail and went on to become one of the most heroic leaders in Gaelic mythology."The Hazel Branch" from Grimms' Fairy Tales claims that hazel branches offer the greatest protection from snakes and other things that creep on the earth. Eichhorn, Markus. "The Hazel Tree". Test Tube. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
Hardwood is wood from dicot trees. These are found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. In temperate and boreal latitudes they are deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics evergreen. Hardwood contrasts with softwood. Hardwoods are produced by angiosperm trees that reproduce by flowers, have broad leaves. Many species are deciduous; those of temperate regions lose their leaves every autumn as temperatures fall and are dormant in the winter, but those of tropical regions may shed their leaves in response to seasonal or sporadic periods of drought. Hardwood from deciduous species, such as oak shows annual growth rings, but these may be absent in some tropical hardwoods. Hardwoods have a more complex structure than softwoods and are much slower growing as a result; the dominant feature separating "hardwoods" from softwoods is vessels. The vessels may show considerable variation in size, shape of perforation plates, structure of cell wall, such as spiral thickenings; as the name suggests, the wood from these trees is harder than that of softwoods, but there are significant exceptions.
In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, with the range in density in hardwoods including that of softwoods. Hardwoods are employed in a large range of applications, including fuel, construction, boat building, furniture making, musical instruments, cooking and manufacture of charcoal. Solid hardwood joinery tends to be expensive compared to softwood. In the past, tropical hardwoods were available, but the supply of some species, such as Burma teak and mahogany, is now becoming scarce due to over-exploitation. Cheaper "hardwood" doors, for instance, now consist of a thin veneer bonded to a core of softwood, plywood or medium-density fibreboard. Hardwoods may be used in a variety of objects, but are most seen in furniture or musical instruments because of their density which adds to durability and performance. Different species of hardwood lend themselves to different end uses or construction processes; this is due to the variety of characteristics apparent in different timbers, including density, pore size and fibre pattern and ability to be steam bent.
For example, the interlocked grain of elm wood makes it suitable for the making of chair seats where the driving in of legs and other components can cause splitting in other woods. There is a correlation between calories/volume; this makes the denser hardwoods like oak and apple more suited for camp fires, cooking fires, smoking meat, as they tend to burn hotter and longer than softwoods like pine or cedar whose low-density construction and highly-flammable sap make them burn and without producing quite as much heat. List of woods Hardwood flooring Softwood Janka hardness test Brinell scale Schweingruber, F. H. Anatomie europäischer Hölzer—Anatomy of European woods. Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landscaft, Birmensdorf. Haupt, Bern und Stuttgart. Timonen, Tuuli. Introduction to Microscopic Wood Identification. Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki. Wilson, K. and D. J. B. White; the Anatomy of Wood: Its Diversity and variability. Stobart & Son Ltd, London. Center for Wood Anatomy Research
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms