, Volume 5, plate 12. Published in 1651 in Frankfurt am Main).]]
Distinguish from a crownwork, which contains a full bastion at the center.
|This military base or fortification article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
, Volume 5, plate 12. Published in 1651 in Frankfurt am Main).]]
Distinguish from a crownwork, which contains a full bastion at the center.
|This military base or fortification article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
A city gate is a gate which is, or was, set within a city wall. City gates were traditionally built to provide a point of controlled access to and departure from a walled city for people, vehicles and animals. Depending on their historical context they filled functions relating to defense, health, trade and representation, were correspondingly staffed by military or municipal authorities; the city gate was commonly used to display diverse kinds of public information such as announcements and toll schedules, standards of local measures, legal texts. It could be fortified, ornamented with heraldic shields, sculpture or inscriptions, or used as a location for warning or intimidation, for example by displaying the heads of beheaded criminals or public enemies. City gates, in one form or another, can be found across the world in cities dating back to ancient times to around the 19th century. Many cities would close their gates after a certain curfew each night, for example a bigger one like Prague or a smaller one like Flensburg, in the north of Germany.
With increased stability and freedom, many walled cities removed such fortifications as city gates, although many still survive. Many surviving gates have been restored, rebuilt or new ones created to add to the appearance of a city, such as Bab Bou Jalous in Fes. With increased levels of traffic, city gates have come under threat in the past for impeding the flow of traffic, such as Temple Bar in London, removed in the 19th century. Egypt: Gates of Cairo Morocco: Bab Agnaou of Marrakech China Zhengyangmen and Deshengmen in Beijing Gate of China in Nanjing city gate of Jianshui Cyprus: Famagusta Gate in Nicosia India Gateway of India in Mumbai Walled city of Jaipur in Jaipur Walled city and gates of Aurangabad in Aurangabad Walled city of Kota in Kota Teen Darwaza in Bhadra Fort, Ahmedabad Mesopotamia: Ishtar Gate, Babylon Iran Qur'an gate Nowbar gate. Israel: Gates in Jerusalem's Old City Walls Japan: Rashomon Gate, Kyoto Macau: Portas do Cerco - border gate for Macau with neighbouring Zhuhai Pakistan: Walled City of Lahore South Korea: Seoul's city gates, including: Namdaemun and Dongdaemun Taiwan: North gate of Taipei Yemen: Bab al Yemen of Sana'a Austria: Wienertor: in Hainburg an der Donau Belgium: Brusselpoort: in Mechelen Waterpoort in Antwerp Halle Gate in Brussels Bosnia and Herzegovina: Višegradska kapija Višegrad gate, gate in Sarajevo Croatia: Walls of Dubrovnik Czech Republic: Powder Gate, Prague Písek Gate, Prague Zelená brána, Pardubice Brána Matky Boží, Jihlava Svatá brána, Kadaň Vysoká brána, Rakovník Pražská brána, Rakovník Denmark: Vesterport, Faaborg England: Bargate Southampton London's Roman and Medieval gates of the London Wall: Ludgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate, Aldgate Westgate, Canterbury Eastgate, Northgate,Watergate and Bridgegate.
Chester The gates of the York city walls Estonia: Tallinn Gate in Pärnu France: Porte de Joigny and Porte de Sens in Villeneuve-sur-Yonne Porte de la Craffe in Nancy Porte des Allemands in Metz Porte Saint-Denis and Porte Saint-Martin in Paris Porte Mars in Reims Porte Cailhau in Bordeaux Porte de la Grosse-Horloge in La Rochelle Porte Mordelaise in Rennes Germany: Fünfgratturm in Augsburg Rotes Tor in Augsburg Vogeltor in Augsburg Wertachbrucker Tor in Augsburg Brandenburg Gate, in Berlin Eigelsteintor, Ulrepforte, Severinstor in Cologne Nordertor and Rotes Tor in Flensburg Martinstor and Schwabentor in Freiburg im Breisgau Holstentor, in Lübeck Isartor, Sendlinger Tor and Propylaea in Munich East Gate, in Regensburg Steintor, in Rostock Old Gate, in Speyer Porta Nigra, in Trier Greece: Lion Gate in Mycenae, 13th century B. C.. Ireland: Saint Laurence Gate, Drogheda Sheep Gate, Trim St. James's Gate, Dublin gates of Dublin Italy: Porta Galliera, Bologna Porta Saragozza, Bologna Porta Paola, Ferrara Pusterla di Sant'Ambrogio, in Milan Porta Nuova, in Milan Porta Nuova, in Milan Porta Ticinese, in Milan Porta Ticinese, in Milan Porta Capuana, Naples Porta San Gennaro, Naples Port'Alba, Naples Porta Nolana, Naples Porta Felice, in Palermo Porta Nuova, in Palermo Porta San Giovanni, in Rome Porta del Popolo, in Rome Porta Maggiore, in Rome Porta Pinciana, in Rome Porta Tiburtina, in Rome Porta San Sebastiano, in Rome Porta San Paolo, in Rome Porta Camollia, Siena Porta Palatina, in Turin Lithuania: Gate of Dawn, in Vilnius Malta: City Gate and Victoria Gate, Valletta Mdina Gate and Greeks Gate, Mdina Notre Dame Gate, Birgu St. Helen's Gate, Cospicua Netherlands: Amsterdamse Poort, a city gate of Haarlem Waterpoort, Sneek Vischpoort, Elburg Vischpoort, Harderwijk Koppelpoort, Amersfoort Zijlpoort, Leiden Poland: Brama Floriańska, Kraków Żuraw, Gdańsk Brama Zielona, Gdańsk Brama Wyżynna, Gdańsk Brama Mariacka, Gdańsk Brama Krakowska, Lublin Brama Mostowa, Toruń Brama Klasztorna, Toruń Brama Opatowska, Sandomierz Brama Młyńska, Stargard Brama Pyrzycka, Stargard Brama Garncarska, Malbork Brama Lidzbarska, Bartoszyce Nowa Brama, Słupsk Brama Świecka, Chojna Brama Wolińska, Goleniów Brama Odrzańska, Brzeg Brama Portowa, Szczecin Brama Górna, Olsztyn Brama Szczebrzeska, Zamość Portugal: Arco da Porta Nova, Braga Portas da Cidade, Ponta Delgada Portão dos Varadouros a.k.a.
A gatehouse is an entry control point building, enclosing or accompanying a gateway for a town, religious house, manor house, or other fortification building of importance. Gatehouses are the most armed section of a fortification, to compensate for being structurally the weakest and the most probable attack point by an enemy. There are numerous surviving examples in France, Germany and Japan. Gatehouses made their first appearance in the early antiquity when it became necessary to protect the main entrance to a castle or town. Over time, they evolved into complicated structures with many lines of defence. Fortified gatehouses would include a drawbridge, one or more portcullises, arrow loops and even murder-holes where stones would be dropped on attackers. In some castles, the gatehouse was so fortified it took on the function of a keep, sometimes referred to as a "gate keep". In the late Middle Ages, some of these arrow loops might have been converted into gun loops. Urban defences would sometimes incorporate gatehouses such as Monnow Bridge in Monmouth.
York has four important gatehouses, known as "Bars", in its city walls including the Micklegate Bar. The French term for gatehouse is logis-porche; this could be a large, complex structure that served both as a gateway and lodging or it could have been composed of a gateway through an enclosing wall. A large gatehouse might be called a châtelet. At the end of the Middle Ages, many gatehouses in England and France were converted into beautiful, grand entrance structures to manor houses or estates. Many of them became a separate feature free-standing or attached to the manor or mansion only by an enclosing wall. By this time the gatehouse had lost its defensive purpose and had become more of a monumental structure designed to harmonise with the manor or mansion. In the Dravidian architecture of South India tall gopuram gatehouses four, dominate large Hindu temple complexes. Bargate, in Hampshire is a medieval gatehouse in the city centre of England. Constructed in 1180 as part of the Southampton town walls Ightham Mote, in Kent has an imposing 13th and 14th century gatehouse.
Durham Castle, in Durham has an 11th-century gatehouse, now used as accommodation for students attending University College, Durham. Layer Marney Tower, the apotheosis of the Tudor gatehouse. Stokesay Castle, a 13th-century fortified manor house in Shropshire has a Jacobean half-timbered gatehouse. Stanway House, Gloucestershire, where the gatehouse measures 44 ft. by 22 ft. and has three storeys. Westwood House, which has a frontage of 54 ft. with two storeys. Burton Agnes Hall, East Riding of Yorkshire, which has three storeys and is flanked by great octagonal towers at the angles. Hylton Castle, Sunderland, although it is an actual castle, it is styled in the shape of a classical gatehouse. Château de Châteaubriant, two gatehouses, one for the lower bailey, one for the upper ward. Château de Suscinio, a large 15th-century gatehouse in the logis-porte style, Brittany. Château de Trécesson, a simple 14th-century gatehouse on a moated manor house in Morbihan, Brittany Château de Vitré, a large 15th-century châtelet or gatehouse in Ille-et-Vilaine, Brittany Latrobe Gate, a Greek Revival and Italianate gatehouse built in 1806, Washington, D.
C. Lorraine Park Cemetery Gate Lodge, a Queen Anne style stone and frame building constructed in 1884, Baltimore County, Maryland. Guardhouse This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gatehouse". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. P. 529
A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is a fence or wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisade derives from pale, from the Latin word pālus, meaning stake a stake used to support a fence. A palisade gangs these side by side to create a fence made of pales. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, with no free space in between; the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m; as a defensive structure, palisades were used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications. Since they were made of wood, they could be and built from available materials, they proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were an effective deterrent against small forces.
However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire and siege weapons. A palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. Both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps; the Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War. The Greek stakes were too large to be carried and were spaced too far apart; this made it easy for enemies to create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, making them more difficult to uproot. Many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States made use of palisades. A prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Illinois. A wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monk's Mound and the Grand Plaza.
Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was rebuilt several times, in different locations. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokia's main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, as well as being a defensive structure. Other examples include the Angel Mounds Site in southern Indiana, Aztalan State Park in Wisconsin, the Kincaid Site in Illinois, the Parkin Site and the Nodena Sites in southeastern Arkansas and the Etowah Site in Georgia. Palisaded settlements were common in Colonial America, for protection against indigenous peoples and wild animals; the English settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, were fortified towns surrounded by palisades. They were frequently used in New France. In the late nineteenth century, when milled lumber was not available or practical, many Adirondack buildings were built using a palisade architecture; the walls were made of vertical half timbers. The cracks between the vertical logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks.
Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens. This palisade style was much more efficient to build than the traditional horizontal log cabin since two half logs provided more surface area than one whole log and the vertical alignment meant a stronger structure for supporting loads like upper stories and roofs, it presented a more finished look inside. Examples of this architectural style can still be found in the Adirondacks, such as around Big Moose Lake. In South Africa as well as other countries, a common means to prevent crime is for residential houses to have perimeter defences such as brick walls, steel palisade fences, wooden palisade fences and electrified palisade fences; the City of Johannesburg promotes the use of palisade fencing over opaque brick, walls as criminals cannot hide as behind the fence. In its manual on safety includes guidance such as not growing vegetation alongside as this allows criminals to make an unseen breach. Palisado crown Media related to Palisade at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of palisade at Wiktionary
The sudis is a Latin word meaning stake. It was the name given to stakes carried by Roman legionaries for employment as a field fortification, sometimes called vallus, it is but incorrectly, called a pilum murale meaning'wall spear'. The stakes were carried by Roman legionaries; each stake was made of hardwood oak, about 150–180 cm long and about 50–100 mm wide at the thickest point. Square in section, the shape tapers to a point at both ends; the central part is narrowed in a way that suggests the function of a handle, although this may not be its actual purpose. Examples that have been found are rough, it seems clear. However, the exact manner in which stakes were used is the subject of debate among experts, it is possible. Projecting from the ramparts at an angle, they would present a barrier to an attacker attempting to climb up. Alternatively, they could have been placed vertically at the top of the rampart as a fence. Experiments with reconstructions have been disappointing in that such barriers are not strong, as the symmetry of the stakes makes them easy to pull out of the ground.
It has been proposed that the stakes were lashed in pairs at intervals along a log or beam to form a Cheval de frise. This could be used, as a moveable barrier to bar a gateway. Alternatively, three stakes might be roped together into a defence resembling the Czech hedgehog — a sort of giant caltrop. Defences of this type, employed en masse, can be pushed aside only with difficulty and cannot be collapsed; the advantage of such suggested modes of use is that they are consistent with the symmetry of the stakes and account for the hand grip at the centre, required to bind the stakes together. In the Battle of Mount Algidus, Cincinnatus ordered his men to provide twelve valli each, used them to build a fortification around the Aequi, who were, at the time, surrounding another Roman army. ^ Peterson, Daniel. The Roman Legion Recreated in Colour Photographs. Windrow & Green. ISBN 1-872004-06-7
An abatis, abattis, or abbattis is a field fortification consisting of an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, towards the enemy. The trees are interlaced or tied with wire. Abatis are used alone or in combination with other obstacles. There is evidence it was used as early as the Roman Imperial period, as as the American Civil War. A classic use of an abatis was at the Battle of Carillon during the Seven Years' War; the 3,600 French troops defeated a massive army of 16,000 British and Colonial troops by fronting their defensive positions with an dense abatis. The British found the defences impossible to breach and were forced to withdraw with some 2,600 casualties. Other uses of an abatis can be found at the Battle of the Chateauguay, 26 October 1813, when 1,300 Canadian voltigeurs, under the command of Charles-Michel de Salaberry, defeated an American corps of 4,000 men, or at the Battle of Plattsburgh. An important weakness of abatis, in contrast to barbed wire, is.
If laced together with rope instead of wire, the rope can be quickly destroyed by such fires, after which the abatis can be pulled apart by grappling hooks thrown from a safe distance. An important advantage is that an improvised abatis can be formed in forested areas; this can be done by cutting down a row of trees so that they fall with their tops toward the enemy. An alternative is to place explosives so as to blow the trees down. Abatis are seen nowadays, having been replaced by wire obstacles. However, it may supplement when barbed wire is in short supply. A form of giant abatis, using whole trees instead of branches, can be used as an improvised anti-tank obstacle. Though used by modern conventional military units, abatises are still maintained in United States Army and Marine Corps training. Current US training instructs engineers or other constructors of such obstacles to fell trees, leaving a 1 or 2 yards stump, in such a manner as the trees fall interlocked pointing at a 45-degree angle towards the direction of approach of the enemy.
Furthermore, it is recommended that the trees remain connected to the stumps and the length of roadway covered be at least 80 yards. US military maps record an abatis by use of an inverted "V" with a short line extending from it to the right. Zasechnaya cherta Pamplin Historical Park & The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier includes large and authentic reproduction of abatis used in the U. S. Civil War
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements; these are referred to as city walls or town walls, although there were walls, such as the Great Wall of China, Walls of Benin, Hadrian's Wall, Anastasian Wall, the Cyclopean Wall Rajgir and the metaphorical Atlantic Wall, which extended far beyond the borders of a city and were used to enclose regions or mark territorial boundaries. In mountainous terrain, defensive walls such as letzis were used in combination with castles to seal valleys from potential attack. Beyond their defensive utility, many walls had important symbolic functions – representing the status and independence of the communities they embraced. Existing ancient walls are always masonry structures, although brick and timber-built variants are known. Depending on the topography of the area surrounding the city or the settlement the wall is intended to protect, elements of the terrain such as rivers or coastlines may be incorporated in order to make the wall more effective.
Walls may only be crossed by entering the appropriate city gate and are supplemented with towers. The practice of building these massive walls, though having its origins in prehistory, was refined during the rise of city-states, energetic wall-building continued into the medieval period and beyond in certain parts of Europe. Simpler defensive walls of earth or stone, thrown up around hillforts, early castles and the like, tend to be referred to as ramparts or banks. From early history to modern times, walls have been a near necessity for every city. Uruk in ancient Sumer is one of the world's oldest known walled cities. Before that, the proto-city of Jericho in the West Bank in Palestine had a wall surrounding it as early as the 8th millennium BC; the Assyrians deployed large labour forces to build new palaces and defensive walls. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were fortified. By about 3500 BC, hundreds of small farming villages dotted the Indus floodplain. Many of these settlements had planned streets.
The stone and mud brick houses of Kot Diji were clustered behind massive stone flood dykes and defensive walls, for neighboring communities quarreled about the control of prime agricultural land. Mundigak in present-day south-east Afghanistan has defensive walls and square bastions of sun dried bricks. Babylon was one of the most famous cities of the ancient world as a result of the building program of Nebuchadnezzar, who expanded the walls and built the Ishtar Gate. Exceptions were few, but neither ancient Sparta nor ancient Rome had walls for a long time, choosing to rely on their militaries for defense instead; these fortifications were simple constructions of wood and earth, which were replaced by mixed constructions of stones piled on top of each other without mortar. In Central Europe, the Celts built large fortified settlements which the Romans called oppida, whose walls seem influenced by those built in the Mediterranean; the fortifications were continuously improved. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae.
In classical era Greece, the city of Athens built a long set of parallel stone walls called the Long Walls that reached their guarded seaport at Piraeus. Large rammed earth walls were built in ancient China since the Shang Dynasty, as the capital at ancient Ao had enormous walls built in this fashion. Although stone walls were built in China during the Warring States, mass conversion to stone architecture did not begin in earnest until the Tang Dynasty. Sections of the Great Wall had been built prior to the Qin Dynasty and subsequently connected and fortified during the Qin dynasty, although its present form was an engineering feat and remodeling of the Ming Dynasty; the large walls of Pingyao serve as one example. The walls of the Forbidden City in Beijing were established in the early 15th century by the Yongle Emperor; the Romans fortified their cities with mortar-bound stone walls. Among these are the extant Aurelian Walls of Rome and the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, together with partial remains elsewhere.
These are city gates, like the Porta Nigra in Trier or Newport Arch in Lincoln. Apart from these, the early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles; these cities were only protected by simple stone walls and more by a combination of both walls and ditches. From the 12th century AD hundreds of settlements of all sizes were founded all across Europe, which often obtained the right of fortification soon afterwards; the founding of urban centers was an important means of territorial expansion and many cities in central and eastern Europe, were founded for this purpose during the period of Eastern settlement. These cities are easy to recognise due to their regular layout and large market spaces; the fortifications of these settlements were continuously improved to reflect the current level of military development. During the Renaissance era, the Venetians raised great walls around cities threatened by the Ottoman Empire. Examples include the walled cities of Nicosia and Famagusta in Cyprus and the fortifications of Candia and Chania in Crete, which still stand.
At its simplest, a defensive wall consists of its gates. For the most part, the top of the walls were accessible, with the outside of the walls ha
A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble; this is distinct from a palace, not fortified. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Over the 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls and arrowslits, were commonplace. European-style castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes; these nobles built castles to control the area surrounding them and the castles were both offensive and defensive structures. Although their military origins are emphasised in castle studies, the structures served as centres of administration and symbols of power.
Urban castles were used to control the local populace and important travel routes, rural castles were situated near features that were integral to life in the community, such as mills, fertile land, or a water source. Many castles were built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced by stone. Early castles exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits and relying on a central keep. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged; this led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time to maximise the castle's firepower; these changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, inspiration from earlier defences, such as Roman forts. Not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power.
Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. Although gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the 14th century, it did not affect castle building until the 15th century, when artillery became powerful enough to break through stone walls. While castles continued to be built well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live; as a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century onwards, there was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of mock castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture, but they had no military purpose; the word castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The Old English castel, Old French castel or chastel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, a number of words in other languages derive from castellum.
The word castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a private fortified residence"; this contrasts with earlier fortifications, such as Anglo-Saxon burhs and walled cities such as Constantinople and Antioch in the Middle East. Feudalism was the link between a lord and his vassal where, in return for military service and the expectation of loyalty, the lord would grant the vassal land. In the late 20th century, there was a trend to refine the definition of a castle by including the criterion of feudal ownership, thus tying castles to the medieval period. During the First Crusade, the Frankish armies encountered walled settlements and forts that they indiscriminately referred to as castles, but which would not be considered as such under the modern definition. Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military and domestic.
As well as defensive structures, castles were offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in enemy territory. Castles were established by Norman invaders of England for both defensive purposes and to pacify the country's inhabitants; as William the Conqueror advanced through England, he fortified key positions to secure the land he had taken. Between 1066 and 1087, he established 36 castles such as Warwick Castle, which he used to guard against rebellion in the English Midlands. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, castles tended to lose their military significance due to the advent of powerful cannons and permanent artillery fortifications. A castle could act as a stronghold and prison but was a place where a knight or lord could entertain his peers. Over time the aesthetics of the design became more important, as the castle's appearance and size began to refle