Horton Plaza Mall
Horton Plaza, not to be confused with its adjacent namesake Horton Plaza Park, is a five-level outdoor shopping mall located in downtown San Diego known for its bright colors, architectural tricks, odd spatial rhythms. It stands on 6.5 city blocks adjacent to the city's historic Gaslamp Quarter. It was the first successful downtown retail center since the rise of suburban shopping centers decades earlier. Nordstrom closed in 2016; the only current anchor store is Macy's. In August 2018, the property was sold to developer Stockdale Capital Partners, which plans to convert it into an office-retail complex. A 1972 proposal for the shopping center and a redevelopment district arose out of plans to "refurbish San Diego's historic town plaza", Horton Plaza. Due to numerous setbacks and resistance from preservation groups, construction did not begin until 1982; the plaza is named for Alonzo Horton, responsible for the location of downtown San Diego. Horton Plaza was the $140 million centerpiece of a downtown redevelopment project run by The Hahn Company, is the first example of architect Jon Jerde's so-called "experience architecture".
When it opened in August 1985, it was a risky and radical departure from the standard paradigm of mall design. Its mismatched levels, long one-way ramps, sudden drop-offs, dramatic parapets, shadowy colonnades, cul-de-sacs, brightly painted facades create an architectural experience in dramatic contrast to the conventional wisdom of mall management. Conventional malls are designed to reduce ambient sources of psychological arousal, so the customers' attention is directed towards merchandise. By making the mall an attraction in itself, Jerde stood this model on its head. Jerde's project was based on Ray Bradbury's essay "The Aesthetics of Lostness". In it he extolled the virtues of getting "safely lost" as adults inspired by side streets of Paris, London, or New York. Horton Plaza was an instant financial success and while some credited it for revitalizing downtown San Diego, others said the revitalization benefitted the mall; when built, the center housed the historic Jessop's Clock, built in 1907, which stood on a sidewalk in front of the Jessop and Sons jewelry store in Downtown San Diego.
Weeks after the mall's opening in 1985, a man committed suicide by jumping from a third-story walkway in what was the first of five suicides to occur over the mall's history. In 1993, Sam Goody and Planet Hollywood announced they would be opening stores in the former J. W. Robinson's site in 1994. In 1995, United Artists Theatres announced they would be building 7 new screens into 7 screens to make it 14 in 1996. In 1998, the owners of the mall sold it to the Westfield Group, which renamed the mall Westfield Horton Plaza. In 2014, Westfield split into two companies, Scentre Group for Australia and New Zealand malls, Westfield Corporation for American and European malls. In 2018, Westfield Corporation was acquired by Unibail-Rodamco, it was rebranded as Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield. Planet Hollywood announced it would be closing in 2001, it was replaced with Express. In 2005, Mervyn's and Express, Inc. announced. Both were replaced by Steve & Barry's University Sportswear, which closed in 2009; the Musicland Group filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in January 2006, in February it announced the closing of 226 Sam Goody and 115 Suncoast Motion Picture Company stores, all Media Play locations.
On January 11, 2011, the San Diego City Council unanimously approved a plan to raze the former Robinsons-May building on the north side of the mall to make way for a 37,000 square feet urban park enlarging the adjacent, historic Horton Plaza and Broadway Fountain. Westfield partnered with the city to renovate and restore the area into an urban park and public gathering place called Horton Plaza Park. Westfield agreed to operate the park and schedule events, which could include concerts, movie screenings, celebrations. Horton Plaza Park will have a 53,000 square-foot venue, a Cabrillo Theater, an interactive pop-jet fountain, 23-foot-tall color-changing statues; the new Horton Plaza Park had its grand opening on May 4, 2016. In 2012, FYE announced; that year, Regal Entertainment Group announced would be downsizing from 14 screens to 8. In 2012, Westfield said it would not renew the lease on the Jessop's Clock and gave its owners six months to find a new location for it. However, the heirs had trouble finding an appropriate location, as of 2016, the clock was still at Westfield Horton Plaza.
In 2013, armed police descended on the mall after receiving a tip that fugitive Christopher Dorner was spotted in the mall. One man was arrested by police, though it was revealed to be a case of mistaken identity. On June 24, 2016, Nordstrom announced it would close on August 26, 2016, leaving one anchor left in the mall. On November 22, 2016, a local woman, reported as suicidal shot herself in the middle of the crowded mall after leading police on a chase. In July 2017, a shooting occurred at the mall in which an active duty Navy personnel was killed and his cousin wounded after getting into a confrontation with another man. Just three days after this incident, another man committed suicide by jumping from the plaza's balcony in an unrelated incident. In August 2018, the complex was sold to Stockdale Capital Partners, which plans to develop it into The Campus at Horton, an office and retail complex, they propose an "innovation hub" focusing on technology and biotechnology companies, while retaining some retail and beverage, entertainment offerings.
They hope to begin construction in 201
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates
The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates near the Acropolis of Athens was erected by the choregos Lysicrates, a wealthy patron of musical performances in the Theater of Dionysus, to commemorate the award of first prize in 335/334 BCE to one of the performances he had sponsored. The choregos was the sponsor who supervised the training of the dramatic dance-chorus; the monument is known as the first use of the Corinthian order on the exterior of a building. It has been reproduced in modern monuments and building elements; the circular structure, raised on a high squared podium, is the first Greek monument built in the Corinthian order on its exterior. It was crowned with an elaborate floral support for the bronze tripod, the prize Lysicrates' chorus won, its frieze sculptures depict episodes from the myth of Dionysus, the god whose rites developed into Greek theatre. It stands now in its little garden on the Tripodon Street, which follows the line of the ancient street of the name, which led to the Theater of Dionysus and was once lined with choragic monuments, of which foundations were discovered in excavations during the 1980s.
In 1658, a French Capuchin monastery was founded by the site. It was called "Lantern of Diogenes". A reading of its inscription by Jacob Spon established its original purpose; the young British architects James "Athenian" Stuart and Nicholas Revett published the first measured drawings of the monument in their Antiquities of Athens, London 1762. The monument became famous in France and England through engravings of it, "improved" versions became eye-catching features in several English landscape gardens. Lord Byron stayed at the monastery during his second visit to Greece. In 1818, friar Francis planted in its gardens the first tomato plants in Greece. In 1821 the convent, which had enclosed the monument, used as a storage for books, was burned by the Ottomans during the Greek War of Independence, subsequently demolished, the monument was inadvertently exposed to the weather. In 1829, the monks offered the structure to an Englishman on tour, but it proved to be too cumbersome to disassemble and ship.
Lord Elgin negotiated unsuccessfully for the monument, by an icon in the Greek Revival. French archaeologists cleared the rubble from the half-buried monument and searched the area for missing architectural parts. In 1876–1887, the architects François Boulanger and E. Loviot supervised a restoration under the auspices of the French government. In June 2016, anarchists vandalised the monument with spray paint, writing: "Your Greek monuments are concentration camps for immigrants". Famous British versions of the Choragic Monument include the Dugald Stewart Monument and Burns' Monument both on Calton Hill in Edinburgh, on the towers of the former North Kirk in Aberdeen and St Giles Church in Elgin and in the gardens at Shugborough and Alton Towers among many others; the Grade I-listed St John the Evangelist's Church, now redundant, is topped with a "preposterous miniature" of the monument. In the US, the Choragic Monument was William Strickland's model for the cupola of the Merchants' Exchange in Philadelphia and copied by him for the cupola atop the Tennessee State Capitol building in Nashville.
The design of the Portland Breakwater Light in Maine was inspired by the monument. It was adapted for Civil War memorials and capped many Beaux-Arts towers, such as The San Remo's towers in New York; the most prominent example is the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument designed by architects Charles and Arthur Stoughton and erected on Riverside Drive in New York City in 1902. A bronze miniature of the Choragic Monument is handed out for the Richard H. Driehaus Prize recognizing a living architect whose work exemplifies the values of traditional and classical architecture in a contemporary built environment; the University of Notre Dame's Walsh Family Hall of Architecture features a tower crowned by a replica of the Choragic Monument. In Australia, there is a version in Sydney in New South Wales, it is reproduced at the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne where it forms a crowning element at the top of the memorial's pyramid-like roof. Excerpts from guidebooks American Beaux-Arts uses of the Choragic Monument "Neoclassic architecture and the influence of Antiquity"
Jefferson Davis Highway
The Jefferson Davis Highway known as the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway, was a planned transcontinental highway in the United States in the 1910s and 1920s that began in Arlington and extended south and west to San Diego, California. Because of unintended conflict between the National Auto Trail movement and the federal government, it is unclear whether it really existed in the complete form that its United Daughters of the Confederacy founders intended. In the first quarter of the 20th century, as the automobile gained in popularity, a system of roads began to develop informally through the actions of private interests; these were known as auto trails. They existed without the support or coordination of the federal government, although in some states, the state governments participated in their planning and development; the first of these National Auto Trails was the Lincoln Highway, first announced as a project in 1912. With the need for new roads being so significant, dozens of new auto trails were begun in the decade following.
One such roadway was the Jefferson Davis Highway, sponsored by the United Daughters of the Confederacy. The UDC planned the formation of the Jefferson Davis as a road that would start in Arlington and travel through the southern states until its terminus at San Diego, California. More than ten years after the construction of the Jefferson Davis was begun, it was announced that it would be extended north out of San Diego and go to the Canada–US border. By the mid-1920s, the informal system of national auto trails had grown cumbersome, the federal government imposed a numbering system on the nation's highways, using numbers for east–west routes and odd numbers for north–south routes. Rather than using a single number for each auto trail, sections of each trail were given different numerical designations. However, the UDC petitioned the U. S. Bureau of Public Roads to designate the Jefferson Davis as a national highway with a single number; the Bureau's reply casts doubt on whether or not the JDMH really existed as a transcontinental highway: A careful search has been made in our extensive map file in the Bureau of Public Roads and three maps showing the Jefferson Davis highways have been located, but the routes on these maps are themselves different and neither route is that described by you, so that I am somewhat at a loss as to just what route your constituents are interested in.
For instance, there is the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway which extends from Miami, Florida to Los Angeles. C. to San Francisco. This problem may well have been the fault of the UDC themselves. In addition to the planned transcontinental route, they designated an auxiliary route running from Kentucky to Mississippi, as well as another that ran through Georgia; these ancillary routes were intended to commemorate important venues in Davis' life, but they contributed to the confusion of the federal government in trying to locate where the Jefferson Davis highway traveled. What is known is that when numbered highways came into existence, the Jefferson Davis National Highway was split among US 1, US 15, US 29, US 61, US 80, US 90, US 99, US 190 and others. Today, many of these numbered routes themselves are no longer extant, having been supplanted by the Interstate Highway System. Although it may not be possible to view the entire length of the highway on a map today, many parts of it still exist, scattered across the country.
This is an incomplete listing of some of the places today where one can see pieces of the Jefferson Davis highway. The Virginia General Assembly defined the Jefferson Davis Highway in Virginia on March 17, 1922, as traveling from Arlington, Virginia, at the 14th Street Bridge to the Commonwealth's border with North Carolina south of Clarksville, Virginia; this corridor was defined as US 1/US 15 in 1926, although US 1 took a shorter route between south of McKenney and South Hill.. Its original eastern terminus marker of the highway can still be found near the Virginia end of the 14th Street Bridge, which crosses the Potomac River from Washington, D. C; the terminal marker was there until the 1960s, when it was moved to a nearby location for safety reasons. SR 110 bears the name of "Jefferson Davis Highway" as it travels past the Pentagon in Arlington County between Rosslyn and US 1 in Crystal City; this is a recent extension to the original Jefferson Davis Highway. The extension was created as part of The Pentagon's road system during World War II.
State Route 712 and U. S. Route 58 are still defined as the Jefferson Davis Highway; the Jefferson Davis Highway now uses the following business routes:U. S. Route 58 Business in Lawrenceville U. S. Route 58 Business in Boydton The Falling Creek and Proctor Creek highway markers in Chesterfield County, Brook Road Marker in Henrico County, Ashland Marker in Hanover County, Elliott Grays Marker and Maury Street Marker in Richmond, Virginia are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Jefferson Davis Highway traverses through the state for 162 miles. Starting at the Virginia state line along US 15 to Sanford. Designation of highway was approved on May 28, 1955; the J
Unite the Right rally
The Unite the Right rally known as the Charlottesville rally or Charlottesville riots, was a white supremacist rally that occurred in Charlottesville, from August 11 to 12, 2017. Protesters were members of the far-right and included self-identified members of the alt-right, neo-Confederates, neo-fascists, white nationalists, neo-Nazis and various militias; the marchers chanted racist and antisemitic slogans, carried semi-automatic rifles and neo-Nazi symbols, the Valknut, Confederate battle flags, Deus Vult crosses and other symbols of various past and present anti-Muslim and antisemitic groups. Within the Charlottesville area, the rally is known as A12 or 8/12; the organizers' stated goals included unifying the American white nationalist movement and to oppose removing a statue of Robert E. Lee from Charlottesville's Lee Park; the rally occurred amidst the backdrop of controversy generated by the removal of Confederate monuments throughout the country in response to the Charleston church shooting in 2015.
The event turned violent after protesters clashed with counter-protesters, leaving more than 30 injured. On the morning of August 12, Virginia governor Terry McAuliffe declared a state of emergency, stating that public safety could not be safeguarded without additional powers. Within an hour, the Virginia State Police declared the rally to be an unlawful assembly. At around 1:45 p.m. self-identified white supremacist James Alex Fields Jr. deliberately rammed his car into a crowd of counter-protesters about 0.5 miles away from the rally site, killing Heather Heyer and injuring nearly 40 other people. Fields was arrested soon afterward; the following year, Fields pleaded guilty to 29 federal crimes in exchange for federal prosecutors' agreement not to seek the death penalty. President Donald Trump's remarks on Charlottesville received substantial negative attention. In his initial statement on the rally, Trump did not denounce the marchers explicitly, instead condemning "hatred and violence on many sides".
His statement and his subsequent defenses of it, in which he referred to "very fine people on both sides", were seen by critics as implying moral equivalence between the white supremacist marchers and those who protested against them, were interpreted by many as a sign that he was sympathetic to white supremacy. The rally and surrounding clashes triggered a backlash against white supremacist groups in the U. S. A. A number of groups that participated in the rally had events canceled by universities and their financial and social media accounts closed by major companies; some Twitter users led a campaign to identify and publicly shame marchers at the rally from photographs. Unite the Right held an anniversary rally on August 11–12, 2018, in Washington D. C. Like the original, the rally was expected to draw large protests from religious organizations, civil rights groups, anti-fascist organizers; the rally's turnout consisted of 20–30 protesters amidst thousands of counter-protestors. In the wake of the Charleston church shooting in 2015, efforts were made across the country to remove Confederate monuments from public spaces and rename streets honoring notable figures from the Confederacy.
While successful, these efforts faced a backlash from people concerned about protecting their Confederate heritage. The August 11–12 rally was organized to protest the removal of the Robert E. Lee statue honoring the Confederate general in what was known as Lee Park; the event was organized by Jason Kessler who had taken up the cause in March 2016 when Charlottesville Vice Mayor Wes Bellamy held a press conference to call for removal of the statue. Kessler, who refers to Bellamy as "anti-white", exposed a series of offensive tweets made by Bellamy several years earlier and unsuccessfully tried to remove him from office. Bellamy did however step down from his post on the Virginia Board of Education, apologized for the offensive tweets. Kessler cited the renaming of the park as a reason for the rally. On May 13, 2017, white supremacist Richard Spencer led a rally in Charlottesville to protest the city's plans to remove the statue of Lee; the event involved protesters holding torches near the statue.
That same night, a candlelight counterprotest took place. The Ku Klux Klan held another rally in Charlottesville on July 8. About 50 Klan members and 1,000 counterprotesters gathered at a nonviolent rally. In opposition to the rally, the Charlottesville Clergy Collective created a safe space at First United Methodist Church, used by over 600 people. Among the far-right groups engaged in organizing the march were the Stormer Book Clubs of the neo-Nazi news website The Daily Stormer, The Right Stuff, the National Policy Institute, four groups that form the Nationalist Front: the neo-Confederate League of the South, the neo-Nazi groups Traditionalist Worker Party, Vanguard America, the National Socialist Movement. Other groups involved in the rally were the Ku Klux Klan, the Fraternal Order of Alt-Knights, the American Identitarian group Identity Evropa, the Southern California-based fight club Rise Above Movement, the American Guard, the Detroit Right Wings – misappropriating the name of the Detroit Red Wi
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
1960 United States presidential election
The 1960 United States presidential election was the 44th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960. In a contested election, Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee; this was the first election in which all fifty states participated, the last in which the District of Columbia did not. It was the first election in which an incumbent president was ineligible to run for a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment. Nixon faced little opposition in the Republican race to succeed popular incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower. Kennedy, a U. S. Senator from Massachusetts, established himself as the Democratic front-runner with his strong performance in the 1960 Democratic primaries, including a key victory in West Virginia over Senator Hubert Humphrey, he defeated Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson on the first presidential ballot of the 1960 Democratic National Convention, asked Johnson to serve as his running mate.
The issue of the Cold War dominated the election, as tensions were high between the United States and the Soviet Union. Kennedy won a 303 to 219 Electoral College victory, is considered to have won the national popular vote by 112,827, a margin of 0.17 percent. The issue of the popular vote was complicated by the presence of several unpledged electors in the Deep South. Fourteen unpledged electors from Mississippi and Alabama cast their vote for Senator Harry F. Byrd, as did a faithless elector from Oklahoma; the 1960 presidential election was the closest election since 1916, this closeness can be explained by a number of factors. Kennedy benefited from the economic recession of 1957–58, which hurt the standing of the incumbent Republican Party, he had the advantage of 17 million more registered Democrats than Republicans. Furthermore, the new votes that Kennedy, the first Roman Catholic president, gained among Catholics neutralized the new votes Nixon gained among Protestants. Kennedy's campaigning skills decisively outmatched Nixon's, who wasted time and resources campaigning in all fifty states while Kennedy focused on campaigning in populous swing states.
Nixon's emphasis on his experience carried little weight for most voters. Kennedy used his large, well-funded campaign organization to win the nomination, secure endorsements, with the aid of the big-city bosses, get out the vote in the big cities. Kennedy relied on Johnson to hold the South, used television effectively. In 1963, Kennedy was succeeded by Johnson. Nixon would successfully seek the presidency in 1968; the major candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination were John F. Kennedy, Governor Pat Brown of California, Senator Stuart Symington from Missouri, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson, Senator Wayne Morse from Oregon, Senator Hubert Humphrey from Minnesota. Several other candidates sought support in their home state or region as "favorite son" candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination. Symington and Johnson all declined to campaign in the presidential primaries. While this reduced their potential delegate count going into the Democratic National Convention, each of these three candidates hoped that the other leading contenders would stumble in the primaries, thus causing the convention's delegates to choose him as a "compromise" candidate acceptable to all factions of the party.
Kennedy was dogged by suggestions from some Democratic Party elders that he was too youthful and inexperienced to be president. Realizing that this was a strategy touted by his opponents to keep the public from taking him Kennedy stated frankly, "I'm not running for vice president, I'm running for president." The next step was the primaries. Kennedy's Roman Catholic religion was an issue. Kennedy first challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey in the Wisconsin primary and defeated him. Kennedy's attractive sisters and wife Jacqueline combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant competing against a chain store." However, some political experts argued that Kennedy's margin of victory had come entirely from Catholic areas, thus Humphrey decided to continue the contest in the Protestant state of West Virginia. The first televised debate of 1960 was held in West Virginia, Kennedy outperformed Humphrey. Humphrey's campaign was low on funds and could not compete for advertising and other "get-out-the-vote" drives with Kennedy's well-financed and well-organized campaign.
In the end, Kennedy defeated Humphrey with over 60% of the vote, Humphrey ended his presidential campaign. West Virginia showed that Kennedy, a Catholic, could win in a Protestant state. Although Kennedy had only competed in nine presidential primaries, Kennedy's rivals and Symington, failed to campaign in any primaries. Though Stevenson had twice been the Democratic Party's presidential candidate and retained a loyal following of liberals, his two landslide defeats to Republican Dwight Eisenhower led most party leaders and delegates to search for a "fresh face" who could win a national election. Following the primaries, Kennedy traveled around the nation speaking to state delegations and their leaders; as the Democratic Convention opened, Kennedy was far in the lead, but was still seen as being just short of the delegate total he needed to win. The 1960 Democratic National Convention was held in California. In the week before the convention opened, Kennedy receiv