New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Table Rock Welcome Centre
The complex consists of two buildings connected by an indoor pedestrian mall and anchored by The Grand Hall, a multi-level indoor observation complex, completed in 2008. The upper level contains multiple specialty stores, a currency exchange, competition for the tourists attention and dollar were fierce. Davis had built his structure between Barnetts museum and the Table Rock viewing area, and thus was able to intercept any potential customer of Barnetts, one such incident in June 1870 resulted in a homicide, for which Davis was acquitted and Barnett reprimanded for. Even though victimized by Davis many times, Barnett did not resort to overcharging tourists or being disrespectful toward them, however, it was Barnett who ended up with financial difficulties. His riverfront property was auctioned off in 1877 to satisfy debts, Davis purchased Barnetts properties and continued to run the operation until the Niagara Parks Commission and Queen Victoria Park were established under a Provincial Act in 1887.
These stairs were replaced in 1889 with a lift, and by 1905, tunnels were cut inside the rock. Davis Table Rock House, standing since 1853, was in disrepair and was demolished in 1925 to make way for a new road. Designed by the firm of Findlay and Foulis of Sault Ste, Ontario, this building is still in service today, albeit with major modifications since that time. After World War II, the tunnels were relined with concrete and in 1951, the attraction, now called the Scenic Tunnels, continued to draw increased tourist traffic, so much so that in 1963, extensive renovations were made to Table Rock House. This exhibit lasted until 1973 when, citing lack of visitors, a 25 cent admission fee to the observation plaza was removed the following year. Parking for Table Rock House was originally on the side of the building which, due to the increased use of the automobile. A major road design re-routed the Niagara Parkway to the west of the building in 1973, in 1974, the building known as Table Rock South or the annex, was constructed to expand retail space, including a second-floor, first-class restaurant.
Renovations at the site, first begun in 1992-93, connected the two buildings and created the indoor pedestrian plaza, while the gift shop was completely renovated in the 1926 building. In an effort to describe the Scenic Tunnels attraction, it was renamed Journey Behind The Falls in the mid 1990s. Recently renamed Table Rock Centre, the continues to be a top draw for visitors. The Table Rock Centre complex was featured in the 1980 movie Superman II
Goat Island (New York)
Goat Island is a small island in the Niagara River, located in the middle of Niagara Falls between the Bridal Veil Falls and the Horseshoe Falls. The island is at the southwest corner of the City of Niagara Falls, New York, Goat Island is connected to the U. S. mainland by two bridges carrying foot and trackless train traffic, and to the smaller Luna Island by a pedestrian bridge. Goat island is wooded and is interlaced with foot trails. The Cave of the Winds tour elevator provides access down to the foot of the falls, the island was formed during the recent retreat of the falls as it cut inward through the Niagara Escarpment. The Niagara Rivers channel splits in two above the falls, creating two sets of falls, one on side of the island. In 1959–60, the eastern side was extended about 8.5 acres for additional parking. Fill was provided from excavation for the construction of the Robert Moses State Parkway, in 1955 the area between the Terrapin Rocks and Goat Island was filled in, creating Terrapin Point.
In the early 1980s, the United States Army Corps of Engineers filled in land and built diversion dams. All together 400 feet of the Horseshoe Falls was eliminated, including 100 feet on the Canadian side, according to author Ginger Strand, the Horseshoe Falls is now entirely in Canada. Other sources say most of Horseshoe Falls is in Canada, the islands western end is slowly being eroded by the falls and the entire island will eventually disappear as the falls erode further upstream. The waters around Goat Island are relatively shallow and studded with islets and rocks, many of them scenes of dramatic rescues, john Stedman—an early pioneer and miller—kept a herd of goats on the island. Upon returning to the island after the winter of 1780, Stedman found all but one of the goats had died. The islands preservation as parkland is due to the efforts of Augustus Porter. Porter purchased the island and allowed a group of Tuscarora Native Americans to live on it and sell their crafts to the tourists who came to the falls by stagecoach, in spite of pressure, Porter refused to tame the environment on the island.
In 1817, he built a bridge to the island for tourists. It was swept away by ice, so another was built the year downstream. Basil Hall called it one of the most singular pieces of engineering in the world, almost seven hundred feet long, it soon became the regions best-travelled walkway. In 1885, the island was included in the Niagara Reservation State Park which is the oldest state park in the U. S, the island is home to the Tesla Monument which honors the Serbian-American inventor, Nikola Tesla
Table Rock, Niagara Falls
Table Rock was a large shelf of rock that jutted out from the Canadian shore of Niagara Falls, just north of the present day observation and commercial complex. Revealed in the century as the Horseshoe Falls receded, Table Rock was the first major vantage point for tourists of the early. In 1818, the first part of the rock collapsed, followed by minor rockfalls in 1828 and 1829, the most notable rockfall occurred in July 1850, when roughly one-third of the point collapsed into the Niagara Gorge. A driver was washing his carriage on the point when the structure gave way. The man escaped, but the carriage was destroyed, further rockfalls occurred in 1853,1876 and 1897. For safety purposes, the rock was blasted in 1935. Table Rock is a stop for tourists. The Table Rock Welcome Centre is located on Niagara Parkway and is linked to the higher Fallsview Tourist Area by the Falls Incline Railway, Table Rock Point The Horseshoe Falls Images of Table Rock Niagara Falls Public Library Art works of Table Rock Niagara Falls Public Library
Niagara Falls, Ontario
Niagara Falls is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is located on the bank of the Niagara River in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario. The municipality was incorporated on 12 June 1903, across the Niagara River is Niagara Falls, New York. The city is dominated by the Niagara Falls, a set of three large waterfalls on the Niagara River. The American and Horseshoe falls can be best seen from the Canadian side of the river, the natural spectacle attracts millions of tourists yearly. This area, which stretches along the Niagara Parkway and tourist promenade, is concentrated at the brink of the falls. Further to the north or south, golf courses are operated alongside historic sites from the War of 1812 and this area was long part of the Iroquois Confederacy territory, five powerful First Nations mostly along the southern edge of the Great Lakes. The Niagara Falls area has had some European settlement since the 17th century, louis Hennepin, a French priest and missionary, is regarded as the first European to visit the area in the 1670s.
French colonists settled mostly in Lower Canada, beginning near the Atlantic, loyalist Robert Land received 200 acres and was one of the first people of European descent to settle in the Niagara Region. He moved to nearby Hamilton three years due to the relentless noise of falls. Tourism started in the early 19th century and has been a part of the local economy since that time. The falls became known as a wonder, in part to their being featured in paintings by prominent American artists of the 19th century such as Albert Bierstadt. Such works were reproduced as lithographs, becoming widely distributed, in addition, Niagara Falls markets itself as a honeymoon destination, it is the self-proclaimed honeymoon capital of the world. In 1856, the Town of Clifton was incorporated, the name of the town was changed to Niagara Falls in 1881. In 1882, the community of Drummondville was incorporated as the village of Niagara Falls, the village was referred to as Niagara Falls South to differentiate it from the town.
In 1904, the town and village amalgamated to form the City of Niagara Falls, in 1882, Irish author Oscar Wilde visited Niagara Falls after lecturing in Buffalo during a lecture tour of North America. He stayed at the Prospect House in Niagara Falls, New York, an Internment camp was set up at The Armoury in Niagara Falls from December 1914 to August 1918. In 1953, the American actress Marilyn Monroe filmed Niagara here and this was a major event for the city
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Bridal Veil Falls (Niagara Falls)
The Bridal Veil Falls is the smallest of the three waterfalls that make up Niagara Falls. It is located on the American side, Luna Island separates it from the American Falls, the Bridal Veil Falls faces to the northwest and has a crest 56 feet wide. The total vertical drop is 181 feet, the crest elevation of the Falls is 508 feet. The Cave of the Winds attraction allows visitors to walk up to the base of Bridal Veil Falls, a pedestrian bridge crosses from Goat Island to Luna Island several yards upstream from the crest of the falls. The waterfall has known in the past as Luna Falls. Historic and Current images of Bridal Veil Falls Niagara Falls Public Library Live stream of Bridal Veil Falls Niagara Falls Live Stream
Niagara Parks Commission
The Niagara Parks Commission, commonly shortened to Niagara Parks, is an agency of the Government of Ontario which maintains the Ontario shoreline of the Niagara River. The Commission was founded in 1885 and charged with preserving and enhancing the beauty of Niagara Falls. The first commissioner was Casimir Gzowski, other notable Commissioners have included Thomas McQuesten and James Allan. Current Commission Chair is Janice Thomson, in total, the Commission is in charge of about 16.19 square kilometres of parkland along the river, in addition to the Niagara Parkway which spans 56 kilometres. In this corridor, the NPC manages numerous trails, historic sites, picnic areas and these include Journey Behind the Falls, the Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, and the Queenston Floral Clock. The Commission manages Navy Island National Historic Site under an agreement with the Parks Canada. It owns the Chippawa Battlefield Park, and has developed an interpretive walk at this War of 1812 site. The NPC runs the Botanical Gardens and since 1997, the Butterfly Conservatory, NPC operates the Niagara Parks School of Horticulture, a world-renowned training centre for horticulturalists and gardeners.
In addition, the NPC has placed dozens of green plaques marking significant sites, Niagara Parks operated the People Mover, a shuttle bus system intended to aid transportation along the Niagara River and help reduce automobile crowding near the Falls. The buses were powered by propane and included a unit during most popular hours. In the long term, the Commission is planning for a fixed track transit system along the Niagara Parkway, in the meantime, the Commission joined forces with Niagara Falls Transit to launch the WEGO bus system in 2012, and in the process discontinued the People Mover service. NPC now attempts to protect the beauty and attract tourism along the Niagara River, Niagara Gorge. The NPC is an agency of the Ontario Ministry of Tourism. The Niagara Heritage Trail is a historic and scenic route running the entire 35 mile Canadian coastline of the Niagara River from Fort Erie northward to Niagara-on-the-Lake, construction began in stages during the early 1980s, and was completed in 1995.
The aims and objectives of The Niagara Parks Commission as set out in The R, list of botanical gardens in Canada Alfred H
Terrapin Point is an observation area located in Niagara Falls, New York at the northwestern corner of Goat Island, next to the Canadian Horseshoe Falls. It is one of two major areas to overlook the falls and lower Niagara Gorge on the New York side. Before the second half of the 20th century Terrapin Point was a group of rocks on the brink of the falls and they were known as the Terrapin Rocks because they resembled giant tortoises. From 1833 into the mid-1880s, Terrapin Rocks was the location of a boardwalk and Terrapin Tower, a series of footbridges connected the boardwalk and tower with Goat Island. The boardwalk, deemed unsafe, was dismantled by 1887 and this area was closed to tourists in 1969, due to cracks being found in the rock foundation. Altogether 400 feet of the Horseshoe Falls was eliminated, including 100 feet on the Canadian side, according to author Ginger Strand, the Horseshoe Falls is now entirely in Canada. Other sources say most of Horseshoe Falls is in Canada, the remaining surface was scaled, and reopened to tourists in September 1983.
It was off Terrapin Point that daredevil Nik Wallenda began his historic high-wire walk over the Falls in June 2012, Wallenda was the first to walk a high-wire directly over the brink of the Falls
Much of the mythology of the Iroquois has been lost. Some of their religious stories have been preserved, including creation stories, written down later, the spellings of names differed, and different versions of many stories exist reflecting both different localities and different times. It is possible that the versions that were recorded were influenced by Christianity, each village had its own storyteller who was responsible for learning all the stories by heart. No stories were told during the summer months. Violations would be punished by the Jo-ga-oh, and if the violator ignored the warning he would suffer greater evils and this version of the creation story is taken from Converse The Earth was a thought in the mind of the ruler of a great island floating above the clouds. This ruler was called by names, among them Ha-wen-ni-yu. The island is a place of calm where all needs are provided, on this island grew a great apple tree where the inhabitants held council. The Ruler said let us make a new place where people can grow.
Under our council tree is a sea of clouds which calls out for light. He ordered the tree to be uprooted and he looked down into the depths. He had Ata-en-sic, Sky Woman, look down and he heard the voice of the sea calling, he told Ata-en-sic, who was pregnant, to bring it life. He wrapped her in light and dropped her down through the hole, all the birds and animals who lived in the great cloud sea were panicked. The Duck asked where can it rest, only the earth can hold it, replied the Beaver—the oeh-dah from the bottom of our great sea—I will get some. The Beaver dove down, but never came up, the Duck tried, but its dead body floated to the surface. Many of the birds and animals tried and failed. Finally the Muskrat returned with some earth in his paws and its heavy, he said, who can support it. The Turtle volunteered, and the earth was placed on top of his shell, when the earth was ready the birds flew up and carried Ata-en-sic on their wings to the Turtles back. This is how Hah-nu-nah, the Turtle, came to be the earth bearer, when he moves the sea gets rough and the earth shakes
The American Falls is one of three waterfalls that together are known as Niagara Falls on the Niagara River along the Canada–U. S. The falls receive approximately 10% of the flow from Niagara River, with most of the rest going over Horseshoe Falls and it has a straight line crest width of about 830 feet. If measured along the lip of the falls, the crest is about 950 feet long. The torrent of water passing over the crest of the falls is about 2 feet deep, the height of the American Falls ranges between 70 to 110 feet. This measurement is taken from the top of the Falls to top of the rock pile, the height of the Falls from the top of the Falls to the river is 188 feet. The falls are viewable from an angle on the American side. The falls are viewable head-on from the Canadian side in Niagara Falls, the ledge of the American Falls is shaped in a modified W form, caused by numerous rock falls over the past 150 years which have resulted in the huge mound of rock at its base. The most notable recent rockfall occurred in 1954 with the collapse of Prospect Point to the north, results conflict as to whether tourist attendance that season was higher or lower than normal.
Attendance increases were due to the news that the cataract was dried off. By December 1969, water was flowing over the American Falls again, in the mid‑1970s, it was decided not to make alterations to the rockwall and remove the talus, citing the trend to allow nature to take its course. A review of the official U. S. Geological Survey map for Niagara Falls confirms that about one-third of Horseshoe Falls lies in U. S. territory, the two other named falls encompassing Niagara Falls lie completely within U. S. territory. Images from the Historic Niagara Digital Collections Art works in the collection of the Niagara Falls Public Library Dewatering timeline
The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States, there are differing theories as to the origin of the rivers name. According to George R. Stewart, it comes from the name of an Iroquois town called Ongniaahra, the river, which is occasionally described as a strait, is about 58 kilometres long and includes Niagara Falls in its course. The falls have moved approximately 11 kilometres upstream from the Niagara Escarpment in the last 12,000 years, the diversion of the river for electrical generation has significantly reduced the rate of erosion. Power plants on the river include the Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Power Stations on the Canadian side, they generate 4.4 gigawatts of electricity. The International Control Works, built in 1954, regulates the river flow, ships on the Great Lakes use the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, on the Canadian side of the river, to bypass Niagara Falls.
The total drop in elevation along the river is 99 metres, the Niagara Gorge extends downstream from the Falls and includes the Niagara Whirlpool and another section of rapids. The Niagara River features two large islands and numerous smaller islands, grand Island and Navy Island, the two largest islands, are on the American and Canadian sides of the river, respectively. Goat Island and the tiny Luna Island split Niagara Falls into its three sections, the Horseshoe Falls, Bridal Veil Falls, and American Falls, unity Island lies further upstream, alongside the city of Buffalo. The Niagara River and its tributaries, Tonawanda Creek and the Welland River, formed part of the last section of the Erie Canal, after leaving Lockport, New York, the Erie Canal proceeds southwest until it enters Tonawanda Creek. The Welland Canals used the Welland River as a connection to the Niagara River south of the falls, allowing traffic to safely re-enter the Niagara River. The Niagara River and Falls have been known outside of North America since the late 17th century, when Father Louis Hennepin and he wrote about his travels in A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America.
The Niagara River was the site of the earliest recorded railway in America and it was an inclined wooden tramway built by John Montresor, a British military engineer, in 1764. Called The Cradles and The Old Lewiston Incline, it featured loaded carts pulled up wooden rails by rope and it facilitated the movement of goods over the Niagara Escarpment in present-day Lewiston, New York. Several battles occurred along the Niagara River, which was defended by Fort George and Fort Niagara at the mouth of the river. These forts were important during the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Queenston Heights took place near the river in the War of 1812. The river was an important route to liberation before the American Civil War, the Freedom Crossing Monument stands on the bank of the river in Lewiston to commemorate the courage of the escaping slaves and the local volunteers who helped them secretly cross the river. In the 1880s, the Niagara River became the first waterway in North America harnessed for large-scale generation of hydroelectricity