A Chinese school is a school, established for the purpose of teaching the varieties of Chinese, though the purpose can vary to teaching different aspects of Chinese culture such as Chinese art, calligraphy and martial arts. The programs can either be an independent institution or a part of an existing educational institution. For example, The Huaxia Chinese School in Great Valley, Pennsylvania operates independently from the Great Valley High School where it is taught. However, some programs are part of the school curriculum and is a branch of the foreign language department. According to various mission statements, many Chinese schools are purposed to preserve traditional Chinese language and culture. In 2007, USA Today dubbed Chinese "... is the new English." A recent trend in 2011 shows that the Chinese government has provided funding to U. S. school districts with additional funding on top of funding they receive from the U. S. government. As a result, there has been concern that the Chinese government may be infiltrating the education system outside its borders, as some people at a school district in Columbus, feel it has done.
A typical Chinese school curriculum can vary depending on the particular school. However, the Standard Chinese language and various aspects of Chinese culture such as Chinese art, Chinese history and Chinese martial arts are included; the Chinese language is spoken by about 16 % of the world's population. Chinese schools teach both written and spoken Chinese. With the growing importance and influence of China's economy globally, Mandarin instruction is gaining popularity in schools in the United States, has become an popular subject of study amongst the young in the Western world, as in the UK. One of the teaching tools used in Chinese schools is the Pinyin system known as the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet, developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization, it was published by revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982.
Written Chinese as taught in Chinese schools uses methods as defined by the Shūfǎ from China, which means "the way/method/law of writing". Curricula in Chinese writing focus on stroke order and repetition. Schools teach the relationship of words based on their Chinese radicals, as many words come from ideas that relate to a particular topic. Stroke orders of words are important as they dictate how Chinese words can be found in a Chinese dictionary. Chinese art is taught in Chinese schools following the techniques as established in Chinese painting. For example: Gong-bi, meaning "meticulous", uses detailed brushstrokes that delimits details precisely, it is highly coloured and depicts figural or narrative subjects. It is practised by artists working for the royal court or in independent workshops. Bird-and-flower paintings were in this style. Ink and wash painting, in Chinese Shui-mo or loosely termed watercolour or brush painting, known as "literati painting", as it was one of the "Four Arts" of the Chinese Scholar-official class.
In theory this was an art practised by gentlemen, a distinction that begins to be made in writings on art from the Song dynasty, though in fact the careers of leading exponents could benefit considerably. This style is referred to as "xie yi" or freehand style. Chinese martial arts, sometimes called "kung fu" are a number of fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. Chinese schools offer such programs as part of their curriculum as it is one of the fundamental aspects of Chinese culture. Though some martial art styles may have originated in other parts of Asia such as karate and tae kwon do, they are sometimes taught as though it were part of the Chinese heritage. Many Chinese schools put on a Chinese New Year gala as the festival is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the Chinese calendar, it is known as the Spring Festival, the literal translation of the modern Chinese name. Chinese New Year celebrations traditionally run from Chinese New Year's Eve, the last day of the last month of the Chinese calendar, to the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first month, making the festival the longest in the Chinese calendar.
The first day of the New Year falls between January 21 and February 20. Chinese Immersion School at De Avila, San Francisco, California Huaxia Edison Chinese School, New Jersey Mid Jersey Chinese School, East Brunswick, New Jersey Chinese as a foreign languageOther cultures and languages have similar setups. For example: Hebrew school Arabic language school Hindi language school Français langue étrangère English as a second or foreign language National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools
Lehigh University is a private research university in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. It was established in 1865 by businessman Asa Packer, its undergraduate programs have been coeducational since the 1971–72 academic year. As of 2019, the university had 1,942 graduate students. Lehigh has four colleges: the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Education; the College of Arts and Sciences is the largest, which consists of 35% of the university's students. The university offers a variety of degrees, including Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Business Administration, Master of Engineering, Master of Education, Doctor of Philosophy. Lehigh has produced Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Fellows, members of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences, National Medal of Science winners. On April 5, 1986, a 19-year-old Lehigh freshman was murdered in her dorm room.
The backlash against unreported crimes on numerous campuses across the country led to the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. The Clery Act requires that colleges reveal information regarding crime on their campuses.20 years after the federal Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act took effect, thought leaders on campus safety came to Lehigh to discuss critical safety issues for colleges and universities. The event, "Proceeding in Partnership: The Future of Campus Safety," was held on the Lehigh campus in September 2011, was co-sponsored by Security on Campus, founded by Connie and Howard Clery following the death of their daughter, Jeanne Clery; the conference represented the first cooperative effort between Lehigh and the organization since Jeanne Clery's death. Located in the Lehigh Valley, the university is a 70-mile drive from Philadelphia, an 85-mile drive from New York City. Lehigh encompasses 2,350 acres, including 180 acres of recreational and playing fields and 150 buildings comprising four million square feet of floor space.
It is organized into three contiguous campuses on and around South Mountain, including: the Asa Packer Campus, built into the northern slope of the mountain, is Lehigh's original and predominant campus. In May 2012, Lehigh became the recipient of a gift of 755 acres of property in nearby Upper Saucon Township from the Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation; the gift from the estate of the long-time benefactor allowed the university to expand its footprint to now comprise 2,350 acres across all its campuses, to consider its long-term potential uses. U. S. News & World Report ranked Lehigh tied for 53rd among national universities in its 2019 edition of "Best Colleges"; the Economist ranked Lehigh 7th among national universities in its 2015 ranking of non-vocational U. S. colleges ranked by alumni earnings above expectation. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012; the Wall Street Journal in June 2010 ranked Lehigh as number 12 in the nation for return on investment when comparing the average career earnings of a graduate to the cost of an education.
Lehigh has appeared in several international university rankings. The university ranked 301–350 overall in the 2013–2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 401–500 overall in the 2012 edition of the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 551-600 overall in the 2013 QS World University Rankings. U. S. News & World Report classifies Lehigh's selectivity as "Most Selective." For the Class of 2022, Lehigh received 15,623 applications and accepted 3,418. Per Lehigh's school newspaper, 2022 marked the most selective year with a 19% acceptance rate for regular decision applicants. Lehigh's average class size is 27 students; the undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 10:1. Lehigh University offers undergraduate enrollment in all colleges but the College of Education: the P. C. Rossin School of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Arts and Sciences. Students are able to take courses or major/minor in a subject outside of their respective college.
The university operates on a semester system. Graduates of Lehigh's engineering programs invented the escalator and founded Packard Motor Car Company and the companies that built the locks and lockgates of the Panama Canal. Other notable alumni include Lee Iacocca. Tau Beta Pi, the renowned engineering honor society, was founded at Lehigh. In 2012, BusinessWeek ranked Lehigh's College of Business and Economics 31st in the nation among undergraduate business programs. Lehigh's finance program is strong, ranked as 7th overall undergraduate finance program in the nation by BusinessWeek; the accounting program is strong, ranked as the 21st best undergraduate program in the nation by BusinessWeek. Additionally, US News & World Report ranked Lehigh's part-time MBA 20th in the nation in 2018 rankings. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012. Based in Maginnes Hall, Lehigh offers a variety of visual arts programs. In particular, it has many music programs, including a marching ba
Education in Japan
Education in Japan is compulsory at the elementary and lower secondary levels. Most students attend public schools through the lower secondary level, but private education is popular at the upper secondary and university levels. Education prior to elementary school is provided at day-care centers. Public and private day-care centers take children from under age 1 on up to 5 years old; the programmes for those children aged 3–5 resemble those at kindergartens. The educational approach at kindergartens varies from unstructured environments that emphasize play to structured environments that are focused on having the child pass the entrance exam at a private elementary school; the academic year starts from April and ends in March, having summer vacation in August and winter vacation in the end of December to the beginning of January. There are few days of holidays between academic years; the period of academic year is the same all through elementary level to higher educations nationwide. Japanese students rank among OECD students in terms of quality and performance in reading literacy and sciences.
The average student scored 540 in reading literacy and science in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment and the country has one of the world's highest-educated labour forces among OECD countries. Its populace is well educated and its society values education as a platform for social mobility and for gaining employment in the country's high-tech economy; the country's large pool of educated and skilled individuals is responsible for ushering Japan’s post-war economic growth. Tertiary-educated adults in Japan graduates in sciences and engineering, benefit economically and from their education and skills in the country's high tech economy. Spending on education as a proportion of GDP is below the OECD average. Although expenditure per student is comparatively high in Japan, total expenditure relative to GDP remains small. In 2015, Japan’s public spending on education amounted to just 3.5 percent of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.7%. In 2014, the country ranked fourth for the percentage of 25- to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 48 percent.
In addition, bachelor's degrees are held by 59 percent of Japanese aged 25–34, the second most in the OECD after South Korea. As the Japanese economy is scientific and technological based, the labor market demands people who have achieved some form of higher education related to science and engineering in order to gain a competitive edge when searching for employment opportunities. About 75.9 percent of high school graduates attended a university, junior college, trade school, or other higher education institution. Japan's education system played a central part in Japan's recovery and rapid economic growth in the decades following the end of World War II. After World War II, the Fundamental Law of Education and the School Education Law were enacted; the latter law defined the school system that would be in effect for many decades: six years of elementary school, three years of junior high school, three years of high school, two or four years of university. Although Japan ranks on the PISA tests, its educational system has been criticized in the US for its focus on standardized testing and conformity.
Formal education in Japan began in the 6th century. Buddhist and Confucian teachings as well as sciences, calligraphy and literature were taught at the courts of Asuka and Heian. Scholar officials were chosen through an Imperial examination system, but contrary to China, the system never took hold and titles and posts at the court remained hereditary family possessions. The rise of the bushi, the military class, during the Kamakura period ended the influence of scholar officials, but Buddhist monasteries remained influential centers of learning. In the Edo period, the Yushima Seidō in Edo was the chief educational institution of the state. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, the daimyō vied for power in the pacified country. Since their influence could not be raised through war, they competed on the economic field, their warrior-turned-bureaucrat Samurai elite had to be educated not only in military strategy and the martial arts, but agriculture and accounting. The wealthy merchant class needed education for their daily business, their wealth allowed them to be patrons of arts and science.
But temple schools educated peasants too, it is estimated that at the end of the Edo period 50% of the male and 20% of the female population possessed some degree of literacy. Though contact with foreign countries was restricted, books from China and Europe were eagerly imported and Rangaku became a popular area of scholarly interest. There were facilities that were created to educate samurai and their children to perpetuate morality and mindfulness of their class; these schools, hanko schools, were where scholars would bring together samurai to listen to lectures on Confucianism, military arts, other subjects. Samurai would attempt to teach villagers what they had learned, “proper guidance to the common people’s spirit and manners,” by posting flyers and creating handbooks, Some Shōgun and Daimyō were interested in spreading education throughout their protected land with the target audience as adult commoners and children. Elementary education was imparted as well as morality lessons; the Shirakawa Village School's town bulleti
Chengdu romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the three most populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an; as of 2014, the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the 5th-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name unchanged throughout the imperial and communist eras.
It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. It is now one of the most important economic, commercial, cultural and communication centers in Western China. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates. More than 260 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu; the name Chengdu is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding. It has been called the only major city in China to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial and communist eras, although it had other names, for example it was known as Xijing in the 17th century; the Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, three to become a metropolis".
There are, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters. The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization, its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c. and the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo. Although the official name of the city has remained constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou. Chinese nicknames for the city include the Turtle City, variously derived from the old city walls' shape on a map or a legend that Zhang Yi had planned their course by following a turtle's tracks; the city logo adopted in 2011 is inspired by the Golden Sun Bird, an ancient artifact unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins. Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu was inhabited over four thousand years ago.
At the time of China's Xia and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu. In the early 4th century BC, the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty relocated from nearby Pi County, giving his new capital the name Chengdu. Shu was conquered by Qin in the settlement re-founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi. Although he had argued against the invasion, the settlement thrived and the additional resources from Sichuan helped enable the First Emperor of Qin to unify the Warring States which had succeeded the Zhou. Under the Han, the brocade produced in Chengdu was exported throughout China. A "Brocade Official" was established to oversee its supply. After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu, his minister Zhuge Liang called the area the "Land of Abundance". Under the Tang, Chengdu was considered the second most prosperous city in China after Yangzhou.
Both Li Bai and Du Fu lived in the city. Li Bai praised it as "lying above the empyrean"; the city's present Caotang was constructed in 1078 in honor of an earlier, more humble structure of that name erected by Du Fu in 760, the second year of his 4-year stay. The Taoist Qingyang Gong was built in the 9th century. Chengdu was the capital of Wang Jian's Former Shu from 907 to 925, when it was conquered by the Later Han; the Later Shu was founded with its capital at Chengdu. Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls; the Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first used paper money in the world. Su Shi praised it as "the southwestern metropolis". At the fall of the Song, a rebel leader set up a short-lived
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Wuhou District is one of nine districts of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province, China. It contains Wuhou Temple and Jinli Street; the district is bordered by Jinjiang District to the east, Shuangliu County to the south and west, Qingyang District to the north. Wuhou District is the largest of the five internal districts of Chengdu as well as being the wealthiest, it contains the areas of Yulin and Shuangnan which are considered to be the two areas of Chengdu with the highest living standards. The U. S. Consulate in Chengdu is in Wuhou District. Southwest University for Nationalities maintains its main campus in Wuhou District; the Chengdu Hoshuko, a Japanese supplementary weekend school, holds its classes in the Hiroshima-Chengdu Friendship Center in Wuhou District. It was established on February 12, 2012
Brill is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands. With offices in Leiden, Boston and Singapore, Brill today publishes 275 journals and around 1200 new books and reference works each year. In addition, Brill is a provider of primary source materials online and on microform for researchers in the humanities and social sciences. Brill publishes in the following subject areas: The roots of Brill go back to May 17, 1683, when a certain Jordaan Luchtmans was registered as a bookseller by the Leiden booksellers' guild; as was customary at the time, Luchtmans combined his bookselling business with publishing activities. These were in the fields of biblical studies, Oriental languages, ethnography. Luchtmans established close ties with the University of Leiden, one of the major centers of study in these areas. In 1848, the business passed from the Luchtmans family to that of a former employee. In order to cover the financial obligations that he inherited, E. J. Brill decided to liquidate the entire Luchtmans book stock in a series of auctions that took place between 1848 and 1850.
Brill continued to publish in the traditional core areas of the company, with occasional excursions into other fields. Thus, in 1882, the firm brought out a two-volume Leerboek der Stoomwerktuigkunde. More programmatically, however, in 1855 Het Gebed des Heeren in veertien talen was meant to publicize Brill's ability to typeset non-Latin alphabets, such as Hebrew, Samaritan, Coptic, Arabic, among several others. In 1896, Brill became a public limited company, when E. J. Brill's successors, A. P. M. van Oordt and Frans de Stoppelaar, both businessmen with some academic background and interest, died. A series of directors followed, his directorship marked a period of unprecedented growth in the history of the company, due to a large extent to Folkers' cooperation with the German occupying forces during World War II. For the Germans, Brill printed foreign-language textbooks so that they could manage the territories they occupied, but military manuals, such as "a manual which trained German officers to distinguish the insignias of the Russian army".
In 1934, the company had a turnover of 132,000 guilders. After the war, the Dutch denazification committee determined the presence of "enemy money" in Brill's accounts. Folkers was arrested in September 1946, deprived of the right to hold a managerial post; the company itself, escaped the aftermath of the war unscathed. Brill's path in the post-war years was again marked by ups and downs, though the company remained faithful in its commitment to scholarly publishing; the late 1980s brought an acute crisis due to over-expansion, poor management, as well as general changes in the publishing industry. Thus, in 1988–91 under new management the company underwent a major restructuring, in the course of which it closed some of its foreign offices, including Cologne, its London branch was closed by then. Brill, sold its printing business, which amounted "to amputat its own limb"; this was considered necessary to save the company as a whole. No jobs were lost in the process; the reorganization managed to save the company, which has since undergone an expansion that as as 1990 had been inconceivable.
As of 2008, Brill was publishing around 600 books and 100 journals each year, with a turnover of 26 million euros. Brill publishes several open access journals and is one of thirteen publishers to participate in the Knowledge Unlatched pilot. In 2013, Brill created the IFLA/Brill Open Access Award for initiatives in the area of open access monograph publishing together with the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Brill is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. List of Brill academic journals Books in the Netherlands The most up-to-date history of the company is Sytze van der Veen, Brill: 325 Years of Scholarly Publishing, ISBN 978-90-04-17032-2 Tom Verde, "Brill's Bridge to Arabic", Aramco World, 66, nr. 3, pp. 30–39 online edition. Brill Annual Report 2012 Official website A list of books published by E. J. Brill Leiden