Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers 916,445 km2 and has an estimated population of 31775371. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.
The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s, the Venezuelan government established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, significantly reducing economic inequality and poverty. However, such policies became controversial since they destabilized the economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia. The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. The German language 16th century-term for the area, Klein-Venedig, means little Venice, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that they found people who called themselves the Veneciuela.
Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos
Pan American Games
The Pan-American or Pan American Games is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, the only Winter Pan American Games were held in 1990. The Pan American Sports Organization is the body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure. The XVII Pan American Games were held in Toronto from July 10–26,2015, since 2007, host cities are contracted to manage both the Pan American and the Parapan American Games, in which athletes with physical disabilities compete with one another. The Parapan American Games are held following the Pan American Games. The Pan American Games Movement consists of sports federations, National Olympic Committees that are recognized by PASO. As the decision-making body, PASO is responsible for choosing the host city for each Pan American Games, the host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter and rules.
The Pan American Games program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is determined by PASO, the celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the flag and torch, and the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Pan American Games in 36 sports, the first and third-place finishers in each event receive gold and bronze medals, respectively. At the first Pan American Sports Congress, held in Buenos Aires in 1940, the plans had to be postponed because of World War II. A second Pan American Sports Congress held in London during the 1948 Summer Olympics reconfirmed Buenos Aires as the choice of host city for the inaugural games, countries that were part of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada did not compete at the first Pan American Games. The second games were held in Mexico City, competitions started on March 12 and included 2,583 athletes from 22 countries, competing in 17 sports. The Pan American Games were held every four years in the cities of Chicago, United States in 1959, São Paulo, Brazil in 1963 and Winnipeg.
While the inaugural 1951 Games hosted 2,513 participants representing 14 nations, during the games most athletes and officials are housed in the Pan American Games village. This village is intended to be a home for all the participants. It is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, and locations for religious expression, PASO allows nations to compete that do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organizations demand. As a result and dependencies are permitted to set up their own National Olympic Committees, examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico and Bermuda which compete as separate nations despite being legally under the jurisdiction of another power. There have been attempts to hold Winter Pan American Games throughout the history of the games, reliable winter snow in the Americas is limited to two countries, the United States and Canada
Walter Ray Allen Jr. is an American former professional basketball player who played 18 seasons in the National Basketball Association. After playing three seasons of basketball for Connecticut, Allen entered the NBA in 1996 and went on to play for the Milwaukee Bucks, Seattle SuperSonics, Boston Celtics. One of the most accurate three-point and free throw shooters in NBA history, he was a ten-time NBA All-Star and he won an Olympic gold medal as a member of the 2000 United States mens basketball team. Allen is the NBAs all-time leader in career three-point field goals made in both the regular and postseason and he has acted in two films, one of which was a lead role in the 1998 Spike Lee film, He Got Game. The third of five children, Allen was born at Castle Air Force Base near Merced, California, a military child, he spent time growing up in Saxmundham in England, Altus in Oklahoma, Edwards Air Force Base in California, and Germany. He attended high school in Dalzell, South Carolina, where he led Hillcrest High School to a state championship.
Allen attended the University of Connecticut from 1993 to 1996 after being recruited by assistant coach Karl Hobbs, while at UConn, he was named USA Basketballs Male Athlete of the Year in 1995. In 1995–96, his college season, Allen was a first-team All-American. Allen finished his UConn career third on the Huskies career scoring list with 1,922 points, in 2001, Allen was named honorary captain of the 25-member UConn All-Century Basketball Team. On February 5,2007, his name and number were honored at Connecticuts Gampel Pavilion during the Huskies of Honor ceremony at halftime of the basketball game against the Syracuse Orange. Allen was drafted by the Minnesota Timberwolves with the pick of the 1996 NBA draft. Immediately after his selection and Andrew Lang were traded to the Milwaukee Bucks for the rights to fourth pick Stephon Marbury. Allen made his NBA debut on November 1,1996 where he started and played 28 minutes and scored 13 points in a win against fellow rookie Allen Iverson and the Philadelphia 76ers.
On January 12,1997 Allen put in one of his strongest efforts of the season in a win against the Golden State Warriors contributing 22 points,6 assists,3 steals and a new career high of 9 rebounds. Continuing his strong season, on March 25,1997 Allen scored a new career high of 32 points in a loss to the Phoenix Suns. Allen was named to the NBA All-Rookie Second Team in 1996, after an injury-riddled 2003–04 season, he was named to the All-NBA Second Team and, alongside teammate Rashard Lewis, led the Sonics to the Conference Semifinals in 2005. Allen told the press if the Lakers remained a mediocre squad, in about a year or two he will be calling out to Jerry Buss that we need some help in here. When asked about Allens comments, Bryant responded, Dont even put me, after the 2004–05 season, Allen signed a 5-year, $80 million contract extension
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools, the names for these schools vary by country but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is called a university college or university. In addition to these schools, students in a given country may attend schools before. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to young children. University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after secondary school, a school may be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods, there are non-government schools, called private schools.
Private schools may be required when the government does not supply adequate, Schools for adults include institutions of corporate training, military education and training and business schools. In homeschooling and online schools and learning take place outside of a school building. Schools are commonly organized in several different organizational models, including departmental, small learning communities, academies and schools-within-a-school. The word school derives from Greek σχολή, originally meaning leisure and that in which leisure is employed, the concept of grouping students together in a centralized location for learning has existed since Classical antiquity. Formal schools have existed at least since ancient Greece, ancient Rome ancient India, the Byzantine Empire had an established schooling system beginning at the primary level. According to Traditions and Encounters, the founding of the education system began in 425 AD. The sometimes efficient and often large government of the Empire meant that citizens were a must.
Although Byzantium lost much of the grandeur of Roman culture and extravagance in the process of surviving, the Byzantine education system continued until the empires collapse in 1453 AD. Beginning in the 5th century CE monastic schools were established throughout Western Europe. Islam was another culture developed a school system in the modern sense of the word
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
A teen idol is a celebrity with a large teenage fan-base. Teen idols are generally young but not necessarily teenaged, often teen idols are actors or singers, but some sports figures and even political figures have an appeal to teenagers. Some teen idols began their careers as actors, like Leif Garrett, Lindsay Lohan, Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, Raven-Symoné, Kenan Thompson, Kel Mitchell, Hilary Duff. The idols popularity may be limited to teens, or may extend to all age groups, many teen idols are targeted for adults for nostalgia purposes. With the advent of television, teen idols were promoted through programs such as American Bandstand, The Ed Sullivan Show, todays teen idols have spawned an entire industry of gossip magazines, television shows, YouTube, and whole television channels such as E. Many American teen idols achieve cross-over success internationally, this list is not limited to American artists alone with some such as Japanese popstar Kusumi Koharu. Ha^Ash and RBD in the 2000s and 2010s, in Spain, La Oreja de Van Gogh, Miguel Bose and Hombres G all enjoyed teen-idol status.
Even in the music field, a British-Chinese violinist Vanessa-Mae became the first teen idol in that category. The kind of idolizing following Liszt drew in Europe would not be followed for several decades, geraldine Farrar, American opera singer, had a large following of young women nicknamed Gerry-flappers in the early 20th century. However, he claims that many males were at his sold-out concerts. He was possibly the first popular singer to have a vehicle created for him. Frank Sinatra, whose career is often linked to his appeal to bobby soxers, is regarded as having been amongst the first teen idols. Even crooners like Dean Martin and Frank Sinatra were still considered idols, actors Edd Byrnes and Troy Donahue and other artists deliberately cultivated a idol image, like Paul Anka. Anka initially modelled himself on a generic type, the teen idol carried on the process. Of changing the image of male youth, from wild to mild, by providing a cleaner, more wholesome image of masculinity than that of the previous eras rebellious rockabilly heroes.
Post-war teens were able to buy relatively inexpensive phonographs — including portable models that could be carried to friends houses —, rock music played on 45s became the soundtrack to the 1960s as people bought what they heard on the radio. Their parents worried about their attraction to artists who were edgy, faces on magazines fed fans, fans buy records, see films, watch TV and buy fashions. Marketing of the teen idol generally focuses on the image, the teen idol is structured to appeal to the pre-teen and young teen female pop audience member and children in general
Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris.
Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage.
The island is known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland
1987 Pan American Games
Over 4,300 athletes from 38 countries in the Americas competed in 30 sports earning 1,015 medals. Events were held at 23 venues in and around Indianapolis, the official mascot for the games was Amigo, a green parrot. Santiago, was named the host of the 10th Pan American Games. Quito, was named to replace Santiago, but it withdrew, desperate, PASO held a new election. Indianapolis was planning to bid on the 1991 Games, but, at the request of the United States Olympic Committee, since many sports facilities were already in place, PASO announced on December 18,1984, that Indianapolis would be the host. Havana, was interested, but PASO appeased Fidel Castro by agreeing to give Havana the 1991 games provided that Cuba participated at Indianapolis. The city of Indianapolis created a committee called Pan American Ten/Indianapolis. It had eighteen operating divisions,300 paid staff, and 37,000 volunteers, the 1987 Pan Am Games were held at 23 sites total. The athletes village, which provided lodging and dining for the athletes, was located at Fort Benjamin Harrison.
About 80,000 spectators watched a performance produced by The Walt Disney Company with 6,500 performers in the largest outdoor live entertainment show held in the United States up to that point and it was the largest Opening Ceremony of the Pan Am games yet. Dignitaries included IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch, Indianapolis Mayor William H. Hudnut III, Indiana Governor Robert D. Orr, US Vice President George Bush officially opened the games. The final leg of the relay had the flame passed from Oscar Robertson to Kristie Phillips to Wilma Rudolph who lit the cauldron. The closing ceremony took place in the Hoosier Dome, the headline act was Cuban American singer Gloria Estefan and her band Miami Sound Machine. The logo of the 1987 Pan Am Games consisted of five stylized Xs, designed by Michael Hayes of the JMH Corporation in Indianapolis, the seven colors represent the wildlife and flags of western hemisphere countries. The mascot was Amigo, a parrot, designed by Jerry Reynolds of Perennial Pictures in Indianapolis.
The official music of the X Pan American Games was Pan American Fanfare by Lalo Schifrin, the rights for the 1987 games were won by CBS with a bid of $4,000,000, and Brent Musburger hosted. CBS aired 26 hours of coverage, all on weekend afternoons, additionally, CBS provided the world feed. The ratings were boosted by the participation of Cuban athletes on U. S. soil, coinciding with the Pan American Games was the Indianapolis Museum of Art exhibition Art of the Fantastic, Latin America, 1920–1987
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.
Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
Vanderlei de Lima
Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima is a former long-distance runner who specialised in marathons. He received international renown after a spectator, a former Irish priest Cornelius Neil Horan, following the incident he fell back from first to third place, winning the bronze medal. He was awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship for that race, Neil Horan, the priest who attacked de Lima, was defrocked by the Catholic Church the following year in January 2005. He lit the Olympic cauldron and carried the Olympic flame during the ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics. He started out as a cross country runner, representing Brazil at the 1989 and 1992 IAAF World Cross Country Championships. It was at regional level that he won his first medals and he won his first marathon in 1996, taking the Tokyo International Marathon title. He attended his first Summer Olympics that same year, running in the marathon at the 1996 Atlanta Games and his first world appearance followed a year at the 1997 World Championships in Athletics and he improved to finish in 23rd place overall.
He set a personal best at the 1998 Tokyo Marathon, completing the distance in 2,08,31. Just as in the cross country competitions, it was in regional competitions that he won his first marathon medals. He was the Pan American champion twice consecutively, running 2,17,20 at the 1999 Games and 2,19,08 for the victory at the 2003 Games. He began the 2004 season well with a win at the Hamburg Marathon. On 29 August 2004, at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, soon after the 35 km mark, holding a lead of approximately 25–30 seconds, de Lima was halted and grappled by a spectator named Neil Horan, an Irish priest who was defrocked. Horan had previously disrupted the 2003 Formula One British Grand Prix by running onto the Silverstone track, greek spectator Polyvios Kossivas helped free de Lima from Horans grasp and back into his running. De Lima lost about 15–20 seconds in the incident, but could well have lost much more due to the disruption and he finished third with a time of 2,12.11, winning the bronze medal.
Solutions like that have been done in the past for other events, at the closing of the event, the International Olympic Committee awarded de Lima the Pierre de Coubertin medal for the spirit of sportsmanship. De Lima was named Brazilian Athlete of the Year in 2004, de Limas award was the first occasion in which the winner was selected by online popular vote. On 1 July 2005, Brazilian beach volleyball player Emanuel Rego, who won the medal at the 2004 Olympic Games, tried to give his gold medal to de Lima on television. Im happy with mine, its bronze but means gold, said de Lima and his biography was written by Renata Adrião DAngelo, Vanderlei de Lima - A Maratona de uma Vida, printed in Brazil by Casa da Palavra, in 2007