Hospital de Sant Pau

The former Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau in the neighborhood of El Guinardó, Catalonia, Spain, is a complex built between 1901 and 1930, designed by the Catalan modernisme architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner. Together with Palau de la Música Catalana, it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it was a functioning hospital until June 2009, when the new hospital opened next to it, before undergoing restoration for use as a museum and cultural center, which opened in 2014. Although the hospital's current 26 buildings date from the 20th century, the Hospital de la Santa Creu was founded in 1401 when six small medieval hospitals merged; the hospital's former buildings near the center of Barcelona date from the 15th century, now house an art school and Biblioteca de Catalunya. In 1991, the hospital was awarded St. George's Cross by the Generalitat de Catalunya. In 2003, a new hospital building was erected to the north of the Domènech i Montaner's Modernista pavilions were all departments moved out.

However, few departments such as the Blood and Tissue Bank, the radiography department and the physical therapist department remain in some of the old buildings. List of Modernista buildings in Barcelona Media related to Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau at Wikimedia Commons Official website of the present hospital Hospital de Sant Pau on Gaudí i el Modernisme a Catalunya site. Official website of the hospital museum


AvtoVAZ known as VAZ, is a Russian automobile manufacturer. It is best known for its flagship series of Lada vehicles. In the Soviet Union, its products used various names, including Zhiguli and Sputnik which were phased out in the 1990s and replaced by Lada for the Russian market. Starting in December 2019, AvtoVAZ has been selling Niva cars with Chevrolet branding; that is set to end in August 2020. The company is a subsidiary of the Alliance Rostec Auto company, in which French Groupe Renault holds a controlling 67.61% stake. AvtoVAZ is a consolidated subsidiary of Groupe Renault. AvtoVAZ produces over 400,000 cars a year, under its Lada brand as well as cars of Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance brands Renault and Datsun; the AvtoVAZ factory is the largest car manufacturer in Eastern Europe. The company was established in 1966 in cooperation with Fiat, with Viktor Polyakov as director, Vladimir Solovyov as chief designer, intended to produce popular economy cars that would meet the growing demand for personal transport.

It was set up as a collaboration between Italy and the Soviet Union and built on the banks of the Volga River in 1966. A new town, named after the Italian Communist Party leader Palmiro Togliatti, was built around the factory; the cost of the VAZ plant was estimated at $800 million in 1970. The plant contained many of the automation systems being developed by Fiat's various subsidiaries, so the Togliatti factory acted as a trial before Fiat implemented them in its plants in Italy; the car brand to be produced was envisaged as a "people's car" like the Citroën 2CV or the VW Type 1. Production was intended to be 220,000 cars a year, beginning in 1971; the VAZ trademark, at first, was a silver Volga boat on a red pentagonal background, with "Togliatti" superposed in Cyrillic. Although the company was not as vertically integrated as other Soviet enterprises, for example it purchased components from a variety of suppliers over which it exerted little control. Unlike Western automakers, a large proportion of the components for the cars were made in-house - for example the Togliatti works contained its own foundry for manufacturing steel from raw iron ore, made its own tyres and glass from raw materials.

The first VAZ-2101 was produced on 22 April 1970, the 100th anniversary of Lenin's birth. About 22,000 VAZ-2101s were built with capacity at the end of 1973 reaching 660,000 a year. A third production line was added in October 1974; the same year, total VAZ production reached 1.5 million. The VAZ plant was described as'ultra-modern' by the Chicago Tribune in a 1973 article. Production reached 750,000 cars a year in 1975, making the Tolyatti plant the third most productive in the world. Between 1977 and 1981, AvtoVAZ acquired 30 welding robots from Japanese firms; the original, Fiat-based models included the VAZ-2102 estate. 1972 saw the introduction of a deluxe version of the sedan, VAZ-2103, based on the Fiat 124 Special and featured a new 1.5 L engine and twin headlights. In 1974, the original VAZ-2101 was updated with new engines and interiors, whereas the VAZ-2102 underwent the same improvements in 1976; the body style with two round headlights was manufactured until 1988. The VAZ-2106, introduced in December 1975 as an updated version of the VAZ-2103, was based on the 1972 Fiat 124 Special T, featuring different interiors and new 1.6 L engine.

The 2106 was one of the most popular rear-wheel drive AvtoVAZ models in the past. In 1974, VAZ was given permission to begin producing Wankel engines under licence from NSU. Work began in 1976, with a single-rotor Lada appearing in 1978. After having built a number of prototypes and experimental vehicles, AvtoVAZ designers launched the first car of their own design, the VAZ-2121 Niva, in 1977; this popular and innovative SUV was made with off-road use in mind, featuring a gearbox with a central differential lock lever as well as a low- and high-range selector lever. The VAZ-2105, based on the Fiat 124 mechanicals but modernised and restyled, was introduced in 1979 and marketed outside the Soviet Union under the Riva or Laika trade names, depending on the country. Square headlights and new body panels distinguish this car from the earlier models; the 2105 was third best selling automobile platform after the Volkswagen Beetle and the Ford Model T, one of the longest production run platforms alongside the Volkswagen Beetle, the Hindustan Ambassador and the Volkswagen Type 2.

In May 1980, a series of mass strikes at the Togliatti plant involving hundreds of thousands of workers were reported by the western press. In 1982 the VAZ-2107, a deluxe version of the 2105, was introduced. In 1984, the VAZ-2104 station wagon completed the line-up. Based on the success of the Niva, the design department prepared a new family of front-wheel drive models by 1984, of a domestic design. Production started with the VAZ-2108 Sputnik three-door hatchback, the series was commerciall

Trillium reliquum

Trillium reliquum, the relict trillium, Confederate wakerobin, or Confederate trillium, is a monocotyledon species of the genus Trillium, a perennial, herbaceous plant of the family Liliaceae. It is found only in the southeastern region of the United States: southwest and east central Alabama, South Carolina and Tennessee; as a relict species, there are a few remaining groups but it was once more abundant when conditions were different. Significant habitat loss has occurred through clearing of forests for agricultural and pine farm uses. On April 4, 1988, it was listed as an endangered species; the common name varies by location. It grows in undisturbed hardwood forests that sometimes include mature pines and that are free of understory plants such as bushes and vines, it likes moist, well-drained soils along the banks of streams and small stream floodplains, mixed with other wildflowers and forest debris. Trillium reliquum was first collected near Augusta in 1901 but was not described as a new species until 1975.

In February 2010, hikers found the plant at the Lake Jackson Mounds Archaeological State Park in the Florida Panhandle. The US Fish and Wildlife Service is surveying the plants. Trillium reliquum has a sessile flower on a curved stem at the center of its three mottled leaves that are blue-green, to green to silver in color, it flowers from March to April. From the end of a stocky underground rhizome, the plant sprouts a single shoot topped by the three mottled leaves and a single sessile flower; the stem is not erect, but rather lies along the ground. The flower consists of three petals; the flowers can be greenish to brownish-purple and pure yellow at times. Its three sepals spread out and are a purple color on the inside; the three petals tend to be somewhat twisted, varying from dark purple to yellow in color. The petals are about twice as long as the stamens; the fruit, a round, fleshy capsule, appears from May to June. The U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service lists this plant as surviving in 21 sites in Alabama and South Carolina.

The trillium reliquum has been found in Tennessee and Florida. The reasons for the restrictions of this widespread plant to only a few locations is not clear, it is not collected in the wild and is therefore considered safe, in spite of its endangerment. There is no evidence. Citizen science observations for Trillium reliquum at iNaturalist "Developer Rescues Endangered Trillium". Retrieved November 15, 2009. "Trillium reliquum - Fact Sheet - Relict Trillium". Archived from the original on May 20, 2007. Retrieved November 15, 2009. "Celebrating Wildflowers - TEP Plant Profile - Trillium reliquum, relict trillium". Retrieved November 15, 2009. Recovery plan for trillium reliquum U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved November 16, 2009 "Recovery Plan Action Status". Retrieved November 16, 2009