Seersucker is a thin, all-cotton fabric striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and summer wear. The word came into English from Hindi, originates from the words sheer and shakar meaning "milk and sugar" from the resemblance of its smooth and rough stripes to the smooth texture of milk and the bumpy texture of sugar. Seersucker is woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places; this feature causes the fabric to be held away from the skin when worn, facilitating heat dissipation and air circulation. It means that pressing is not necessary. Common items made from seersucker include suits, shirts, curtains and robes; the most common colors for it are blue. During the British colonial period, seersucker was a popular material in Britain's warm weather colonies like British India; when seersucker was first introduced in the United States, it was used for a broad array of clothing items. For suits, the material was considered a mainstay of the summer wardrobe of gentlemen in the South, who favored the light fabric in the high heat and humidity of the southern climates prior to the arrival of air conditioning.
During the American Civil War, this cheap but durable material was used to make haversacks and the famous baggy pants of Confederate Zouaves such as the Louisiana Tigers. From the mid Victorian era until the early 20th century, seersucker was known as bed ticking due to its widespread use in mattresses, pillow cases and nightshirts during the hot summers in the Southern US and Britain's overseas colonies; the fabric was worn by the poor in the U. S. until preppy undergraduate students began wearing it in the 1920s in an air of reverse snobbery. Seersucker's comfort and easy laundering made it the choice of Captain Anne A. Lentz, one of the first female officers selected to run the Marine Corps Women's Reserve during the Second World War, for the summer service uniforms of the first female United States Marines. From the 1940s onwards, nurses and US hospital volunteers wore uniforms made from a type of red and white seersucker known as candy stripe. In the days of the Old West, a type of heavyweight indigo or navy blue seersucker known as "hickory stripe" was used to make the overalls, work jackets and peaked caps of train engineers and railroad workers such as George "Stormy" Kromer or Casey Jones.
It was worn by butchers and employees of the gasoline companies, most notably Standard Oil. This cotton fabric was durable like denim, cheap to produce, kept the wearer cool in the hot cab of the steam locomotive, obscured oilstains. Today, the uniforms of American Union Pacific train drivers include "railroad stripe" caps based on those from the steam age, some rolling stock used for freight and maintenance work is painted with blue and white "zebra stripes" to improve visibility. About 1909, New Orleans clothier Joseph Haspel, Sr. started making men's suits out of seersucker fabric, which soon became regionally popular as more comfortable and practical than other types of suits and fit the hot and humid southern climate. During the 1950s, cheap railroad stripe overalls were worn by many young boys until they were old enough to wear jeans; this coincided with the popularity of train sets, films such as The Great Locomotive Chase. At the same time, seersucker formal wear continued to be worn by many professional adults in the Southern and Southwestern US.
College professors were known to favor full suits with red bowties, although 1950s Ivy League and 21st century preppy students restricted themselves to a single seersucker garment, such as a blazer paired with khaki chino trousers. Menswear brands famous for manufacturing seersucker at this time included Brooks Brothers, Macy's, Joseph Haspel of New Orleans. In the 1970s, seersucker pants were popular among young urban African Americans seeking to connect to their rural heritage; the fabric made a comeback among teenage girls in the 1990s, again in the 2010s. Beginning in 1996, the US Senate held a Seersucker Thursday in June, where the participants dress in traditionally Southern clothing, but the tradition was discontinued in June 2012; as of June 2014, it has been revived by members of the US Senate. At the same time, some senators such as Ryan McKenna of Missouri have spoken against the wearing of seersucker due to its traditional use by small children; the Republican Party has advised students at its Comms college not to wear seersucker when appearing before the cameras because of its old fashioned connotations, plus the disruptive effect of the stripes.
From 2012 onwards, seersucker blazers and pants made a comeback among American men due to a resurgence of interest in preppy clothing and the 1920s fashion showcased in the 2013 film version of The Great Gatsby. Although pale blue and dark blue stripes remained the most popular choice, alternative colors included green, black, beige, orange, purple and brown; the traditional two button blazer was updated with a slimmer cut and Edwardian inspired lapel piping, double breasted jackets became available during the mid 2010s. Since 2010, "Seersucker Social" events have been held in major cities across the United States, where participants wear vintage clothes and ride vintage bicycles; such events are the summer equivalent of a Tweed Run, traditionally held in the fall. In the 2016 Olympics hosted by Brazil, the Australian Olympic team received green and white seersucker blazers and Toms shoes rather than the traditional dark green with gold tri
Tallahassee is the capital city of the U. S. state of Florida. It only incorporated municipality in Leon County. Tallahassee became the capital of Florida the Florida Territory, in 1824. In 2017, the population was 191,049, making it the 7th-largest city in the U. S state of Florida, the 126th-largest city in the United States; the population of the Tallahassee metropolitan area was 382,627 as of 2017. Tallahassee is the largest city in the Florida Panhandle region, the main center for trade and agriculture in the Florida Big Bend and Southwest Georgia regions. Tallahassee is home to Florida State University, ranked the nation's twenty-sixth best public university by U. S. News & World Report, it is home to Florida A&M University, the fifth-largest black university by total enrollment. Tallahassee Community College is a large state college that serves as a feeder school to Florida State and Florida A&M. Tallahassee qualifies as a significant college town, with a student population exceeding 70,000.
As the capital, Tallahassee is the site of the Florida State Capitol, Supreme Court of Florida, Florida Governor's Mansion, nearly 30 state agency headquarters. The city is known for its large number of law firms, lobbying organizations, trade associations and professional associations, including the Florida Bar and the Florida Chamber of Commerce, it is a recognized regional center for scientific research, home to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In 2015, Tallahassee was awarded the All-American City Award by the National Civic League for the second time. Indigenous peoples occupied this area for thousands of years before European encounter. Around AD 1200, the large and complex Mississippian culture had built earthwork mounds near Lake Jackson which survive today; the Spanish Empire established their first colonial settlement at St. Augustine. During the 17th century they established several missions in Apalachee territory in order to procure food and labor to support their settlement, as well as to convert the natives to Roman Catholicism.
The largest, Mission San Luis de Apalachee in Tallahassee, has been reconstructed by the state of Florida. The expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez encountered the Apalachee people, although it did not reach the site of Tallahassee. Hernando de Soto and his mid-16th century expedition occupied the Apalachee town of Anhaica in the winter of 1538–1539. Based on archaeological excavations, this Anhaica site is now known to have been located about 0.5 miles east of the present Florida State Capitol. The De Soto encampment is believed to be the first place that Christmas was celebrated in the continental United States although there is no historical documentation to back this claim; the name "Tallahassee" is a Muskogean language word translated as "old fields" or "old town". It was an expression of the Creek people who migrated from areas of Georgia and Alabama to this region in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, under pressure from European-American encroachment on their territory, they found large areas of cleared land occupied by the Apalachee tribe.
During the First Seminole War, General Andrew Jackson fought two separate skirmishes in and around Tallahassee, Spanish territory. The first battle took place on November 12, 1817. Chief Neamathla, of the village of Fowltown just west of present-day Tallahassee, had refused Jackson's orders to relocate. Jackson responded by entering the village, burning it to the ground, driving off its occupants; the Indians retaliated, killing 50 soldiers and civilians. Jackson reentered Florida in March 1818. According to Jackson's adjutant, Colonel Robert Butler, they "advanced on the Indian village called Tallahasse two of the enemy were made prisoner." Florida became an American territory in September 1821, in accordance with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. The first session of the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida met on July 22, 1822 at Pensacola, the former capital of West Florida. Members from St. Augustine, the former capital of East Florida, traveled fifty-nine days by water to attend; the second session was in St. Augustine, western delegates needed 28 days to travel perilously around the peninsula to reach Pensacola.
During this session, delegates decided to hold future meetings at a halfway point. Two appointed commissioners selected Tallahassee, at that point an Apalachee settlement abandoned after Andrew Jackson burned it in 1818, as a halfway point. In 1824 the third legislative session met there in a crude log building serving as the capitol. From 1821 through 1845, during Florida's territorial period, the rough-hewn frontier capital developed as a town; the Marquis de Lafayette, French hero of the American Revolution, returned to the United States in 1824 for a tour. The U. S. Congress voted to give him $200,000, US citizenship, the Lafayette Land Grant, 36 square miles of land that today includes large portions of Tallahassee. In 1845 a Greek revival masonry structure was erected as the Capitol building in time for statehood. Now known as the "old Capitol", it stands in front of the high-rise Capitol building, built in the 1970s. Tallahassee was in the heart of Florida's Cotton Belt—Leon County led the state in cotton production—and was the center of the slave trade in Florida.
During the American Civil War, Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital east of the Mississippi River, not captured by Union forces, the only one n
Retirement is the withdrawal from one's position or occupation or from one's active working life. A person may semi-retire by reducing work hours. An increasing number of individuals are choosing to put off this point of total retirement, by selecting to exist in the emerging state of pre-tirement. Many people choose to retire when they are eligible for private or public pension benefits, although some are forced to retire when bodily conditions no longer allow the person to work any longer or as a result of legislation concerning their position. In most countries, the idea of retirement is of recent origin, being introduced during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Low life expectancy and the absence of pension arrangements meant that most workers continued to work until death. Germany was the first country to introduce retirement benefits in 1889. Nowadays, most developed countries have systems to provide pensions on retirement in old age, which may be sponsored by employers or the state.
In many poorer countries, support for the old is still provided through the family. Today, retirement with a pension is considered a right of the worker in many societies, hard ideological, social and political battles have been fought over whether this is a right. In many western countries this right is mentioned in national constitutions. Retirement, or the practice of leaving one's job or ceasing to work after reaching a certain age, has been around since around the 18th century. Prior to the 18th century, humans had an average life expectancy between 40 years. In consequence, only a small percentage of the population reached an age where physical impairments began to be obstacles to working. Countries began to adopt government policies on retirement during the late 19th century and the 20th century, beginning in Germany under Otto von Bismarck. A person may retire. However, a country's tax laws or state old-age pension rules mean that in a given country a certain age is thought of as the "standard" retirement age.
The "standard" retirement age varies from country to country but it is between 50 and 70. In some countries this age is different for males and females, although this has been challenged in some countries, in some countries the ages are being brought into line; the table below shows the variation in eligibility ages for public old-age benefits in the United States and many European countries, according to the OECD. Notes: Parentheses indicate eligibility age for women when different. Sources: Cols. 1–2: OECD Pensions at a Glance, Cols. 3–6: Tabulations from HRS, ELSA and SHARE. Square brackets indicate early retirement for some public employees. 1 In Denmark, early retirement is called efterløn and there are some requirements to be met. Early and normal retirement age depends on the birthday of the person filing for retirement.2 In France, the retirement age has been extended to 62 and 67 over the next eight years.3 In Latvia, the retirement age depends on the birthday of the person filing for retirement.4 In Spain, the retirement age will be extended to 63 and 67 this increase will be progressively done from 2013 to 2027 at a rate of 1 month during the first 6 years and 2 months during the other 9.
In the United States, while the normal retirement age for Social Security, or Old Age Survivors Insurance has been age 65 to receive unreduced benefits, it is increasing to age 67. For those turning 65 in 2008, full benefits will be payable beginning at age 66. Public servants are not covered by Social Security but have their own pension programs. Police officers in the United States are allowed to retire at half pay after only 20 years of service or three-quarter pay after 30 years, allowing people to retire in their early forties or fifties. Military members of the US Armed Forces may elect to retire after 20 years of active duty, their retirement pay is calculated on total number of years on active duty, their final pay grade and the retirement system in place when they entered service. Allowances such as housing and subsistence are not used to calculate a member's retired pay. Members awarded the Medal of Honor qualify for a separate stipend, regardless of the years of service. Military members in the reserve and US National Guard have their retirement based on a point system.
Recent advances in data collection have vastly improved our ability to understand important relationships between retirement and factors such as health, employment characteristics and family dynamics, among others. The most prominent study for examining retirement behavior in the United States is the ongoing Health and Retirement Study, first fielded in 1992; the HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adults in the U. S. ages 51+, conducted every two years, contains a wealth of information on such topics as labor force participation, financial variables, family characteristics and a host of other topics.2002 and 2004 saw the introductions of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe, which includes respondents from 14 continental European countri
Community service is a non-paying job performed by one person or a group of people for the benefit of the community or its institutions. Community service is distinct from volunteering, since it is not always performed on a voluntary basis. Personal benefits may be realized, but it may be performed for a variety of reasons including citizenship requirements, a substitution of criminal justice sanctions, requirements of a school or class, requisites for receipt of certain benefits. Community service is a non-paying job performed by one person or a group of people for the benefit of the community or its institutions. Community service is distinct from volunteering, since it is not always performed on a voluntary basis, it may be performed for a variety of RAMON IST EIN DRECKSNAZI law)|sanctions]] – when performed for this reason it may be referred to as community payback. It may be mandated by schools to meet the requirements of a class, such as in the case of service-learning or to meet the requirements of graduating as class valedictorian.
In it has been made a condition of the receipt of certain benefits. In Sweden it's a suspended sentence called "samhällstjänst"; some educational jurisdictions in the United States require students to perform community service hours to graduate from high school. In some high schools in Washington, for example, students must finish 200 hours of community service to get a diploma; some school districts in Washington, including Seattle Public Schools, differentiate between community service and "service learning," requiring students to demonstrate that their work has contributed to their education. If a student in high school is taking an AVID course, community service is needed. Whether American public schools could require volunteer hours for high school graduation was challenged in Immediato v. Rye Neck School District, but the court found no violation. Many other high schools do not require community service hours for graduation, but still see an impressive number of students get involved in their community.
For example, in Palo Alto, students at Palo Alto High School log about 45,000 hours of community service every year. As a result, the school's College and Career Center awards about 250–300 students the President's Volunteer Service Award every year for their hard work. Though not technically considered a requirement, many colleges include community service as an unofficial requirement for acceptance. However, some colleges prefer work experience over community service, some require that their students continue community service for some specific number of hours to graduate; some schools offer unique “community service” courses, awarding credit to students who complete a certain number of community service hours. Some academic honor societies, along with some fraternities and sororities in North America, require community service to join and others require each member to continue doing community service. Many student organizations exist for the purpose of community service, the largest of, Alpha Phi Omega.
Community service projects are done by sororities and fraternities. Beginning in the 1980s, colleges began using service-learning as a pedagogy. A partnership of college presidents began in 1985 with the initiative of boosting community service in their colleges; this alliance called Campus Compact, led the way for many other schools to adopt service-learning courses and activities. Service-learning courses vary in time span, in the balance of “service” and “learning” stressed in the course. A typical service-learning course, has these factors in common: A service component where the student spends time serving in the community meeting actual needs A learning component where students seek out or are taught information—often both interpersonal and academic—that they integrate into their service A reflection component that ties service and learning togetherReflection is sometimes symbolized by the hyphen in the term “service-learning” to indicate that it has a central role in learning by serving.
Reflection is a scheduled consideration of one’s own experiences and thoughts. This can take many forms, including journals and discussions. Service-learning courses present learning the material in context, meaning that students learn and tend to apply what was learned; as the book Where’s the Learning in Service-Learning? notes, “Students engaged in service-learning are engaged in authentic situations. Thus, students are motivated to learn the materials to resolve their questions. Community service learning strives to connect or re-connect students with serving their community after they finish their course, it creates a bridge for the lack of community service found among college-age people in the United States. The one serving may be able to take something away from the experience and be able to use any newfound knowledge or interpersonal discoveries to improve their future servitude and the people around them. To gain the most from community service requires balancing learning with serving.
Learning and serving at the same time improves a student's community while teaching life lessons and building character. Community service-learning is “about leadership development as well as traditional information and skill acquisition.” Therefore, the combination of people doing service and learning at the same time teaches them how to be effective and, more how to be effective about what is important to them. It improves their overall application opportunities they gain from it. By adding
A polo shirt is a form of shirt with a collar, a placket neckline with two or three buttons, an optional pocket. Polo shirts are short sleeved. A dress-length version of the shirt is called a polo dress. At the end of the 19th Century outdoor activities became important for the British ruling class. Johdpur pants and polo shirts became part of the wardrobe for horse-related sports.. The two garments were brought back from India by the British, along with the game of polo. A picture shot at the end of the XIX century in India, shows players wearing a striped polo shirt. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, tennis players ordinarily wore "tennis whites" consisting of long-sleeved white button-up shirts, flannel trousers, ties; this attire presented problems for ease of comfort. René Lacoste, the French seven-time Grand Slam tennis champion, felt that the stiff tennis attire was too cumbersome and uncomfortable, he designed a white, short-sleeved, loosely-knit piqué cotton shirt with an unstarched, protruding collar, a buttoned placket, a shirt-tail longer in back than in front, which he first wore at the 1926 U.
S. Open championship. Beginning in 1927, Lacoste placed a crocodile emblem on the left breast of his shirts, as the American press had begun to refer to him as "The Crocodile", a nickname which he embraced. Lacoste's design mitigated the problems that traditional tennis attire created: the short, cuffed sleeves solved the tendency of long sleeves to roll down the soft collar could be loosened by unbuttoning the placket the piqué collar could be worn upturned to protect the neck skin from the sun the jersey knit piqué cotton breathed and was more durable the "tennis tail" prevented the shirt from pulling out of the wearer's trousers or shortsIn 1933, after retiring from professional tennis, Lacoste teamed up with André Gillier, a friend, a clothing merchandiser, to market that shirt in Europe and North America. Together, they formed the company Chemise Lacoste, began selling their shirts, which included the small embroidered crocodile logo on the left breast; until the beginning of 20th century polo players wore thick long-sleeve shirts made of Oxford-cloth cotton.
This shirt was the first to have a buttoned-down collar, which polo players invented in the late 19th century to keep their collars from flapping in the wind. Brooks Brothers still produces this style of button-down "polo shirt". Still, like early tennis clothing, those clothes presented a discomfort on the field. In 1920, Lewis Lacey, a Canadian born of English parents in Montreal, Quebec, in 1887, haberdasher and polo player, began producing a shirt, embroidered with an emblem of a polo player, a design originated at the Hurlingham Polo Club near Buenos Aires; the definition of the uniform of polo players – the polo shirt and a pair of white trousers - is a recent addition to the sport. Until the 1940s shirts were very plain, with no numbers, writing or logos; when necessary, numbers were pinned on to the back of the player’s shirts a few minutes before the start of a match. To differentiate the polo teams from one another, some polo shirts had horizontal stripes, others bore diagonal coloured stripes.
In 1972, Ralph Lauren included his "polo shirt" as a prominent part of his original line Polo, thereby helping further its widespread popularity. While not designed for use by polo players, Lauren's shirt imitated what by that time had become the normal attire for polo players; as he desired to exude a certain "WASPishness" in his clothes adopting the style of clothiers like Brooks Brothers, J. Press, "Savile Row"-style English clothing, he prominently included this attire from the "sport of kings" in his line, replete with a logo reminiscent of Lacoste's crocodile emblem, depicting a polo player and pony. Over the latter half of the 20th century, as standard clothing in golf became more casual, the tennis shirt was adopted nearly universally as standard golf attire. Many golf courses and country clubs require players to wear golf shirts as a part of their dress code. Moreover, producing Lacoste's "tennis shirt" in various golf cuts has resulted in specific designs of the tennis shirt for golf, resulting in the moniker golf shirt.
Golf shirts are made out of polyester, cotton-polyester blends, or mercerized cotton. The placket holds three or four buttons, extends lower than the typical polo neckline; the collar is fabricated using a stitched double-layer of the same fabric used to make the shirt, in contrast to a polo shirt collar, one-ply ribbed knit cotton. Golf shirts have a pocket on the left side, to hold a scorepad and pencil, may not bear a logo there. Rugby shirt Sportswear
East Orange, New Jersey
East Orange is a city in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census the city's population was 64,270, reflecting a decline of 5,554 from the 69,824 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 3,728 from the 73,552 counted in the 1990 Census; the city was the state's 20th most-populous municipality in 2010, after having been the state's 14th most-populous municipality in 2000. East Orange was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 4, 1863, from portions of Orange town, was reincorporated as a city on December 9, 1899, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 3.924 square miles, all of it land. East Orange shares borders with Newark to the east and south, South Orange to the southwest, Orange to the west, Glen Ridge and Bloomfield to the north. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include Ampere and Brick Church.
East Orange is divided into five wards, but is unofficially divided into a number of neighborhoods. Ampere: Anchored by the now defunct train station of the same name, The Ampere section was developed on land owned by Orange Water Works, after the construction of the Crocker Wheeler Company plant spurred development in the area; the station was named in honor of André-Marie Ampère, a pioneer in electrodynamics and reconstructed as a new Renaissance Revival station in 1907 and 1908. Bounded by Bloomfield to the North, Lawton Street & Newark to the east, 4th Avenue to the south, North Grove Street to the West. Greenwood: So named after Greenwood avenue and the "teen" streets that run through it, it is grouped together with Ampere. This area was disturbed by the construction of Interstate 280 and the Garden State Parkway; the Grove Street Station of the former DL & W Railroad was located here at Main Streets. Bounded by 4th Avenue to the North, North 15th Street/Newark to the East, Eaton Place/NJ Transit Morris & Essex Lines, North Grove Street to the West.
Presidential Estates: Recently designated due to the streets in this area being named after early presidents of the United States. There are many large houses situated on streets lined with old large shade trees in this neighborhood that are characteristic of the northern section of the city. Bounded by Bloomfield to the North, Montclair-Boonton Line and North Grove Street to the East, Springdale Avenue to the South and the Garden State Parkway to the West. Elmwood: Located in the southeastern part of the city. Elmwood Park serves this section of the city, with 7 tennis courts on Rhode Island Avenue, a basketball court on the corner of Elmwood Avenue and Oak Street, a swimming pool with a pool house, a walking track, a baseball field, a softball field and a renovated field house; the area holds one of the surviving Carnegie Libraries, the Elmwood Branch of the East Orange Public Library, opened in 1912. Doddtown: Named after John Dodd who founded and surveyed the area of the "Watsessing Plain".
The former campus of Upsala College is located here. It was converted into the new East Orange Campus High School on the east side of Prospect Street, an adjacent new housing subdivision. Bounded by Bloomfield to the North, the Garden State Parkway to the south, Park Avenue to the South and Orange to the west; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 64,270 people, 24,945 households, 14,742.495 families residing in the city. The population density was 16,377.1 per square mile. There were 28,803 housing units at an average density of 7,339.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.13% White, 88.51% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.69% from other races, 2.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.93% of the population. There were 24,945 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 23.3% were married couples living together, 29.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.9% were non-families.
35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.0 years. For every 100 females there were 81.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 75.4 males. The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $40,358 and the median family income was $50,995. Males had a median income of $38,642 versus $39,843 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,298. About 17.8% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 69,824 people, 26,024 households, 16,082 families residing in the city.
The population density was 17,776.6 people per square mile. There were 28,485 housing units at an average density of 7,252.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.46% Black or African American, 3.84% White, 0.25% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.14% from other races, 3.80% from two or
Scrubs are the sanitary clothing worn by surgeons, nurses and other workers involved in patient care in hospitals. Designed for use by surgeons and other operating room personnel, who would put them on when sterilizing themselves, or "scrubbing in", before surgery, they are now worn by many hospital personnel, their use has been extended outside hospitals as well, to work environments where clothing may come into contact with infectious agents. Scrubs are designed to be simple, easy to launder, cheap to replace if damaged or stained irreparably. In the United Kingdom, scrubs are sometimes known as Theatre Blues; the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has increased the use of scrubs but can give wearers a false sense of security that they are'clean' when in fact they are as contaminated as any other clothing. In contrast to the uniforms long required of nurses, surgeons did not wear any kind of specialized garments until well into the 20th century. Surgical procedures were conducted in an operating theater.
The surgeon wore his own clothes, with a butcher's apron to protect his clothing from blood stains, he operated bare-handed with non-sterile instruments and supplies. In contrast to today's concept of surgery as a profession that emphasizes cleanliness and conscientiousness, up to the early 20th century the mark of a busy and successful surgeon was the profusion of blood and fluids on his clothes; the importance of dress as a badge of one's class in society was paramount and the processes behind the transmission of infection were the subject of controversy within the profession. With the "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918 and the growing medical interest in Lister's antiseptic theory, some surgeons began wearing cotton gauze masks in surgery. Around the same time, operating theatre staff began wearing heavy rubber gloves to protect their hands from the solutions used to clean the room and equipment, a practice surgeons grudgingly adopted. By the 1940s, advances in surgical antisepsis and the science of wound infection led to the adoption of antiseptic drapes and gowns for operating room use.
Instruments and dressings were sterilized by exposure to either high-pressure steam or ethylene oxide. Operating room attire was white to emphasize cleanliness. However, the combination of bright operating lights and an all-white environment led to eye strain for the surgeon and staff. By the 1950s and 1960s, most hospitals had abandoned white operating room apparel in favor of various shades of green, which provided a high-contrast environment, reduced eye fatigue, made bright red blood splashes less conspicuous. By the 1970s, surgical attire had reached its modern state—a short-sleeve V-necked shirt and drawstring pants or a short-sleeve calf-length dress, made of green cotton or cotton/polyester blend. Over this was worn a tie-back or bouffant-style cloth cap, a gauze or synthetic textile mask, a cloth or synthetic surgical gown, latex gloves, supportive closed-toe shoes; this uniform was known as "surgical greens" because of its color, but came to be called "scrubs" because it was worn in a "scrubbed" environment.
In many operating rooms, it is forbidden to wear any exposed clothing, such as a t-shirt, beneath scrubs. As scrubs are designed to promote a clean environment, the wearing of outside clothing is thought to introduce unwanted pathogens. Nearly all patient care personnel at hospitals in the United States wear some form of scrubs while on duty, as do some staffers in doctor and veterinary offices. Doctors in the United States may wear their own clothes with a white coat except for surgery. Support staff such as custodians and unit clerks wear scrubs in some facilities; when the physician is not performing surgery, the scrub is worn under a white coat. In the UK, all NHS hospital trusts have stringent clothing policies, many of these forbid wearing the iconic white coat for medical staff, owing to infection control concerns; this has meant that several hospitals around the UK have opted for scrubs for staff in Accident and Emergency departments. Scrubs are sometimes used as prison uniforms in the U.
S and other countries. Today, any medical uniform consisting of a short-sleeve shirt and pants is known as "scrubs". Scrubs may include a waist-length long-sleeved jacket with no lapels and stockinette cuffs, known as a "warm-up jacket". Scrubs worn in surgery are always colored solid light grey, light green, light blue or a light green-blue shade. Non-surgical scrubs come in a wider variety of colors and patterns, ranging from official issue garments to custom made, whether by commercial uniform companies or by home-sewing using commercially available printed patterns; some hospitals use scrub color to differentiate between patient care departments or between licensed patient care personnel, unlicensed assistive personnel, non-patient care support staff. Hospitals may extend the practice to differentiate non-staff members/visitors. In England and Wales many NHS trusts use different colored scrubs to distinguish between different branches of healthcare professionals, for example anaesthetists may wear maroon.
This allows staff