A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with many beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses. A medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.

Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders.. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.

During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.

Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.

Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialized hospitals include rehabilitat

José Maria de Yermo y Parres

Saint José María de Yermo y Parres was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Servants of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and of the Poor. He dedicated his life to catering to the needs of the abandoned and used his order to take care of the poor's spiritual and material needs, he was once a vowed member of the Congregation of the Mission due to his devotion to Saint Vincent de Paul but left it after experiencing a sudden vocational crisis. Pope John Paul II canonized the late priest as a saint in 2000 after he had beatified him in Mexico in 1992. José Maria de Yermo y Parres was born on 10 November 1851 to Manuel de Yermo y Soviñas and María Josefa Parres; the death of his mother saw his father return to the capital and ask his sister Carmen to take care of him. The child spent his time under the care of his paternal aunt and grandmother who instilled religious values in him. In 1864 he received from Maximilian I of Mexico a medal of honor for his distinctions as a student, he had received his education from private teachers before going to private schools.

It was in 1863 that he met and forged a lifelong friendship with the distinguished poet Juan de Dios Peza. In 1867 he left home in order to enter the Congregation of the Mission and he made his vows into the order in Toluca on 10 November 1868, his superiors sent him to the order's motherhouse in Paris for studies and he returned in 1870 around the time he experienced a sudden vocational crisis. He returned home, but his friend Father Miguel Arizmendi continued to guide him and advised him to continue his studies for the priesthood while his uncle José Maria Diez de Sollano y Dávalos approved the decision for him to do so. He managed to discern his path and returned to his wish of becoming a priest despite not re-entering the Vincentians, he was ordained to the priesthood on 24 August 1879. After his ordination the new diocesan bishop assigned him to the two small churches of El Calvario and Santo Niño despite his protests against this viewing this as both unjust and as a humiliation of his record of good work where he was prior to this.

On one occasion he happened to see a group of pigs eat the remains of two abandoned newborns and this sickening sight made him feel as if he should help those who were abandoned. The priest opened "The Shelter of the Sacred Heart" on 13 December 1885 to cater to the needs of the poor in a move that laid the foundation for beginning a new religious order dedicated to serving the poor and at the same time evolved that into the order he titled the Servants of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Poor at the summit of El Calvario, he founded several hospitals and orphanages as well as shelters for the abused and he collaborated with the Tarahumara people towards the end of his life. He said: "Let us speak about saints to forge saints", he died in the morning of 20 September 1904 in Puebla de los Angeles after asking the nuns to sing the Ave Maria Stella. His order now operates in the places such as the United States of America and Nicaragua amongst others; the sainthood process commenced in Puebla de Los Angeles in an informative process, inaugurated in the diocese on 6 May 1949 though soon remained inactive for a few decades before a decree was issued allowing the informative process to resume on 13 September 1976.

The formal start to the cause came on 31 July 1981 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued the official "nihil obstat" to the cause and titled the late priest as a Servant of God. The cognitional process was opened on 1 July 1983 and closed on 8 August 1983 before both processes received validation from the C. C. S. on 7 June 1985 before the C. C. S. received the Positio dossier from the postulation in 1988. Theologians granted approval to the cause on 19 May 1989 as did the C. C. S. on 4 July 1989 which allowed for Pope John Paul II to confirm that the late priest had lived a life of heroic virtue on 7 September 1989 in a move that accorded upon him the title of Venerable. The process for the miracle leading to beatification spanned from July to August 1981 and was validated on 20 October 1989 before a medical board approved it on 28 February 1990. C. S. on 24 April 1990. The pope approved it on 26 April 1990 and beatified the priest while on a visit to Mexico City on 22 November 1992.

The process for the miracle leading to canonization spanned for a brief period of time in May 1998 before receiving validation on 26 June 1998. A medical board approved the miracle on 19 November 1998 while theologians did so too on 7 May 1999 as did the C. C. S. on 5 October 1999. The pope issued the final approval needed on 20 December 1999 and canonized the late priest on 21 May 2000 in Saint Peter's Square. Hagiography Circle Saints SQPN

Gibbula benzi

Gibbula benzi is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails. The size of the shell varies between 12 mm; the thin, perforate shell has an orbicular-conoid shape with irregularly transversely costate striae. The color is various, it is purplish, maculate with whitish, orange-yellow or rose-red, with traces of clear spots at the suture, or else purple-red with white flecks; the 5 whorls are separated by a distinct suture. The body whorl is subangular in the middle; the convex base of the shell is striate. The rotund-quadrate aperture is white within; the oblique columella is dilated above. The narrow umbilicus is profound; the elevated, rather narrow, transverse striae are crowded and unequal above, on the base rather regular and elevated. The striae number 4 on the penultimate whorl, about 6 above the periphery of the body whorl, with here and there an intermediate smaller one, upon the base 10 less elevated ones; the interstices look pitted on account of the elevated incremental striae.

Young examples are carinated, but old ones have the last whorl rounded and convex. The columella has a somewhat reflexed margin, a trifle widened above covering the umbilicus, it passes imperceptibly into the outer lip, is united above with the latter by a thin white callus. The umbilicus is deep narrow, longitudinally finely striated, it is funnel-shaped at the opening, is bounded by an obtuse but distinct keel. This species occurs in the Indian Ocean from Saldanha Bay to Northern Transkei, Rep. South Africa. To Biodiversity Heritage Library To World Register of Marine Species Gibbula benzi