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Horse breeding

Horse breeding is reproduction in horses, the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals purebred horses of a given breed. Planned matings can be used to produce desired characteristics in domesticated horses. Furthermore, modern breeding management and technologies can increase the rate of conception, a healthy pregnancy, successful foaling; the male parent of a horse, a stallion, is known as the sire and the female parent, the mare, is called the dam. Both are genetically important, as each parent provides half of the genetic makeup of the ensuing offspring, called a foal. Contrary to popular misuse, "colt" refers to a young male horse only. Though many horse owners may breed a family mare to a local stallion in order to produce a companion animal, most professional breeders use selective breeding to produce individuals of a given phenotype, or breed. Alternatively, a breeder could, using individuals of differing phenotypes, create a new breed with specific characteristics. A horse is "bred".

Thus a colt conceived in England but foaled in the United States is regarded as being bred in the US. In some cases, most notably in the Thoroughbred breeding industry, American- and Canadian-bred horses may be described by the state or province in which they are foaled; some breeds denote the state, where conception took place as the origin of the foal. The "breeder", is the person who owned or leased the mare at the time of foaling; that individual may not have had anything to do with the mating of the mare. It is important to review each breed registry's rules to determine which applies to any specific foal. In the horse breeding industry, the term "half-brother" or "half-sister" only describes horses which have the same dam, but different sires. Horses with the same sire but different dams are said to be "by the same sire", no sibling relationship is implied. "Full" siblings have both the same sire. The terms paternal half-sibling, maternal half-sibling are often used. Three-quarter siblings are horses out of the same dam, are by sires that are either half-brothers or who are by the same sire.

Thoroughbreds and Arabians are classified through the "distaff" or direct female line, known as their "family" or "tail female" line, tracing back to their taproot foundation bloodstock or the beginning of their respective stud books. The female line of descent always appears at the bottom of a tabulated pedigree and is therefore known as the bottom line. In addition, the maternal grandfather of a horse has a special term: damsire. "Linebreeding" technically is the duplication of more distant ancestors. However, the term is used more loosely, describing horses with duplication of ancestors closer than the fourth generation, it is sometimes used as a euphemism for the practice of inbreeding, a practice, frowned upon by horse breeders, though used by some in an attempt to fix certain traits. The estrous cycle controls when a mare is sexually receptive toward a stallion, helps to physically prepare the mare for conception, it occurs during the spring and summer months, although some mares may be sexually receptive into the late fall, is controlled by the photoperiod, the cycle first triggered when the days begin to lengthen.

The estrous cycle lasts about 19–22 days, with the average being 21 days. As the days shorten, the mare returns to a period when she is not sexually receptive, known as anestrus. Anestrus – occurring in the majority of, but not all, mares – prevents the mare from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be most difficult for the foal to survive; this cycle contains 2 phases: Estrus, or Follicular, phase: 5–7 days in length, when the mare is sexually receptive to a stallion. Estrogen is secreted by the follicle. Ovulation occurs in the final 24–48 hours of estrus. Diestrus, or Luteal, phase: 14–15 days in length, the mare is not sexually receptive to the stallion; the corpus luteum secretes progesterone. Depending on breed, on average, 16% of mares have double ovulations, allowing them to twin, though this does not affect the length of time of estrus or diestrus. Changes in hormone levels can have great effects on the physical characteristics of the reproductive organs of the mare, thereby preparing, or preventing, her from conceiving.

Uterus: increased levels of estrogen during estrus cause edema within the uterus, making it feel heavier, the uterus loses its tone. This edema decreases following ovulation, the muscular tone increases. High levels of progesterone do not cause edema within the uterus; the uterus becomes flaccid during anestrus. Cervix: the cervix starts to relax right before estrus occurs, with maximal relaxation around the time of ovulation; the secretions of the cervix increase. High progesterone levels cause the cervix to become toned. Vagina: the portion of the vagina near the cervix becomes engorged with blood right before estrus; the vagina becomes secretions increase. Vulva: relaxes right before estrus begins. Becomes dry, closes more during diestrus; the cycle is controlled by several hormones which regulate the estrous cycle, the mare's behavior, the reproductive system of the mare. The cycle begins when the increased day length causes the pineal gland to reduce the levels of melatonin, thereby allowing the hypothalamus to secrete GnRH.

GnRH: secreted by the hypothalamus, causes the pituitary to release two gonadotrophins: LH and FS


WOJL is a Classic Hits formatted broadcast radio station licensed to Louisa, serving Orange and Louisa counties. WOJL is operated by Piedmont Communications, Inc.. The format is simulcast on 95.3 MHz. WOJL signed on the air on July 1980 with the callsign WLSA, carrying a Country format. At midnight on May 27, 2004, WLSA dropped "105 Country" after being bought by Piedmont Communications and switched to oldies as "Oldies 105". A month on June 28, the callsign was switched to WOJL, now broadcast in HD. At noon on July 2, 2005, the format was switched again, this time to Adult Hits under the branding "Sam FM". On August 31, 2015, Westwood One eliminated the Sam FM service; the same day, WOJL dropped the Adult Hits format, switching to Classic Hits as "Classic Hits 105.5". The station reverted to the "Sam FM" branding in early January 2016. In early 2016, the station began simulcasting on 95.3 W237CA, an FM translator in Culpeper, via sister station 1490 WCVA. 105.5 Sam Fm Online Query the FCC's FM station database for WOJL Radio-Locator information on WOJL Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WOJL

Hibbertia scandens

Hibbertia scandens is a species of flowering plant in the family Dilleniaceae, native to Australia but cultivated. Growing to 4 m in length, it is a climbing or sprawling evergreen shrub with glossy leaves and solitary, bright yellow flowers; the yellow flowers have been reported as having an unpleasant odour variously described as similar to mothballs or animal urine or sweet but with "a pronounced faecal element". The leaves average 6 cm in length; the fruits consist of segments of bright orange flesh, each surrounding a black seed. While the flesh looks attractive enough to eat, it is best not to. A minute or so after eating, the flesh produces an unpleasant burning sensation in the mouth and lips. Near the sea, plants tend to be densely hairy with spathulate leaves and flowers with 6 or 7 carpels, while inland, the plants tend to be smoother, with flowers having 3 or 4 carpels; the species was first formally described in 1799 by German botanist Carl Willdenow who gave it the name Dillenia scandens.

The specific epithet scandens is derived from Latin, means "to climb". In 1805, Swedish botanist Jonas Dryander transferred the species into the genus Hibbertia. Hibbertia scandens occurs in an area that extends from south-eastern New South Wales upwards to north-east Queensland. Australasian Virtual Herbarium data show records for New Guinea; this species is cultivated as an ornamental, adapts to a wide range of growing conditions. Although it grows in semi-shaded areas, it flowers best in full sun; as it is only hardy down to 5 °C it requires winter protection in temperate regions. In the UK it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Hibbertia scandens appeared on an Australian postage stamp in 1999. List of flora on stamps of Australia "Hibbertia scandens' Dryand". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. PlantNET - New South Wales Flora Online Hibbertia scandens Australian Native Plants Society: Hibbertia scandens

St Mary's Abbey, Kenilworth

The remains of St Mary's Abbey, of Kenilworth, England are situated in the grounds of St Nicholas' Church and in an adjacent area of Abbey Fields. Some of its ruins are above ground and some are below ground. A priory for Augustinian canons was built on this site in about 1124 by Geoffrey de Clinton, about the same time as he built Kenilworth Castle. Gardens and pools were made near to the priory, the priory gained additional land as gifts from Geoffrey de Clinton. A barn, a gatehouse, a belltower and an infirmary were subsequently built near to the main buildings of the priory, St Nicholas' Church was built nearby in about 1291; the priory gained wealth and the Pope upgraded its status to an abbey in 1447. St Mary's Abbey was signed over to King Henry VIII on 15 April 1538 with Abbot Simon Jekys receiving a handsome annual pension of £100; the abbey was dismantled at part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries. By about 1700 most of the abbey had become ruins except for the barn; the ruins were excavated in 1840, 1880 and 1922, most of the ruins were covered in 1967 for their protection.

In the early 21st century, a scheme funded by local councils and the Heritage Lottery Fund led to an exhibition in the Barn Museum and the placing of a number of plaques in the ground and on walls in the area of the site. The text on the plaques explaining the historical significance of these portion of the site Media related to St Mary's Abbey, Kenilworth at Wikimedia Commons Windows on Warwickshire Warwick District Council Map of Identifying Plaques

Bison Licking Insect Bite

Bison Licking Insect Bite is a prehistoric carving from the Upper Paleolithic, found at Abri de la Madeleine near Tursac in Dordogne, the type-site of the Magdalenian culture, which produced many fine small carvings in antler or bone. Created sometime between 20,000 and 12,000 BP, it was in the Musee des Antiquites Nationales, St. Germain-en-Laye, but has been transferred to the expanded National Museum of Prehistory in Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil that opened in 2004, not far from its findspot, it is a engraved fragment of a spear-thrower made of reindeer antler. It depicts the figure of a bison, of the now extinct species steppe wisent with its head turned around and showing its tongue extended, it is thought the spear-thrower was broken into its present shape before the carving was made from the fragment, hence the need to show the turned-back head of the animal in order to fit the existing structure. List of Stone Age art Bison Licking Insect Bite

2017 Asian Women's Volleyball Championship squads

This article shows all participating team squads at the 2017 Asian Women's Volleyball Championship, held in the Philippines from 9–17 August 2017. The following is the Filipino roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head Coach: Francis Vicente The following is the Kazakhstani roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head Coach: Shapran Vyacheslav The following is the Hong Kong roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head coach: Lam Chun-kwok The following is the Chinese roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head coach: Bao Zhuang The following is the Japanese roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head coach: Kumi Nakada The following is the Australian roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head coach: Shannon Winzer The following is the Korean roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head coach: Hong Sung-jin The following is the Vietnamese roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head Coach: Hidehiro Irisawa The following is the Sri Lankan roster for the 2017 Asian Championship. Head coach: Sumith Jayalal The following is the New Zealand roster for the 2017 Asian Championship.

Head coach: Alisfer McKenzie The following is the Thai roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head coach: Danai Sriwatcharamethakul The following is the Taiwanese roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head Coach: Lin Min-hui The following is the Iranian roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head Coach: Mirmostafa Shojaei The following is the Maldivian roster in the 2017 Asian Championship. Head Coach: Mohamed Nadheem Official website