A horseshoe is a fabricated product made of metal, although sometimes made or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse hoof from wear. It is the oldest examples of horseshoes dating back to ancient Assyria. Shoes are attached on the palmar surface of the hooves nailed through the insensitive hoof wall, anatomically akin to the human toenail, although much larger and thicker. However, there are cases where shoes are glued; the fitting of horseshoes is a professional occupation, conducted by a farrier, who specializes in the preparation of feet, assessing potential lameness issues, fitting appropriate shoes, including remedial features where required. In some countries, such as the U. K. horseshoeing is restricted to only people with specific qualifications and experience. In others, such as the United States, where professional licensing is not required, professional organizations provide certification programs that publicly identify qualified individuals. Horseshoes are available in a wide variety of materials and styles, developed for different types of horse and for the work they do.
The most common materials are steel and aluminium, but specialized shoes may include use of rubber, magnesium, titanium, or copper. Steel tends to be preferred in sports in which a strong, long-wearing shoe is needed, such as polo, show jumping, western riding events. Aluminium shoes are lighter; some horseshoes have "caulkins", "caulks", or "calks": protrusions at the toe or heels of the shoe, or both, to provide additional traction. When kept as a talisman, a horseshoe is said to bring good luck. A stylized variation of the horseshoe is used for horseshoes. Since the early history of domestication of the horse, working animals were found to be exposed to many conditions that created breakage or excessive hoof wear. Ancient people recognized the need for the walls of domestic horses' hooves to have additional protection over and above any natural hardness. An early form of hoof protection was seen in ancient Asia, where horses' hooves were wrapped in rawhide, leather or other materials for both therapeutic purposes and protection from wear.
From archaeological finds in Great Britain, the Romans appeared to have attempted to protect their horses' feet with a strap-on, solid-bottomed "hipposandal" that has a slight resemblance to the modern hoof boot. Historians differ on the origin of the horseshoe; because iron was a valuable commodity, any worn out items were reforged and reused, it is difficult to locate clear archaeological evidence. Although some credit the Druids, there is no hard evidence to support this claim. In 1897 four bronze horseshoes with what are nail holes were found in an Etruscan tomb dated around 400 BC; the assertion by some historians that the Romans invented the "mule shoes" sometime after 100 BC is supported by a reference by Catullus who died in 54 BC. However, these references to use of horseshoes and muleshoes in Rome, may have been to the "hipposandal"—leather boots, reinforced by an iron plate, rather than to nailed horseshoes. Existing references to the nailed shoe are late, first known to have appeared around AD 900, but there may have been earlier uses given that some have been found in layers of dirt.
There are no extant references to nailed horseshoes prior to the reign of Emperor Leo VI and by 973 occasional references to them can be found. The earliest clear written record of iron horseshoes is a reference to "crescent figured irons and their nails" in AD 910. There is little evidence of any sort that suggests the existence of nailed-on shoes prior to AD 500 or 600, though there is a find dated to the 5th century AD of a horseshoe, complete with nails, found in the tomb of the Frankish King Childeric I at Tournai, Belgium. Around 1000 AD, cast bronze horseshoes with nail holes became common in Europe. A design with a scalloped outer rim and six nail holes was common. According to Gordon Ward the scalloped edges were created by double punching the nail holes causing the edges to bulge; the 13th and 14th centuries brought the widespread manufacturing of iron horseshoes. By the time of the Crusades, horseshoes were widespread and mentioned in various written sources. In that period, due to the value of iron, horseshoes were accepted in lieu of coin to pay taxes.
By the 13th century, shoes could be bought ready-made. Hot shoeing, the process of shaping a heated horseshoe before placing it on the horse, became common in the 16th century. From the need for horseshoes, the craft of blacksmithing became "one of the great staple crafts of medieval and modern times and contributed to the development of metallurgy." A treatise titled "No Foot, No Horse" was published in England in 1751. In 1835, the first U. S. patent for a horseshoe manufacturing machine capable of making up to 60 horseshoes per hour was issued to Henry Burden. In mid-19th-century Canada, marsh horseshoes kept horses from sinking into the soft intertidal mud during dike-building. In a common design, a metal horseshoe holds a flat wooden shoe in place. Many changes brought about by the domestication of the horse have led to a need for shoes for numerous reasons linked to management that results in horses' hooves hardening less and being more vulnerable to injury. In the wild, a horse may travel up to 50 miles per day to obtain adequate forage.
While horses in the wild cover large areas of terrain, they do so at relati
Administration of Thrissur is handled by the Thrissur Municipal Corporation, consisting of 55 councilors and headed by the city's mayor. Thrissur city is governed by the Thrissur Municipal Corporation, consisting of councillors who represent 55 wards and are directly elected by the city's residents. From among themselves, the councillors elect a mayor and a deputy mayor who preside over about 8 standing committees. Out of 55 seats, 26 are reserved for women. Thrissur has one parliamentary constituency—Thrissur Lok Sabha constituency—and elects two members of the Legislative Assembly to the state legislature; the Thrissur City Police, a division of the Kerala Police, is the law enforcement agency in the city. The city police force is headed by a commissioner of police, administrative control rests with the Kerala Home Ministry; the department consists of two subdivisions with a total of 14 police stations. The city's traffic is managed by the Thrissur City Traffic Police; the city generates around 160 tonnes of waste every day.
But it doesn’t have any proper procedure to process it. Earlier, Laloor was used to dump the waste from the city; because of protest and indefinite strike, started on 2 October 1988, dumping was stopped there. The last truck carrying waste reached Laloor on 27 June 2012. On 3 October 2012, foundation was laid for an organic waste converter treatment plant in Sakthan Thampuran Nagar; the waste converter was inaugurated by Urban Affairs Minister Manjalamkuzhi Ali on 28 May 2013. The converter was set up at a cost of Rs 95 lakh on 45 cents of land can process 4 tonnes of waste a day; the city has nine bio-gas plants at West Fort, Aranattukara, Olarikara, Mannuthy and Cheerachi. Another four at Sakthan Nagar, Panamkuttichira and Ollukkara has been given approval.. Electricity is distributed by Thrissur Corporation Electricity Department of Thrissur Municipal Corporation in older municipal limits and in new corporation limits it is done by Kerala State Electricity Board. Thrissur Municipal Corporation started the distribution in 19 August 1937, through a declaration from the Maharaja of Cochin.
Thrissur Municipal Corporation is the only local body in the State, given the license to distribute power by procuring power from Kerala State Electricity Board when it was a municipality. It has 161 transformers around the city to distribute the electricity. Thrissur city receives about 29 million liters per day from Peechi Dam and Karuvannur River against the required amount of 50 MLD; this demand is expected to rise to 80 MLD by 2051. Many residential apartments, houses use ground water resources to meet its water needs. List of Thrissur Corporation wards
Dan Neri Lim is the former mayor of Tagbilaran City, Philippines, from 2004 up to 2013. His father is Segundo Soriano Lim, a direct descendant of one of the first three Chinese nationals whose business prospered in Bohol before the Second World War. Mr. Segundo Lim is still an active member of the city's business circle. Dan's mother is Gloria Basa Neri, from Ozamis City. At one time, she took the cudgels as vice mayor of Tagbilaran City and presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod. Dan Lim was born on February 11, 1952, is married to the former Dr. Sharleen Mathay Corral of Makati City. Lim studied at the East Visayan Academy in Cebu City and finished his secondary education at Rafael Palma College in 1968, he enrolled at the Philippine Union College in Caloocan City for his bachelor's degree in political science, which he finished in 1972. He enrolled at Silliman University for his Bachelor of Laws, he passed the bar that same year. Lim joined the faculty of Philippine Union College the following year, where he taught Philippine Constitution, political science, negotiable instrument as a part-timer.
He accepted the offer of Assemblyman Liliano Basa Neri of Region 10 as his chief of staff. He joined Goco, Bucero, Primisias Law Office, where he became a partner replacing Atty. Neri. Atty. Lim is a member of an association of lawyers all over the Asian countries, he was the chief of staff of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines before Atty. Liliano Neri became an assemblyman. In 1980 he became a councilor for six years. In 1986, when Corazon Aquino became president after the EDSA People Power Revolution, he was appointed OIC mayor of Tagbilaran City. From 1988 to 1992, when Jose Ma. Rocha became mayor, it was during this time that Tagbilaran was given national acceptance in a privilege speech by Senator Juan Flavier, making the Tagbilaran City Cooperative Hospital a model in the country. Lim has his share of political defeats, losing in his congressional bid and losing to Jose V. Torralba twice for mayor, the last time in 2001, his time came in 2004 when he defeated Betty Torralba, the wife of last-termer Mayor Jose V. Torralba, for mayor of Tagbilaran.
Lim won together with only one councilor in his lineup. In his first term, Mayor Lim prioritized social services by introducing the Blue Card System, a free hospitalization program for indigents. Lim reached out to the masses by interacting with them through the top-rated weekly Mayor's Report over a local radio station. In the local elections of 2007, mayor Lim won again by defeating the returning Jose V. Torralba for mayor by a wide margin, this time winning the majority of councilors in his lineup. In his second term, he continued all his projects adding other projects like senior citizens' privileges, police visibility, among others. Mayor Lim tossed his hat in for reelection for a third and final term in 2010 together with former vice mayor Nuevas Tirol-Montes as his running mate along with a complete 10-person councilor slate under the Nationalist People's Coalition Party, he won his third term and left office in 2013. Https://archive.is/20050313142748/http://www.tagbilaran.gov.ph/mayorlim.php http://philboxing.com/news/story-22111.html