Islamic terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism, is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals. Islamic terrorists justify their violent tactics through interpreting the Quran and Hadith according to their own goals, the highest numbers of incidents and fatalities caused by Islamic terrorism occur in Iraq, Nigeria and Syria. In 2015 four Islamic extremist groups were responsible for 74% of all deaths from terrorism, ISIS, Boko Haram, the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, according to the Global Terrorism Index 2016. In recent decades, such incidents have occurred on a scale, affecting not only Muslim-majority states in Africa and Asia, but Europe, Australia, Canada. Such attacks have targeted Muslims and non-Muslims, the literal use of the phrase Islamic terrorism is disputed. Such use in Western political speech has variously been called counter-productive, highly politicized, intellectually contestable, others view the refusal to use the term as an act of self-deception.
Some Muslim commentators assert that extremism within Islam goes back to the 7th century to the Kharijites, from their essentially political position, they developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims. The Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting an approach of Takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers. Dame Eliza Manningham Buller, the head of MI5, told the Iraq inquiry. For example, Hezbollah initiated suicide bombings after a complex reworking of the concept of martyrdom, the only way to apply a brake to suicide terrorism, Kramer argues, is to undermine its moral logic, by encouraging Muslims to see its incompatibility with their own values. Maajid Nawaz, in a debate with Mehdi Hasan, countered Scheuers contention, the prerequisite to such a disavowal of one’s country of birth is a recalibration of identity, this is the undeniable role of ideological narratives. Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, in their book, The Age of Sacred Terror and they are seen as a sacrament.
Intended to restore to the universe a moral order that had been corrupted by the enemies of Islam and it is neither political or strategic but an act of redemption meant to humiliate and slaughter those who defied the hegemony of God. Two studies of the background of Muslim terrorists in Europe—one of the UK, many lack religious literacy and could actually be regarded as religious novices. Very few have been brought up in strongly religious households, some are involved in drug-taking, drinking alcohol and visiting prostitutes. MI5 says there is evidence that a religious identity actually protects against violent radicalisation. They are estranged from their parents and don’t know where to fit in, or they are recent converts, largely from rural areas and many from divorced families. If Islam or social conditions are essentially to blame for breeding terrorism, why does it not attract first- or third-generation French Muslims, or those whose Islamic culture is the deepest
Propaganda of the deed
Propaganda of the deed is specific political action meant to be exemplary to others and serve as a catalyst for revolution. It is primarily associated with acts of left-wing resistance of the late 19th and early 20th century, most was an early influence on American anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman. Berkman attempted propaganda by the deed when he tried in 1892 to kill industrialist Henry Clay Frick following the deaths by shooting of several striking workers. By the 1880s, the propaganda of the deed had begun to be used both within and outside of the anarchist movement to refer to individual bombings and tyrannicides. In 1886, French anarchist Clément Duval achieved a form of propaganda of the deed, stealing 15,000 francs from the mansion of a Parisian socialite, caught two weeks later, he was dragged from the court crying Long live anarchy. and condemned to death. Duvals sentence was commuted to hard labor on Devils Island. In the anarchist paper Révolte, Duval famously declared that, Theft exists only through the exploitation of man by man, when Society refuses you the right to exist, you must take it.
The policeman arrested me in the name of the Law, I struck him in the name of Liberty, as early as 1887, a few important figures in the anarchist movement had begun to distance themselves from individual acts of violence. Peter Kropotkin thus wrote that year in Le Révolté that a structure based on centuries of history cannot be destroyed with a few kilos of dynamite. A variety of anarchists advocated the abandonment of these sorts of tactics in favor of revolutionary action. The anarcho-syndicalist, Fernand Pelloutier, argued in 1895 for renewed anarchist involvement in the movement on the basis that anarchism could do very well without the individual dynamiter. We want it to pervade and penetrate all the utterances of life and political, domestic and artistic and recreational. There should be propaganda by word and action, the platform and the press, the corner, the workshop, and the domestic circle, acts of revolt. Those who agree with each other may co-operate, otherwise they should prefer to each on his own lines to trying to persuade one the other of the superiority of his own method.
Later anarchist authors advocating propaganda of the deed included the German anarchist Gustav Landauer, for Gustav Landauer, propaganda of the deed meant the creation of libertarian social forms and communities that would inspire others to transform society. In Weak Statesmen, Weaker People, he wrote that the state is not something one can smash in order to destroy. The state is a relationship between human beings, one destroys it by entering into other relationships. In contrast, Errico Malatesta described propaganda by the deed as violent communal insurrections that were meant to ignite the imminent revolution, and this harmful tendency arises when violence is used for a good end. e
In criminal and civil law, assault is an attempt to initiate harmful or offensive contact with a person, or a threat to do so. It is distinct from battery, which refers to the achievement of such contact. An assault is carried out by a threat of bodily harm coupled with an apparent, present ability to cause the harm and it is both a crime and a tort and, may result in either criminal and/or civil liability. Generally, the common law definition is the same in criminal, there is, however, an additional criminal law category of assault consisting of an attempted but unsuccessful battery. The term is confused with battery, which involves physical contact. Assault usually accompanies battery if the assailant both threatens to make unwanted contact and carries through with this threat. Thus throwing a rock at someone for the purpose of hitting him is a if the rock in fact strikes the person. Aggravated assault is, in some jurisdictions, a form of assault. Aggravated assault can be charged in cases of attempted harm against police officers or other public servants, Assault can be considered in cases involving the spitting on, or unwanted exposure of bodily fluids to others.
Consent may be a complete or partial defense to assault, in some jurisdictions, most notably England, it is not a defense where the degree of injury is severe, as long as there is no legally recognized good reason for the assault. This can have important consequences when dealing with such as consensual sadomasochistic sexual activity. Legally recognized good reasons for consent include surgery, activities within the rules of a game, bodily adornment, any activity outside the rules of the game is not legally recognized as a defense of consent. In Scottish Law, consent is not a defense for assault, Police officers and court officials have a general power to use force for the purpose of performing an arrest or generally carrying out their official duties. Thus, an officer taking possession of goods under a court order may use force if reasonably necessary. In some jurisdictions such as Singapore, judicial corporal punishment is part of the legal system, the officers who administer the punishment have immunity from prosecution for assault.
What constitutes reasonable varies in both law and case law. Unreasonable physical punishment may be charged as assault or under a statute for child abuse. Many countries, including some US states, permit the use of punishment for children in school
Cyberterrorism is the use of the Internet to conduct violent acts that result in or threaten the loss of life or significant bodily harm in order to achieve political gains through intimidation. By these narrow and broad definitions, it is difficult to identify instances of online terrorism are cyberterrorism or cybercrime. Cyberterrorism can be defined as the intentional use of computer, networks. The objectives of such terrorists may be political or ideological since this can be seen as a form of terrorism, there have been several major and minor instances of cyberterrorism. Al-Qaeda utilized the internet to communicate with supporters and even to new members. There is debate over the definition of the scope of cyberterrorism. There is variation in qualification by motivation, methods, depending on context, cyberterrorism may overlap considerably with cybercrime, cyberwar or ordinary terrorism. Eugene Kaspersky, founder of Kaspersky Lab, now feels that cyberterrorism is an accurate term than cyberwar.
He states that with todays attacks, you are clueless about who did it or when they strike again. There are some who say that cyberterrorism does not exist and is really a matter of hacking or information warfare, if a strict definition is assumed, there have been no or almost no identifiable incidents of cyberterrorism, although there has been much public concern. However, there is an old saying that death or loss of property are the products of terrorism. If any incident in the world can create terror, it may be called cyberterrorism. Or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives, the term appears first in defense literature, surfacing in reports by the U. S. Army War College as early as 1998. Examples are hacking into computer systems, introducing viruses to vulnerable networks, web site defacing, Denial-of-service attacks, for the use of the Internet by terrorist groups for organization, see Internet and terrorism. Cyberterrorism can include attacks on Internet business, but when this is done for economic rather than ideological.
Cyberterrorism is limited to actions by individuals, independent groups, or organizations, any form of cyber warfare conducted by governments and states would be regulated and punishable under international law. As shown above, there are definitions of cyber terrorism. There is controversy concerning overuse of the term and hyperbole in the media, the organization possesses little target analysis and control, or learning capability
It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance, or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. The term resistance is used to designate a movement considered legitimate. Organizations and individuals critical of foreign intervention and supporting forms of organized movement tend to favor the term, when such a resistance movement uses violence, those favorably disposed to it may speak of freedom fighters. More recently the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes. This phraseology contains many ambiguities that cloud the issue of who is or is not a legitimate combatant, the distinction is a political judgment. The modern usage of the term Resistance originates from the self-designation of many movements during World War II, the term is still strongly linked to the context of the events of 1939–45, and particularly to opposition movements in Axis-occupied countries.
Using the term resistance to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some to be an anachronism. However, such movements existed prior to World War II, and there have been many after it – for example in struggles against colonialism, Resistance has become a generic term that has been used to designate underground resistance movements in any country. Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority and this frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny. Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as terrorism, Resistance during World War II was mainly dedicated to fighting the Axis occupiers. Germany itself had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement in this period, so, resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination.
However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination will not provide us a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what we categorize as “power. ”In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. There are various forms of resistance for various reasons, which can be, different geographical spaces can make different forms of resistance possible or impossible and more effective or less effective. The reason is that these variations can define the nature and outcome of resistance and he compared this accident with a similar fire accident at Triangle Shirtwaist Company, New York,1911, killing 146 workers, which caused a labor resistance by 100,000 people. For an effective resistance, he proposed that four tasks should be undertaken, There are many forms of resistance in relations to different power dominations and actors.
Moreover, some other resistance takes place in order to resist or question the norms or discourse or in order to challenge a global trend called globalization
History of terrorism
The history of terrorism is a history of well-known and historically significant individuals and incidents associated, whether rightly or wrongly, with terrorism. Scholars agree that terrorism is a term, and very few of those labeled terrorists describe themselves as such. It is common for opponents in a violent conflict to describe the other side as terrorists or as practicing terrorism, the association of the term only with state violence and intimidation lasted until the mid-19th century, when it began to be associated with non-governmental groups. Anarchism, often in league with rising nationalism and anti-monarchism, was the most prominent ideology linked with terrorism, near the end of the 19th century, anarchist groups or individuals committed assassinations of a Russian Tsar and a U. S. President. In the 20th century, terrorism continued to be associated with a vast array of anarchist, socialist and nationalist groups, some scholars labeled as terrorist the systematic internal violence and intimidation practiced by states such as the Stalinist Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.
Though many have proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term terrorism. This in part derives from the fact that the term is politically and emotionally charged, listed below are some of the historically important understandings of terror and terrorism, and enacted but non-universal definitions of the term,1795. Government intimidation during the Reign of Terror in France, the general sense of systematic use of terror as a policy was first recorded in English in 1798. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly or selectively from a target population, United States, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents. A definition proposed by Alex P. Schmid to the United Nations Crime Branch, given their nature or context, may seriously damage a country or an international organisation where committed with the aim of seriously intimidating a population. India, Referencing Schmids 1992 proposal, the Supreme Court of India described terrorist acts as the equivalents of war crimes.
Carsten Bockstette, a German military officer serving at the George C.2014, the Sicarii and the Hashshashin are described below, while the Fenian Brotherhood and Narodnaya Volya are discussed in the 19th Century sub-section. Other pre-Reign of Terror historical events associated with terrorism include the Gunpowder Plot. During the 1st century CE, the Jewish Zealots in Judaea Province rebelled, in 6 CE, according to contemporary historian Josephus, Judas of Galilee formed a small and more extreme offshoot of the Zealots, the Sicarii. Their efforts were directed against Jewish collaborators, including temple priests, Herodians. According to Josephus, the Sicarii would hide short daggers under their cloaks, mingle with crowds at large festivals, murder their victims and their most successful assassination was of the High Priest of Israel Jonathan. In the late 11th century, the Hashshashin arose, an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of Shia Muslims, led by Hassan-i Sabbah and opposed to Fatimid rule, the Hashshashin militia seized Alamut and other fortress strongholds across Persia.
Hashshashin forces were too small to challenge enemies militarily, so they assassinated city governors, for example, they killed Janah al-Dawla, ruler of Homs, to please Ridwan of Aleppo, and assassinated Mawdud, Seljuk emir of Mosul, as a favor to the regent of Damascus
Improvised explosive device
An improvised explosive device is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action. It may be constructed of conventional explosives, such as an artillery round. IEDs are commonly used as roadside bombs, IEDs are generally seen in heavy terrorist actions or in unconventional warfare by guerrillas or commando forces in a theater of operations. In the second Iraq War, IEDs were used extensively against US-led invasion forces and they are used in Afghanistan by insurgent groups, and have caused over 66% of coalition casualties in the 2001–present Afghanistan War. IEDs were used extensively by cadres of the rebel Tamil Tiger organization against military targets in Sri Lanka, an IED is a bomb fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy or incapacitate personnel or vehicles. In some cases, IEDs are used to distract, disrupt, or delay an opposing force, IEDs may incorporate military or commercially sourced explosives, and often combine both types, or they may otherwise be made with homemade explosives.
An IED has five components, a switch, an initiator, charge, an IED designed for use against armoured targets such as personnel carriers or tanks will be designed for armour penetration, by using a shaped charge that creates an explosively formed penetrator. IEDs are extremely diverse in design and may contain many types of initiators, penetrators, antipersonnel IEDs typically contain fragmentation-generating objects such as nails, ball bearings or even small rocks to cause wounds at greater distances than blast pressure alone could. IEDs are triggered by various methods, including remote control, infrared or magnetic triggers, in some cases, multiple IEDs are wired together in a daisy chain to attack a convoy of vehicles spread out along a roadway. IEDs made by inexperienced designers or with substandard materials may fail to detonate, the sophistication of an IED depends on the training of the designer and the tools and materials available. IEDs may use artillery shells or conventional high-explosive charges as their explosive load as well as homemade explosives, chlorine liquid has been added to IEDs in Iraq, producing clouds of chlorine gas. A vehicle-borne IED, or VBIED, is a term for a car bomb or truck bomb but can be any type of transportation such as a bicycle, donkey.
They are typically employed by insurgents, and can carry a large payload. They can be detonated from a remote location, vBIEDs can create additional shrapnel through the destruction of the vehicle itself and use vehicle fuel as an incendiary weapon. The act of a persons being in this vehicle and detonating it is known as an SVBIED suicide, the fougasse was improvised for centuries, eventually inspiring factory-made land mines. Ernst Jünger mentions in his war memoir the systematic use of IEDs, another early example of coordinated large-scale use of IEDs was the Belarusian Rail War launched by Belarusian guerrillas against the Germans during World War II. Both command-detonated and delayed-fuse IEDs were used to derail thousands of German trains during 1943–1944, starting six months before the invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR on 27 December 1979, the Afghan Mujahideen were supplied with large quantities of military supplies. Among those supplies were many types of anti-tank mines, the insurgents often removed the explosives from several foreign anti-tank mines, and combined the explosives in tin cooking-oil cans for a more powerful blast
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror. These killings are often conducted in ways meant to ensure the secrecy of the killers identities, Death squads may have the support of domestic or foreign governments. They may comprise a secret force, paramilitary groups, government soldiers, policemen. They may be organized as vigilantes, when death squads are not controlled by the state, they may consist of insurgent forces or organized crime. Historically, the origins of what are known as death squads goes back many decades to the Bolshevik Cheka as a part of the Red Terror in Russia. The Cheka were initially a party organization and were given official powers and authority for extrajudicial secret arrest and they ultimately institutionalized the practices into the Gulag system. Einsatzgruppen were used by Nazi Germany as a part of the Holocaust, the term was first used by the fascist Iron Guard in Romania.
It officially installed Iron guard death squads in 1936 in order to kill political enemies and it was used during the Battle of Algiers by Paul Aussaresses. In Southeast Asia, extrajudicial killings were conducted by both sides during the Vietnam War, Nguyễn Văn Lém, a member of the Viet Cong, commanded a death squad targeting South Vietnamese policemen and their families during the Tet Offensive in Saigon. On February 1,1968, Captain Bay Lop was arrested by South Vietnamese police while dumping the bodies of his units victims, Captain Bay Lop was shot in the head by South Vietnamese Police Major General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan. A photograph taken of the event by American reporter Eddie Adams horrified people throughout the Western World, Argentina used extrajudicial killings as way of crushing the liberal and communist opposition to the military junta during the Dirty war of the 1970s. For example, Alianza Anticomunista Argentina was a death squad mainly active during the Dirty War. The Chilean military regime of 1973–1990 committed such killings, during the Salvadoran civil war, death squads achieved notoriety on March 24,1980, when a sniper assassinated Archbishop Óscar Romero as he said Mass inside a convent chapel.
Death squads were instrumental in killing hundreds of real and suspected Communists, priests who were spreading Liberation Theology, such as Father Rutilio Grande, were often targeted as well. The murderers were found to have soldiers of the Salvadoran military. These events prompted outrage in the U. S. and led to a cutoff in military aid at the end of his presidency. Death Squad activity stretched well into the Reagan years as well, honduras had death squads active through the 1980s, the most notorious of which was the army unit Battalion 316. Hundreds of people, teachers and union bosses were assassinated by government-backed forces, Battalion 316 received substantial training from the United States Central Intelligence Agency
Employees in some fields or sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payment or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment, benefits can include health insurance, disability insurance or use of a gym. Employment is typically governed by employment laws or regulations or legal contracts, employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labor productivity in order to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship. The main ways for employers to workers and for people to find employers are via jobs listings in newspapers and online. Employers and job seekers find each other via professional recruitment consultants which receive a commission from the employer to find, screen. However, a study has shown that such consultants may not be reliable when they fail to use established principles in selecting employees, a more traditional approach is with a Help Wanted sign in the establishment. Evaluating different employees can be quite laborious but setting up different techniques to analyze their skill to measure their talents within the field can be best through assessments and potential employee commonly take the additional step of getting to know each other through the process of job interview.
Training and development refers to the effort to equip a newly hired employee with necessary skills to perform at the job. An appropriate level of training and development helps to improve job satisfaction. There are many ways that employees are paid, including by hourly wages, by piecework, by yearly salary, in sales jobs and real estate positions, the employee may be paid a commission, a percentage of the value of the goods or services that they have sold. In some fields and professions, employees may be eligible for a bonus if they meet certain targets, employee benefits are various non-wage compensation provided to employee in addition to their wages or salaries. In some cases, such as with workers employed in remote or isolated regions, employee benefits can improve the relationship between employee and employer and lowers staff turnover. Organizational justice is a perception and judgement of employers treatment in the context of fairness or justice. The resulting actions to influence the relationship is a part of organizational justice.
Employees can organize into trade or labor unions, which represent the force to collectively bargain with the management of organizations about working. Usually, either an employee or employer may end the relationship at any time and this is referred to as at-will employment. The contract between the two parties specifies the responsibilities of each when ending the relationship and may include such as notice periods, severance pay. In some professions, notably teaching, civil servants, university professors, and some jobs, some employees may have tenure
In criminal law, kidnapping is the abduction or unlawful transportation of a person, usually to hold the person against his or her will. This may be done for ransom, wikipedia. org/wiki/Stockholm_syndrome Kidnapping that does not result in a homicide is an offence that comes with a maximum possible penalty of life imprisonment. A murder that results from kidnapping is classified as 1st-degree, with a sentence of imprisonment that results from conviction. Part 1 allows sentencing kidnappers to maximum imprisonment of 8 years or a fine of the fifth category, part 2 allows maximum imprisonment of 9 years or a fine of the fifth category if there are serious injuries. Part 3 allows maximum imprisonment of 12 years or a fine of the fifth if the victim has been killed. Part 4 allows sentencing people that collaborate with kidnapping, part 1,2 and 3 will apply to them. Kidnapping is an offence under the law of England and Wales. In R v D, Lord Brandon said, the nature of the offence is an attack on, and infringement of and this is the case regardless of the age of the child. A very small child will not have the understanding or intelligence to consent and this means that absence of consent will be a necessary inference from the age of the child.
It is a question of fact for the jury whether a child has sufficient understanding. Lord Brandon said, I should not expect a jury to find at all frequently that a child under fourteen had sufficient understanding and intelligence to give its consent. If, on the hand, the child did not consent. Mode of trial Kidnapping is an indictable-only offence, sentence Kidnapping is punishable with imprisonment or fine at the discretion of the court. There is no limit on the fine or the term of imprisonment that may be imposed provided the sentence is not inordinate. The use of force to take and detain will be regarded as an assault, law in the United States follows from English common law. The fact that a victim may have been taken across state lines brings the crime within the ambit of federal criminal law. Most states recognize different types of kidnapping and punish accordingly, New York bases its definition of first-degree kidnapping on the duration and purpose. There are several deterrents to kidnapping in the United States of America, among these are, The extreme logistical challenges involved in successfully exchanging the money for the return of the victim without being apprehended or surveiled
The Khalistan movement was a Sikh nationalist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān in the Punjab region of South Asia. The Punjab region has been the homeland for the Sikhs. However, the region has a number of Hindus and Muslims, and before 1947. They put forward the idea of Khalistan, envisaging it as a state covering a small part of the greater Punjab region. Following Indias independence in 1947, the Punjabi Suba Movement led by the Akali Dal aimed at creation of a Punjabi-majority state in the Punjab region of India in the 1950s. Concerned that creating a Punjabi-majority state would mean creating a Sikh-majority state. Subsequently, the Sikh leaders started demanding more autonomy for the states, in 1971, the Khalistan proponent Jagjit Singh Chauhan travelled to the United States. He placed an advertisement in The New York Times proclaiming the formation of Khalistan and was able to collect millions of dollars from the Sikh diaspora. On 12 April 1980, he held a meeting with the Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi before declaring the formation of National Council of Khalistan and he declared himself as the President of the Council and Balbir Singh Sandhu as its Secretary General.
In May 1980, Jagjit Singh Chauhan travelled to London and announced the formation of Khalistan, a similar announcement was made by Balbir Singh Sandhu, in Amritsar, who released stamps and currency of Khalistan. The inaction of the authorities in Amritsar and elsewhere was decried by Akali Dal headed by the Sikh leader Harchand Singh Longowal as a stunt by the Congress party of Indira Gandhi. Various pro-Khalistan outfits have been involved in a separatist movement against the government of India ever since, there are claims of funding from Sikhs outside India to attract young people into these pro-Khalistan militant groups. In the 1980s, some of the Khalistan proponents turned to militancy, the handling of the operation, damage to the Akal Takht and loss of life on both sides, led to widespread criticism of the Indian Government. Many Sikhs strongly maintain that the attack resulted in the desecration of the holiest Sikh shrine, the Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her two Sikh bodyguards in retaliation.
Following her death, thousands of Sikhs were massacred in the 1984 anti-Sikh riots in Delhi, termed as a genocide by the congress activists, in January 1986, the Golden Temple was occupied by militants belonging to All India Sikh Students Federation and Damdami Taksal. On 26 January 1986, the gathering passed a resolution favouring the creation of Khalistan, subsequently, a number of rebel militant groups in favour of Khalistan waged a major insurgency against the government of India. Pro-Khalistan organisations such as Dal Khalsa are active outside India, in November 2015, a Sarbat Khalsa, or congregation of the Sikh community was called in response to recent unrest in the Punjab region. The Sarbat Khalsa adopted 13 resolutions to strengthen Sikh institutions and traditions, the 12th resolution reaffirmed the resolutions adopted by the Sarbat Khalsa in 1986, including the declaration of the sovereign state of Khalistan
War is a state of armed conflict between societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression and mortality, an absence of war is usually called peace. Warfare refers to the activities and characteristics of types of war. Total war is warfare that is not restricted to legitimate military targets. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature, as concerns a belligerents losses in proportion to its prewar population, the most destructive war in modern history may have been the Paraguayan War. In 2013 war resulted in 31,000 deaths, down from 72,000 deaths in 1990, in 2003, Richard Smalley identified war as the sixth biggest problem facing humanity for the next fifty years. Another byproduct of some wars is the prevalence of propaganda by some or all parties in the conflict, the word is related to the Old Saxon werran, Old High German werran, and the German verwirren, meaning “to confuse”, “to perplex”, and “to bring into confusion”. In German, the equivalent is Krieg, the Spanish, the scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology, from the Greek polemos, meaning war, and -logy, meaning the study of.
Studies of war by military theorists throughout military history have sought to identify the philosophy of war, asymmetric warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military capability or size. Biological warfare, or germ warfare, is the use of weaponized biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, chemical warfare involves the use of weaponized chemicals in combat. Poison gas as a weapon was principally used during World War I. Civil war is a war between forces belonging to the nation or political entity. Conventional warfare is declared war between states in which nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons are not used or see limited deployment, cyberwarfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nations information systems. Information warfare is the application of force on a large scale against information assets and systems, against the computers. Nuclear warfare is warfare in which weapons are the primary, or a major.
War of aggression is a war for conquest or gain rather than self-defense, the earliest recorded evidence of war belongs to the Mesolithic cemetery Site 117, which has been determined to be approximately 14,000 years old. About forty-five percent of the skeletons there displayed signs of violent death, since the rise of the state some 5,000 years ago, military activity has occurred over much of the globe. The advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of technological advances led to modern warfare