SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hot Country Songs

Hot Country Songs is a chart published weekly by Billboard magazine in the United States. This 50-position chart lists the most popular country music songs, calculated weekly by collecting airplay data from Nielsen BDS along with digital sales and streaming; the current number-one song, as of the chart dated March 7, 2020, is "10,000 Hours" by Dan + Shay and Justin Bieber. Billboard began compiling the popularity of country songs with its issue. Only the genre's most popular jukebox selections were tabulated, with the chart titled "Most Played Juke Box Folk Records". For ten years, from 1948 to 1958, Billboard used three charts to measure the popularity of a given song. In addition to the jukebox chart, these charts included: The "best sellers" chart – started May 15, 1948, as "Best Selling Retail Folk Records". A "jockeys" chart – started December 10, 1949, as "Country & Western Records Most Played By Folk Disk Jockeys"; the juke box chart was discontinued in June 1957. Starting with the October 20, 1958, Billboard began combining sales and radio airplay in figuring a song's overall popularity, counting them in one single chart called "Hot C&W Sides".

The chart was published under the title Hot C&W Sides through the October 27, 1962, issue and "Hot Country Singles" thereafter, a title it would retain until 1990. On January 20, 1990, the Hot Country Singles chart was reduced from 100 to 75 positions and began to be compiled from information provided by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems, a system which electronically monitors radio airplay of songs. Four weeks on February 17, the chart was retitled "Hot Country Singles & Tracks". Beginning with the January 13, 2001, the chart was reduced from 75 to 60 positions, all songs on the chart at the time had their tally of weeks spent on the chart adjusted to count only weeks spent at No. 60 or higher. Effective April 30, 2005, the chart was renamed "Hot Country Songs". Starting in 1990, the rankings were determined by Arbitron-tallied listener audience for each spin that a song received; the methodology was changed for the first chart published in 1992 to tally the amount of spins a song received, but in January 2005, the methodology reverted to the audience format.

This change was brought on because of "label-sponsored spin programs" that had manipulated the chart several times in 2004. The Hot Country Songs chart methodology was changed starting with the October 20, 2012, issue to match the Billboard Hot 100: digital downloads and streaming data are combined with airplay from all radio formats to determine position. A new chart, the Country Airplay chart, was created using airplay from country radio stations. Following the change, songs that were receiving airplay on top-40 pop were given a major advantage over songs popular only on country radio, as an unintended consequence, such songs began having record-long runs at the top of the chart; the first song to benefit from this change was Taylor Swift's "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together", declining in popularity but shot up to number one on the chart the first week the change took effect and stayed there until it set an all-time record for the most weeks at No. 1 by a solo female. This was followed immediately by Florida Georgia Line's "Cruise", which had the longest stay at number one of any song in the country chart's history, until it was surpassed by Sam Hunt's "Body Like a Back Road" in 2017.

The record was subsequently broken by Bebe Rexha and Florida Georgia Line's "Meant to Be" in 2018. Billboard has not explicitly defined how it determines which songs qualify for the country chart and which ones do not, only that "a few factors are determined first and foremost is musical composition" and that a song must "embrace enough elements of today’s country music" to qualify. A statement from Billboard elaborated on what those "few factors" entailed: "most notably the song’s musical composition, but how the song is marketed and promoted, the musical history of the artist, airplay the song receives and how the song is platformed on streaming services." The 2019 country rap record "Old Town Road" by Lil Nas X was a subject of controversy over this ambiguous standard after it appeared on the country chart, where it debuted and peaked at number 19, before Billboard took the song off subsequent charts, claiming it had made a mistake in including it. The song gained popularity through viral memes rather than radio, as only one country station, Radio Disney Country, had played it at the time of the charting.

These are the songs with 16 or more weeks at number one. Fifteen songs accomplished this feat between 1946 and 1964, but none did so again until after the 2012 reformulation. Prolonged runs became commonplace again in 2012 As of October 2018. "Walk On By" || Leroy Van Dyke || 1961–62 || Note: Songs marked achieved their runs on the Most Played in Juke Boxes chart. Songs marked achieved their runs on the Best Sellers on Stores chart. Songs marked. All songs listed for the period when multiple charts were in operation had shorter runs at number one on the other charts not indicated. In 1958 the three charts were merged to create Hot C&W Sides; as of the issue of Billboard dated Novem

Henry Wynn-Williams

William Henry Wynn-Williams was a 19th-century Member of Parliament from Canterbury, New Zealand. He was a prominent lawyer in Christchurch. Wynn-Williams was born in August 1828 in North Wales, his father was the rector Peter Williams, his mother was Lydia Sophia Price. One of his brothers was Watkin; the birth dates for William and Charles are uncertain, as they were born in August and September 1828 *Parish registers of Llangar show Watkin baptised in Sept 1827 & Henry in Sept 1828. His brother Charles studied medicine but changed to a law degree. William was educated in preparation for joining the Indian army, but also studied law. After practising in Wales for two years, William emigrated to New Zealand, arriving in Wellington in 1856, he worked on farms in the South Island and settled in Christchurch in 1860. He began practising law in New Zealand in July 1860 when he joined the practice of Harry Bell Johnstone, who had started his legal firm in January 1859. Johnstone ceased to practice in 1864, but Wynn-Williams remained with the firm until 1912.

The firm of Wynn Williams & Co still exists today. He was involved in criminal trials and significant civil litigation, he is described as fearless and represented the underdog. George Allen was a leader of several protest groups. One such group, the Ratepayers' Mutual Protection Association, challenged the right of the Christchurch City Council to exist. Wynn-Williams took the case to court. Ratepayers started to withhold their rates, in April 1866 the Council was forced to drastically cut expenditure in order to fend off bankruptcy. Staff were laid off, street cleaning suspended, some streets no longer lit and contracts cancelled. In May 1866, the city drainage scheme was abandoned, a project, estimated to cost £160,000. A shipment of pipes that had just arrived from England was sold off, ensuring Christchurch's reputation as the most polluted and unhealthy city for another 20 years. Wynn-Williams lost the lengthy case and left the Ratepayers' Mutual Protection Association, which folded. Wynn-Williams was a member of the Canterbury Provincial Council from 1865 until the abolition of provincial government with one interruption.

He represented City of Christchurch and Papanui. The 10 December 1881 general election in the Heathcote electorate was contested by the incumbent James Fisher, Wynn-Williams and Major Alfred Hornbrook, they received 119, 243 and 167 votes, respectively. Wynn-Williams was thus elected with a majority of 76 votes. Wynn-Williams was an advocate of the working class. Although the Christchurch newspaper The Press was conservative and thus from the opposite end of the political spectrum than Wynn-Williams, they praised him in an editorial on 21 April 1883 for speaking his forthright opinion rather than following the attitude of other politicians of saying what the voters want to hear and what is popular with them: It gives us a new and a delightful sensation to read the speech he made to his constituents at Woolston on Thursday evening so free it is from humbug or deception, so vigorous with fearless candor, his great-grandson, Robert Wynn-Williams, used the editorial as inspiration for the title of his biography.

The nominations for the 1884 general election in the Heathcote electorate took place on 16 July. The 22 July election was contested by John Coster and James Fisher, they received 445 and 15 votes, respectively. Coster was thus, with a majority of 200 votes, elected to represent Heathcote in the 9th New Zealand Parliament. Wynn-Williams was on the council of the Canterbury Society of Arts, a group organising exhibitions of paintings. In 1881, he was vice-president of that organisation, he is buried at Barbadoes Street Cemetery. Wynn-Williams, Robert. Free from Humbug: The Life and Times of Henry Wynn Williams. ISBN 9780473226244

K2-155d

K2-155d is a habitable Super-Earth exoplanet in the K2-155 system. It is the outermost of three known planets orbiting K2-155, a bright red dwarf star in the constellation Taurus, it is one of 15 new exoplanets around red dwarf stars discovered by Japanese astronomer Teruyuki Hirano of the Tokyo Institute of Technology and his team. The team used data from NASA's Kepler Space Telescope during its extended K2 "Second Light" mission. K2-155d orbits near the so-called habitable zone of its system, has the potential to host liquid water. K2-155d is one of 15 exoplanets discovered by a team of Japanese astronomers led by Teruyuki Hirano at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, its discovery is based on data from the K2 mission of NASA's Kepler spacecraft. The exoplanet has been observed from ground-based telescopes including the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, its characteristics were confirmed using high-dispersion optical spectroscopy. The mass of K2-155d and the brightness of its host star may be measured by future observations from the W. M. Keck Observatory and the James Webb Space Telescope.

The brightness of its host star makes K2-155d a good target for future studies using instruments such as the James Webb Space Telescope. K2-155d is a super-Earth exoplanet with a radius 1.64 times that of Earth, near the transition zone between small rock-based and larger gaseous planets. Climate models predict that it is located near its star's habitable zone and has an insolation 1.67 ± 0.38 times that of Earth. Its physical temperature is estimated to be 289 K. Studies have shown that the planet would maintain a moderate surface temperature if its insolation is smaller than ∼1.5 times that of Earth. K2-155d is one of three known planets in the system orbiting K2-155, a red dwarf star located 200 light years from Earth, its parent star has 88% less volume than the Sun. K2-155d orbits its star with a 40.7 day period, but as the planet is tidally locked the same side always faces its sun. K2-155d has an orbital radius of 0.1886 AU and studies suggest that the planet has a low orbital eccentricity.

K2-155d has been labeled a habitable planet that may be able to harbor liquid water. A three-dimensional climate simulation was used to confirm the possibility of the existence of water. However, its discoverer Teruyuki Hirano was cautious about the findings, stating that they do not guarantee K2-155d is habitable, as the ranges in its orbit and temperature allow the possibility of it being outside the habitable zone. Factors such as the absence of solar flares could decide if K2-155d is habitable