Hold-ups or stay-ups are stockings with an elasticized band at the top, designed to hold the stockings up when worn, without the use of a garter belt or garters. Thigh highs are held up by one or more bands sewn to the top, backed with silicone on its inner surface; this ensures the thigh highs stay in position because of the elastic and the friction of the silicone against the skin. The silicone can become ineffective by contact with body lotions and talcum powder, as they all reduce the friction of the silicone. Thigh highs are designed so that the elastic band exerts just the right pressure on a woman's thigh, avoiding any uncomfortable tightness or unflattering muffin-top effect. Sometimes thigh highs are preferred to pantyhose for hygiene reasons, because they reduce excessive microbial growth around the groin due to humidity and warmth. Thigh highs may be chosen because of the classic popular "stocking top" line, there are no suspender bumps to be seen through a skirt or dress. Like stockings and pantyhose, the thickness of thigh-highs is measured in denier.
With the invention of nylon, thigh high stockings took center stage in women's fashion. While high-end consumers never lost their fascination with silk thigh highs, their nylon counterparts were so ubiquitous that they ended up baptizing the entire stocking family. In popular use, stockings were referred to as "nylons" in the 1940s. In the 1960s, thigh highs retreated towards a more marginal place in women's fashion, it is accepted. As the skirt was growing shorter and shorter, revealing the top line of the stockings became uncommon, thigh highs became superseded by pantyhose; as a term, "hold-ups" was first used by "Pretty Polly" in 1967 for its self-supporting stockings. The term was not registered by the company, has since become a generic trademark for the stocking style. Modern stockings and thigh highs are made by either flat knitting or the use of circular machines. Flat knitting is the original hosiery manufacturing technique of the 1930s–1950s. After the fabric has been produced, each thigh high is individually seamed.
The top of the seam has a "finishing loop", a small hole that every seamed thigh high has as a result of the machinist turning the welt—the thigh high top—inside out, in order to finish off. Once sewn, the thigh highs are "boarded"; this is a process where each thigh high is stretched over a flat metal leg form and "set" with steam. The knit tightens, creases are eliminated and the leg is shaped; because the process is time consuming, seamed thigh highs are never cheap. Around a third of production—especially during the production of sheer stockings—is discarded during quality control. Thigh highs are now most produced on circular machines that eliminate back seams by knitting tubes that are "set" to the shape of the leg. While the first circular machines produced sheer stockings with a reinforced heel pocket, modern machines have eliminated this, offering a better fit regardless of the wearer's shoe size; the addition of lycra to the stocking yarn was the biggest break-through in hosiery manufacturing, the result being thigh highs that combine elasticity with the ability to cling to the leg
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Idaho, is the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River in southwestern Idaho, the population of Boise at the 2010 Census was 205,671, the 99th largest in the United States, its estimated population in 2016 was 223,154. The Boise-Nampa metropolitan area known as the Treasure Valley, includes five counties with a combined population of 709,845, the most populous metropolitan area in Idaho, it contains. Boise is the 80th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Accounts differ regarding the name's origin. One account credits Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville of the U. S. Army as its source. After trekking for weeks through dry and rough terrain, his exploration party reached an overlook with a view of the Boise River Valley; the place where they stood is called Bonneville Point, located on the Oregon Trail east of the city. According to the story, a French-speaking guide, overwhelmed by the sight of the verdant river, yelled "Les bois!
Les bois!" —and the name stuck. The name may instead derive from earlier mountain men. In the 1820s, French Canadian fur trappers set trap lines in the vicinity. Set in a high-desert area, the tree-lined valley of the Boise River became a distinct landmark, an oasis dominated by cottonwood trees, they called this "La rivière boisée", which means "the wooded river." The area was called Boise long before the establishment of Fort Boise by the federal government. The original Fort Boise was 40 miles west, near Parma, down the Boise River near its confluence with the Snake River at the Oregon border; this private sector defense was erected by the Hudson's Bay Company in the 1830s. It was abandoned in the 1850s, but massacres along the Oregon Trail prompted the U. S. Army to re-establish a fort in the area in 1863 during the U. S. Civil War; the new location was selected because it was near the intersection of the Oregon Trail with a major road connecting the Boise Basin and the Owyhee mining areas, both of which were booming.
During the mid-1860s, Idaho City was the largest city in the Northwest, as a staging area, Fort Boise grew rapidly. The first capital of the Idaho Territory was Lewiston in north central Idaho, which in 1863 was the largest community, exceeding the populations of Olympia and Seattle, Washington Territory and Portland, Oregon combined; the original territory was larger than Texas. But following the creation of Montana Territory, Boise was made the territorial capital of a much reduced Idaho in a controversial decision which overturned a district court ruling by a one-vote majority in the territorial supreme court along geographic lines in 1866. Designed by Alfred B. Mullett, the U. S. Assay Office at 210 Main Street was built in 1871 and today is a National Historic Landmark. Most native and longtime residents use the pronunciation / ˈbɔɪsiː /; the pronunciation is sometimes used as a shibboleth, as outsiders tend to pronounce the city's name as /ˈbɔɪziː/. Boise is in southwestern Idaho, about 41 miles east of the Oregon border, 110 miles north of the Nevada border.
The downtown area's elevation is 2,704 feet above sea level. Most of the metropolitan area lies on a flat plain, descending to the west. Mountains rise to the northeast, stretching from the far southeastern tip of the Boise city limits to nearby Eagle; these mountains are known to locals as the Boise foothills and are sometimes described as the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. About 34 miles southwest of Boise, about 26 miles southwest of Nampa, the Owyhee Mountains lie in neighboring Owyhee County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 80.05 square miles, of which, 79.36 square miles is land and 0.69 square miles is water. The city is drained by the Boise River; the City of Boise is considered part of the Treasure Valley. Boise occupies a large area — 64 sq mi according to the United States Census Bureau. Like all major cities, it has several neighborhoods, including the Bench, the North End, West Boise and Downtown. In January 2014, the Boise Police Department partnered with the folksonomic neighborhood blogging site Nextdoor, the first city in the Northwest and the 137th city in the U.
S. to do so. Since the app, which enables the city's police and parks departments to post to self-selected localized areas, first became available in October 2011, 101 neighborhoods and sections of neighborhoods have joined. Downtown Boise is Boise's cultural home to many small businesses and a few mid-rises. While downtown Boise lacks a major retail/dining focus like Seattle and Portland, the area has a variety of shops and growing option for dining choices. Centrally, 8th Street contains a pedestrian zone with sidewalk restaurants; the neighborhood has many local restaurants and boutiques and supports a vibrant nightlife. The area contains the Basque Block, which gives visitors a chance to learn about and enjoy Boise's Basque heritage. Downtown Boise's main attractions include the Idaho State Capitol, the classic Egyptian Theatre on the corner of Capitol Boulevard and Main Street, the Boise Art Museum on Capitol in front of Julia Davis Park, Zoo Boise on the grounds of Julia Davis Park. Boise's economy was threatened in the late 1990s by commercial development at locations away from the downtown center, such as Boise Towne Square Mall and at shopping centers near new housing developments.
Cultural events in Dow
Leg warmers are coverings for the lower legs, similar to socks but thicker and footless. Leg warmers are worn to keep the lower legs warm in colder weather, they can be tubular sleeves, long fabric wrappings, or simple pieces of fur or fabric tied around the calves. They are used in several outdoor activities and sports including cycling, hockey, ice skating, dance, they are used as dancewear by ballet and other classic dancers in order to keep the leg muscles warm and to prevent cramping or other muscle injuries. No scientific data has been yet collected to substantiate the claim. Traditionally knitted from pure sheep wool, modern variants are more made of cotton, synthetic fibers, or both; some are made of other materials, such as chenille. Leg warmers can vary in length, in width, due to the material's stretchiness, they are worn between the ankle to just below the knee, though many dancers prefer it to extend to cover the lower parts of the thigh. Some cover the entire foot—these "warmers" have a pad that grips the floor so the dancer does not slip—however this has been known to cause career-ending injury.
Some leg warmers are short and made of thinner material. Worn by dancers to keep their muscles from cramping after stretching, in the early 1980s leg warmers became a fad and wearing them was fashionable among teenage girls, their popularity was due to the influence of the films Fame and Flashdance and the concurrent aerobics craze. They were worn with leggings and tights or as part of aerobic wear, they were popular in 1980's all over the world. Leg warmers have become popular with new parents as a way to keep babies and toddlers warm while making it easy to change diapers, they have become popular again with girls, teens, college students and women. They are worn over leggings, tights or jeans and a pair of riding boots is worn and the leg warmers are slouched at the top of the riding boots. Arm warmer Spats Gaiters Leggings Puttee Leg warmers of the 80s
Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating counter-clockwise around a track. Roller derby is played by 1,250 amateur leagues worldwide inside the United States. Game play consists of a series of short match-ups; the jammer scores points by lapping members of the opposing team. The teams attempt to hinder the opposing jammer while assisting their own jammer—in effect, playing both offense and defense simultaneously. While the sport has its origins in the banked-track roller-skating marathons of the 1930s, Leo Seltzer and Damon Runyon are credited with evolving the sport to its competitive form. Professional roller derby became popular. In the ensuing decades, however, it predominantly became a form of sports entertainment, where theatrical elements overshadowed athleticism. Gratuitous showmanship ended with the sport's grassroots revival in the first decade of the 21st century. Although roller derby retains some sports entertainment qualities such as player pseudonyms and colorful uniforms, it has abandoned scripted bouts with predetermined winners.
Modern roller derby is an international sport played by amateurs. Most teams are all-female teams, but there is a growing number of male and junior roller derby teams, it was under consideration as a roller sport for the 2020 Summer Olympics. FIRS, recognized by the International Olympic Committee as the official international governing body of roller sports, released its first set of Roller Derby Rules for the World Roller Games that took place September 2017 in Nanjing, China. Most modern leagues share a strong "do-it-yourself" ethic that combines athleticism with the styles of punk and camp; as of 2018, the Women's Flat Track Derby Association had 423 full member leagues and 46 apprentice leagues. Contemporary roller derby has a basic set of rules, with variations reflecting the interests of a governing body's member leagues; the summary below is based on the rules of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. In March 2010, Derby News Network claimed that more than 98% of roller derby competitions were conducted under WFTDA rules.
For example, members of the United Kingdom Roller Derby Association are required to play by WFTDA rules, while members of the former Canadian Women's Roller Derby Association were encouraged to join the WFTDA. Roller derby is played in two periods of 30 minutes. Two teams of up to 15 players each field up to five members for episodes called "jams." Jams last two minutes. Each team designates a scoring player. One blocker can be designated as a "pivot"—a blocker, allowed to become a jammer in the course of play; the next jam may involve different players of the 15 roster players, different selections for jammer and pivot. During each jam, players skate counterclockwise on a circuit track. Points are scored only by a team's jammer. After breaking through the pack and skating one lap to begin another "trip" through the pack, the jammer scores one point for passing any opposing blocker; the rules describe an "earned" pass. The jammer's first earned pass scores a point for passing that blocker and a point for each opponent blocker not on the track.
If the jammer passes the entire pack, it is a four-point scoring trip called a "grand slam."Each team's blockers use body contact, changing positions, other tactics to help their jammer score while hindering the opposing team's jammer. Play begins by blockers lining up on the track anywhere between the "jammer line" and the "pivot line" 30 feet in front; the jammers start behind the jammer line. Jams begin on a single short whistle blast, upon which both jammers and blockers may begin engaging immediately; the pack is the largest single group of blockers containing members of both teams skating in proximity, arranged such that each player is within 10 feet of the next. Blockers must maintain the pack, but can skate within 20 feet behind and ahead of it, an area known as the "engagement zone."The first jammer to break through the pack earns the status of "lead jammer." A designated referee blows the whistle twice, skates near, points at, the lead jammer. Once earned, lead jammer status cannot be transferred to other skaters, but certain actions can cause it to be lost.
The lead jammer can stop the jam at any time by placing both hands on their hips. If the jam is not stopped early, it ends after two minutes. If time remains in the period, teams have 30 seconds to get on the track and line up for the next jam. If the period expires, it does not halt a jam, underway. A skater may block an opponent to force them out of bounds; the blocker must be upright, skating counterclockwise, in bounds, within the engagement zone. Blocking with hands, elbows and feet is prohibited, as is contact above the shoulders or below mid-thigh, blocking from behind. Referees penalize rules violations. A player receiving a penalty is removed from play to sit in a penalty box for 30 seconds of jam time. If the jam ends during this interval, the player remains in the penalty box during the subsequent jam until the interval ends; the penalized player's team plays short-handed, as in ice hockey. However, the "power jam", derived from hockey's "power play", does not cover any short-handed situation but only the case where the jammer is penal
Loose socks are a style of baggy sock worn by Japanese high school girls, as part of kogal culture. This style of socks has become popular among American teens and college students who are fans of Japanese anime and manga; these socks come in a variety of styles—defined by the knitting pattern of the upper. The two most popular styles are the traditional 2×2 rib knit and tube-style loose socks, which are thigh-high length tube socks worn pushed down around the ankles, they were adopted as a fashion which flattered plump calves and expressed rebellious deviation from Japan's strict dress code for school uniforms. It is used as an inspiration for photography by Akira Gomi, they are used in Japanese fashions like Kogal and Fairy Kei. Zettai ryōiki
Anklets are a type of sock. They are not long reaching just below or above the ankle. Anklets are sometimes folded or cuffed over
Knee highs are hosiery that cover the feet and legs up to the knee. A fashion accessory for warm weather apparel. Worn by women in many societies, they are sometimes worn with modern semi-formal attire. Unlike ordinary socks, they are made of nylon or other stocking materials. There were different types and uses of knee highs for men. Knee highs became popular during the 1960s and 1970s with the increase in popularity of the miniskirt. Knee highs at times form a part of girls' school uniforms, they come in transparency levels. They are more popular in cold weather, they are sometimes worn with dresses or skirts whose hemline is below the knee, with trousers and leggings to keep the feet warm, with boots to catch perspiration. The Greeks, Egyptians and Europeans wore articles of clothing similar to knee highs, it was during the Roman Empire. At the time men and women wrapped their feet with cloth and bind leather straps around their feet up to the calves, it was done in order for protection. On, knee highs were bought and sold and became a fashion accessory.
During the 1920s knee highs become popular in America. In the 1960s they became a fashionable accessory; the British Army and the Navy required men to wear long woolen knee highs. They were to worn for protection in the trenches, preventing foot rot. Many women sent long knitted socks to the troops during both World Wars. Hosiery Socks Stocking