Colgate, West Sussex
Colgate is a small village and civil parish in the Horsham district of West Sussex, about four miles north east of Horsham. A small village, with its origins at the northern edge of St. Leonards Forest, it has no shops or retail facilities. There is a pub "The Dragon", a church and a small primary school, which in 2012 received a Good report rating from OFSTED. There is a range of architectural styles in the village, with houses present from several different design eras. In the late twentieth century there have been some small developments of new houses in the centre of the village. Nearby settlements include villages of a similar size, architectural design and administrative status in Faygate and Pease Pottage, the village is located close to the towns of both Horsham and Crawley; the area is associated with the Wealden iron industry, Col referring to charcoal burners. Many hammer ponds are still visible within the parish. Gate is thought to refer to an entrance to the much larger St Leonards Forest.
The centre of the village was dominated by the Red Cedar Colgate House. Over the road to the north was Black Hill wood, part of the traditional St Leonards Forest that no longer exists. In 1887 the ecclesiastical parish, for which the living benefice was a vicarage of a small Early English style Victorian church was subordinated by the larger civil parish of Horsham and Beeding thanks to the local government reorganization of 1885; the population at the time was 485. Twelve sons of Colgate were killed in the Great War. During the Battle of Britain the village was bombed by the Nazis and four people were killed, and a total of seven sons were killed during the last war. Furthermore, five deaths occurred during the conflict among villagers serving in the Civil Defences that would have included the Home Guard. Colgate Primary School Hall-Woodhouse Brewery Colgate OS Date accessed: 30 December 2015
Nicholas Le Quesne Herbert, is a British Conservative Party politician and the Member of Parliament for Arundel and South Downs. He was Minister of State for Police and Criminal Justice, with his time split between the Home Office and the Ministry of Justice from 2010–2012. Herbert was educated at Haileybury and Magdalene College, where he read law and land economy. After Cambridge, he worked for the Conservative Research Department on the Rural & Environmental bureau, he went on to be appointed as the director of public affairs at the British Field Sports Society in 1990 and remained in that position for six years, from which he helped to form the Countryside Movement which became the Countryside Alliance. He joined Business for Sterling in 1998 as its Chief Executive where he led the launch of the'no' campaign against adopting the Euro currency, before founding the think tank Reform as its Director in 2001, until his election to parliament in 2005, he unsuccessfully contested the Northumberland seat of Berwick-upon-Tweed at the 1997 general election where he finished in third place some 8,951 votes behind the veteran Liberal Democrat MP Alan Beith.
In 2001 he co-founded the Reform think tank which focuses on reforming public services via private sector involvement and de-regulation. His selection to contest the West Sussex seat of Arundel and South Downs at the 2005 general election did not come about without incident; the sitting Conservative MP, Howard Flight, had been forced to resign as a vice chairman of the party and had the whip removed by Michael Howard in 2005 after he had told a Conservative Way Forward meeting that the Conservatives would have to make more cuts than they were promising. With no whip, he was not considered as an approved candidate and, despite protest and the local association refusing to select a new candidate, he resigned just a month before the election. Herbert was selected and elected, holding the seat with a reduced majority of 11,309, he made his maiden speech on 6 June 2005. After his election to Parliament, Herbert joined the Home Affairs Select Committee. After David Cameron became leader of the Conservative Party, Herbert was appointed as a Shadow Minister for home affairs on 16 December 2005.
This meant. In July 2007, he joined the Shadow Cabinet for the new position of Shadow Secretary of State for Justice, shadowing veteran Labour minister Jack Straw. On 19 January 2009 he was made Shadow Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs. On the Coalition forming between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats in May 2010, Herbert was appointed as a Minister of State at the Home Office with responsibility for policing and at the Ministry of Justice with responsibility for criminal justice. To undertake this role, Herbert was appointed a Privy Counsellor on 9 June 2010, he championed the introduction of elected Police and Crime Commissioners to replace police authorities, street level crime mapping, swifter justice. Herbert decided to step down from Government at the time of David Cameron's first major reshuffle in September 2012. Herbert formed, co-chairs, the All Party Parliamentary Group on Global TB, in 2014 launched the Global TB Caucus which he co-chairs with South Africa's Health Minister, Aaron Motsoaledi, initiating the Barcelona Declaration with a speech to the World Lung Conference.
In 2014 he launched GovernUp, a cross-party project which aims to promote "the far-reaching reforms needed in Whitehall and beyond to enable more effective and efficient government". He authored Vote Conservative 2015 ahead of the general election that year. Herbert played a leading role in making the case for equal marriage, launching the Freedom to Marry campaign in 2012 ahead of the successful Marriage Act 2013. In June 2015, Herbert helped to launch, became the first chair, of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Global LGBT Rights. In January 2016, Herbert launched Conservatives For Reform In Europe, a campaign to remain in the EU, subject to the Prime Minister's renegotiations, he was opposed to Brexit prior to the 2016 referendum. Herbert joined his long-term partner, Jason Eades, in civil partnership in early January 2009, they have been in a relationship since 1999. Nick Herbert MP official constituency website Profile at the Conservative Party Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Contributions in Parliament during 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 at Hansard Archives Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record Articles authored at Journalisted Reform.co.uk David Cameron's rising star Nick Herbert'marries' his boyfriend, Richard Eden, The Telegraph, 4 January 2009
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
Crawley is a large town and borough in West Sussex, England. It is 28 miles south of Charing Cross, 18 miles north of Brighton and Hove, 32 miles north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of 17.36 square miles and had a population of 106,597 at the time of the 2011 Census. The area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, was a centre of ironworking in Roman times. Crawley developed as a market town from the 13th century, serving the surrounding villages in the Weald, its location on the main road from London to Brighton brought passing trade, which encouraged the development of coaching inns. A rail link to London opened in 1841. Gatwick Airport, nowadays one of Britain's busiest international airports, opened on the edge of the town in the 1940s, encouraging commercial and industrial growth. After the Second World War, the British Government planned to move large numbers of people and jobs out of London and into new towns around South East England; the New Towns Act 1946 designated Crawley as the site of one of these.
A master plan was developed for the establishment of new residential, commercial and civic areas, rapid development increased the size and population of the town over a few decades. The town contains 13 residential neighbourhoods radiating out from the core of the old market town, separated by main roads and railway lines; the nearby communities of Ifield, Pound Hill and Three Bridges were absorbed into the new town at various stages in its development. In 2009, expansion was being planned in the west and north-west of the town, in cooperation with Horsham District Council, which has now become a new neighborhood named Kilnwood Vale, but it not in Crawley. Economically, the town has developed into the main centre of industry and employment between London and the south coast, its large industrial area supports manufacturing and service companies, many of them connected with the airport. The commercial and retail sectors continue to expand; the area may have been settled during the Mesolithic period: locally manufactured flints of the Horsham Culture type have been found to the southwest of the town.
Tools and burial mounds from the Neolithic period, burial mounds and a sword from the Bronze Age, have been discovered. Crawley is on the western edge of the High Weald, which produced iron for more than 2,000 years from the Iron Age onwards. Goffs Park—now a recreational area in the south of the town—was the site of two late Iron Age furnaces. Ironworking and mineral extraction continued throughout Roman times in the Broadfield area where many furnaces were built. In the 5th century, Saxon settlers named the area Crow's Leah—meaning a crow-infested clearing, or Crow's Wood; this name evolved over time, the present spelling appeared by the early 14th century. By this time, nearby settlements were more established: the Saxon church at Worth, for example, dates from between 950 and 1050 AD. Although Crawley itself is not mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, the nearby settlements of Ifield and Worth are recorded; the first written record of Crawley dates from 1202, when a licence was issued by King John for a weekly market on Wednesdays.
Crawley grew in importance over the next few centuries, but was boosted in the 18th century by the construction of the turnpike road between London and Brighton. When this was completed in 1770, travel between the newly fashionable seaside resort and London became safer and quicker, Crawley prospered as a coaching halt. By 1839 it offered an hourly service to both destinations; the George, a timber-framed house dating from the 15th century, expanded to become a large coaching inn, taking over adjacent buildings. An annexe had to be built in the middle of the wide High Street; the original building has become the George Hotel, with 84 bedrooms. Crawley's oldest church is St John the Baptist's, between the Broadway, it is said to have 13th-century origins, but there has been much rebuilding and the oldest part remaining is the south wall of the nave, believed to be 14th century. The church has a 15th-century tower which contained four bells cast in 1724. Two were replaced by Thomas Lester of London in 1742.
The Brighton Main Line was the first railway line to serve the Crawley area. A station was opened at Three Bridges in the summer of 1841. Crawley railway station, at the southern end of the High Street, was built in 1848 when the Horsham branch was opened from Three Bridges to Horsham. A line was built eastwards from Three Bridges to East Grinstead in 1855. Three Bridges had become the hub of transport in the area by this stage: one-quarter of its population was employed in railway jobs by 1861; the Longley company—one of South East England's largest building firms in the late 19th century, responsible for buildings including Christ's Hospital school and the King Edward VII Sanatorium in Midhurst—moved to a site next to Crawley station in 1881. In 1898 more than 700 people were employed at the site. There was a major expansion in house building in the late 19th century. An area known as "New Town" was created around the railway level crossing and down the Brighton Road.
Mid Sussex is a local government district in the English county of West Sussex. It contains the towns of Haywards Heath and Burgess Hill; the district was created on 1 April 1974 from parts of East Sussex: the urban districts of Cuckfield, Burgess Hill, East Grinstead and nearly all of Cuckfield Rural, the far north-west of, transferred to Crawley. The district borders the Tandridge district of Surrey to the north and Lewis districts to the east, Brighton and Hove to the south, all in East Sussex, Horsham district to the west and Crawley, northwest in West Sussex; the Prime Meridian passes through the district, has most headwaters of the River Ouse and its largest body of water is Ardingly reservoir, used by watersports clubs. The north of the area has sections of Ashdown Forest. Within the Mid Sussex District are the following civil parishes: Population increased in the 19th century, with most of this increase in the most urban areas and leading by its close to urban districts, town-based and rural districts, multi-village-based.
Mid Sussex was first, in 1885, another name for the Lewes constituency when Sussex representation was reformed to nine equal electorate seats. The first Parliamentary mention of a Mid Sussex body of any sort is in 1907, to the Mid Sussex Joint Water District, an amalgamation of private water companies to provide safe, piped water. Sussex has been divided into East Sussex and West Sussex for taxation since the late medieval period but this divide changed for the first and most recent time in 1972. Changes were provided for under a 1972 Act, all major proposals debated in outline, made in detail in its associated Order. Mid Sussex's change in county was argued under the Redcliffe-Maud Report's Planning Area enhancing a Second Wilson ministry plan with support from locally resident Lords and of the Heath ministry. Under this plan West Sussex gained an irregular swathe of East Sussex as far as East Grinstead in the north and in its passed form, Crawley would have gained two parishes in Surrey instead of the Gatwick part of these — reversed due to a local poll, before its 1974 implementation, with the Charlwood and Horley Act 1974.
East to West Sussex land re-designation was kept with the stated aim of uniting all areas affected by the projected major Crawley and Gatwick Airport economy under one supervisory local authority. The decision was controversial but moved through the House of Lords from the despatch box by Lord Belstead, a well-respected Minister in the Lords: I think it is fair to claim that this was why the South-East Strategic Plan referred to by... Lord Nugent defined five major growth areas. One of these, called Planning Area No. 6, extends in the area mentioned by the noble Lord from Horley and Charlwood in the North to the Southern boundaries of Horsham and Cuckfield or, taking it from the West, from Horsham Rural District and to Cuckfield, Burgess Hill and East Grinstead in the East. So this planning area spreads into three counties: East Sussex and West Sussex, but as has been said many times this evening, planning means people and it must not be remote from reality. I think for the good of the people living in this area—which has seen and will see such population growth—there are compelling arguments for the continued planning of the area to be conducted by one authority.
It is a fact that whenever this area running from Horley through Gatwick down to Crawley has been studied the conclusion has been reached—and this has been mentioned by my noble friend Viscount Mersey and by Lord Lytton—that this Gatwick area within the Planning Area should be looked at as one entity. The need to put Horley and Crawley together was recognised by Redcliffe-Maud, although the Commission carved off East Surrey from West Surrey-and put Gatwick in the East, as the noble Lord, Lord Garnsworthy, has reminded us, I think it is an answer to... Lord Hanworth, to my noble friend Lord Reigate, that nobody from Surrey would now ask for that to be done to their county. In any event, that solution was overtaken by the South-East Strategic Plan. I must confess that the expression, "Strategic Plan." Has a cold and impersonal ring.... The three county councils of Surrey, East Sussex, West Sussex have been consulting on a joint advisory committee for this area. Homes owned with or without a loan, make up more than 85 % of Mid Sussex housing.
Mid Sussex's residents had the lowest burden of social housing, at 0.5% of housing stock, at the time of the census, a district, 30 minutes by its fast railway services from the area with the highest such proportion covering London Bridge station, the London Borough of Southwark and from a creative and self-declared, progressive authority with 9.8% social housing and 28% of its housing rented and Hove. In terms of rented housing Mid Sussex at the 2011 census ranked 216th out of in terms of 327 local authorities in England; the proportion of homes which were rented as investments by non-occupants was higher than several other semi-rural districts of Sussex, with 11.7% of housing stock speculatively acquired in this way or to provide for those unable to obtain mortgage finance and 1.0% was let out to residents on either public or private shared ownership schemes, close to the national average. These figures are those of the 2011 census; the parliamentary constituency of Mid Sussex covers most of the district, is held by the Conservative Party.
The incumbent Member of Parliament is Sir Nicholas Soames, the grandson of former Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, a former junior minister in the Government of Sir John Major (1990–97
Itchingfield is a small village and civil parish in the Horsham district of West Sussex, England. It lies on the Barns Green to Broadbridge Heath road 2.7 miles southwest of Horsham. The main settlement in the parish is Barns Green. Media related to Itchingfield at Wikimedia Commons