Gorman is an unincorporated community in northwestern Los Angeles County. Tens of thousands of motorists travel through it daily on Interstate 5. Gorman is a historic travel stop in Peace Valley, at the Tejon Pass which links Southern California with the San Joaquin Valley and Northern California. Gorman is 1,530 acres in size, it lies where three Transverse System mountain ranges—the Sierra Pelona Mountains, the Tehachapi Mountains, the San Emigdio Mountains–meet. One of the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass, it is southeast of Frazier Park and south of Lebec. Interstate 5 runs through Gorman, State Route 138 connects to the Interstate a few miles south. California poppies and other wildflowers cover the hills in the springtime when there is sufficient rain; the San Andreas fault slices directly through Gorman running below Interstate 5 as it traverses in a southeast/northwest direction. The U. S. Census Bureau does not break out separate population figures for this small place, but in 2005 Gorman had only 15 homes and a dozen registered voters.
Gorman is "one of the oldest continuously used trail and roadside rest stops in California," as the Native Americans of California "would have stopped there when it was the Tataviam village of Kulshra'jek" explains Mountain Communities historian Bonnie Ketterl Kane. The Spanish and Mexican colonial El Camino Viejo passed through the area en route to Old Tejon Pass; the route of the Stockton–Los Angeles Road went through Tejon Pass after 1852. The Gorman area was part of an 1846 Mexican land grant; the first American settler in the area was a man named Charles Johnson, after 1853. The 1853 account of Lt. Robert S. Williamson of the vicinity for the transcontinental railroad survey expedition report makes no mention of any habitations on the east side of the pass, only that a good wagon road passed through it. After Johnson's death his widow, Soledad Girado ran the place, which by 1855 had become known as Rancho la Viuda. Historian Frank F. Latta noted that the Johnsons' daughter, was the only girl to study at the historic Escuela Normal of Los Angeles in the 1860s.
A man named. In 1857 a woman was killed on his ranch when the great Fort Tejon earthquake struck the area and collapsed the roof of his adobe house. Reed built a substantial log house, which became Reed's Station, on the Butterfield Overland Mail 1st Division Stations in 1858. A stop for the postal stagecoach, it was located 8 miles southeast of Fort Tejon and 14 miles west of French John's Station; the Butterfield Overland Mail ceased in 1861, but was replaced by the Telegraph Stage Line, which stopped at most of the former stations, including at renamed Gorman's, where the horses were changed. Six of them were used for the pull up Tejon Pass from Bakersfield to Gorman's, it was next bought by David W. Alexander, the sheriff of Los Angeles County, who sold the place to James Gorman Sr. in 1867 or 1868. The log "public house", which furnished food and liquor, soon became known as Gorman's Station. Gorman was a veteran of the Mexican–American War of 1848 and was at Fort Tejon as a civilian teamster and herder in 1854 while it was being built.
In 1876, Gorman Sr. died. The first post office was established in December 1877 with Henry Gorman James' brother, as the postmaster. Gorman's widow, continued to run the family farm and the roadside rest until she died in 1889. In 1898, the ranch was bought by Oscar Ralphs, whose brother, had begun a business in Los Angeles that became the Ralphs supermarket chain. In 1901, Oscar Ralphs married Mary McKenzie, who, as Mary Ralphs served 57 years on the Gorman School Board and was honored for her service by Vice President Hubert Humphrey at a National School Boards Association convention. Ridge RouteThe Ridge Route road through Gorman was paved in 1919. In 1923, the first gasoline station in California to be located away from a railroad track was established by Standard Oil. Gorman was a stop on the Ridge Route, Highway 99 after 1926, where its Standard service station beckoned travelers, it was a rest stop for the Greyhound bus until 1977, for long-distance truckers, who now use a Pilot Flying J station in Lebec.
"Being located on the busiest highway in California," wrote historian Kane, "the people of Gorman knew well the need for an ambulance, as so many of the injured were brought to their homes. An ambulance service was established in 1932 with the purchase of an old Packard automobile, converted into an emergency unit, equipped with one stretcher; the ambulance could be reached through the switchboard at the motel, whoever was available would drive it."Aviator Charles Lindbergh established a camp in 1930 on the northeast side of the Gorman Hills, where he tested and flew a folded-wing glider called the Albatross. Interstate 5 replaced U. S. Route 99 through Gorman and over Tejon Pass in 1964; the Umbrellas"The Umbrellas," a site specific art installation by Christo and Jeanne-Claude, surrounded Gorman and Tejon Pass in late September and early October 1991. It was created with 1,760 large yellow umbrellas, placed from the roadsides to the mountainsides. A simultaneous installation of blue umbrellas was created in Japan.
Thousands of visitors flocked to Gorman from all over the world. In January 2006, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors unanimously rejected a bid by 32 of the area's 75 property owners to give up Gorman so it could be annexed to Kern C
Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating back to the early 1950s in the United States the South. As a genre it blends the sound of Western musical styles such as country with that of rhythm and blues, leading to what is considered "classic" rock and roll; some have described it as a blend of bluegrass with rock and roll. The term "rockabilly" itself is a portmanteau of "rock" and "hillbilly", the latter a reference to the country music that contributed to the style. Other important influences on rockabilly include western swing, boogie-woogie, jump blues, electric blues. Defining features of the rockabilly sound included strong rhythms, vocal twangs, common use of the tape echo. Popularized by artists such as Wanda Jackson, Johnny Cash, Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Bob Luman, Jerry Lee Lewis, the influence and success of the style waned in the late 1950s. An interest in the genre endures in the 21st century within a subculture. Rockabilly has left a legacy, spawning a variety of sub-styles and influencing other genres such as punk rock.
There was a close relationship between blues and country music from the earliest country recordings in the 1920s. The first nationwide country hit was "Wreck of the Old 97", backed with "Lonesome Road Blues", which became quite popular. Jimmie Rodgers, the "first true country star", was known as the "Blue Yodeler", most of his songs used blues-based chord progressions, although with different instrumentation and sound from the recordings of his black contemporaries like Blind Lemon Jefferson and Bessie Smith. During the 1930s and 1940s, two new sounds emerged. Bob Wills and his Texas Playboys were the leading proponents of Western Swing, which combined country singing and steel guitar with big band jazz influences and horn sections. Recordings of Wills's from the mid 1940s to the early 1950s include "two beat jazz" rhythms, "jazz choruses", guitar work that preceded early rockabilly recordings. Wills is quoted as saying "Rock and Roll? Why, that's the same kind of music we've been playin' since 1928!...
But it's just basic rhythm and has gone by a lot of different names in my time. It's the same, whether you just follow a drum beat like in Africa or surround it with a lot of instruments; the rhythm's what's important."After blues artists like Meade Lux Lewis and Pete Johnson launched a nationwide boogie craze starting in 1938, country artists like Moon Mullican, the Delmore Brothers, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Speedy West, Jimmy Bryant, the Maddox Brothers and Rose began recording what was known as "Hillbilly Boogie", which consisted of "hillbilly" vocals and instrumentation with a boogie bass line. The Maddox Brothers and Rose were at "the leading edge of rockabilly with the slapped bass that Fred Maddox had developed". Maddox said, "You've got to have somethin' they can tap their foot, or dance to, or to make'em feel it." After World War II the band shifted into higher gear leaning more toward a whimsical honky-tonk feel, with a heavy, manic bottom end - the slap bass of Fred Maddox. "They played hillbilly music but it sounded real hot.
They played real loud for that time, too..." The Maddoxes were known for their lively "antics and stuff." "We always put on a show... I mean it just wasn't us up there pickin' and singing. There was something going on all the time." "... the demonstrative Maddoxes, helped release white bodies from traditional motions of decorum... more and more younger white artists began to behave on stage like the lively Maddoxes." Others believe that they were not only at the leading edge, but were one of the first Rockabilly groups, if not the first. Along with country and boogie influences, jump blues artists such as Wynonie Harris and Roy Brown, electric blues acts such as Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, Arthur Crudup, influenced the development of rockabilly; the Memphis blues musician Junior Parker and his electric blues band, Little Junior's Blue Flames, featuring Pat Hare on the guitar, were a major influence on the rockabilly style with their songs "Love My Baby" and "Mystery Train" in 1953. Zeb Turner's February 1953 recording of "Jersey Rock" with its mix of musical styles, lyrics about music and dancing, guitar solo, is another example of the mixing of musical genres in the first half of the 1950s.
Bill Monroe is known as the Father of Bluegrass, a specific style of country music. Many of his songs were in blues form, while others took the form of folk ballads, parlor songs, or waltzes. Bluegrass was a staple of country music in the early 1950s, is mentioned as an influence in the development of rockabilly; the Honky Tonk sound, which "tended to focus on working-class life, with tragic themes of lost love, loneliness and self-pity" included songs of energetic, uptempo Hillbilly Boogie. Some of the better known musicians who recorded and performed these songs are: the Delmore Brothers, the Maddox Brothers and Rose, Merle Travis, Hank Williams, Hank Snow, Tennessee Ernie Ford. Curtis Gordon's 1953 "Rompin' and Stompin'", an uptempo hillbilly-boogie included the lyrics, "Way down south where I was born / They rocked all night'til early morn' / They start rockin' / They start rockin' an rollin'." Sharecroppers' sons Carl Perkins and his brothers Jay Perkins and Clayton Perkins, along with drummer W. S. Holland, had been playing their music ninety miles from Memphis.
The Perkins Brothers Band, featuri
Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen
Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen is an American country rock band founded in 1967. The group's founder was George Frayne IV on vocals; the band's style mixed country, rock'n' roll, western swing and jump blues together on a foundation of boogie-woogie piano. They were among the first country-rock bands to take its cues less from folk-rock and bluegrass and more from the rowdy barroom country of the Ernest Tubb and Ray Price style; the band became known for marathon live shows. Alongside Frayne, the classic lineup was Billy C. Farlow on vocals and harmonica. Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen formed in 1967 in Ann Arbor, with Frayne taking the stage name Commander Cody; the band’s name was inspired by 1950s film serials featuring the character Commando Cody and from a feature version of an earlier serial, King of the Rocket Men, released under the title Lost Planet Airmen. After playing for several years in local bars, the core members migrated to San Francisco and soon got a recording contract with Paramount Records.
The group released their first album in late 1971, Lost in the Ozone, which yielded its best-known hit, a cover version of the 1955 song "Hot Rod Lincoln", which reached the top ten on the Billboard singles chart in early 1972. The band's 1974 live recording, Live from Deep in the Heart of Texas features cover art of armadillos by Jim Franklin; the band released several moderately successful albums through the first half of the 1970s. After appearing in the Roger Corman movie Hollywood Boulevard, Frayne disbanded the group in 1976. Geoffrey Stokes' 1976 book Star-Making Machinery featured Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen as its primary case study of music industry production and marketing. Stokes relates the difficulties. Records; the label wanted a hit album along the lines of the soft country-rock of The Eagles, but the band was not inclined to change its raw-edged style. Kirchen and Stein went on to have successful musical careers. Tichy had earned a Ph. D. from the University of Michigan and became head of the Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York."Hot Rod Lincoln", the band's most famous recording, was voted a Legendary Michigan Song in 2008.
The following year Commander Cody And His Lost Planet Airmen were inducted into the Michigan Rock and Roll Legends Hall of Fame. Retaining his stage name of Commander Cody, Frayne had a subsequent solo career and releasing albums from 1977 on; some unauthorized Lost Planet Airmen recordings were released in Europe and Australia along with unreleased LPA tracks and some outtakes from existing Paramount and Warner releases. Recent releases have been as "The Commander Cody Band" as well as "Commander Cody and his Modern Day Airmen". In addition to Frayne, current members of the band include Steve Barbuto on drums and Mark Emerick on guitar. At least from 2011 throough 2019, George Frayne continues to tour with his reconstituted Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen. Frayne is an artist, he received a bachelor's in design from the University of Michigan in 1966 and a master's in Sculpture and Painting from the Rackham School of Graduate Studies of the University of Michigan in 1968. He taught at University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, has had his art exhibited at numerous shows.
He is a student of cinematography, has a video in the Museum of Modern Art's permanent video archive. Some of his paintings are oversized, most are medium-sized acrylics and present pop art images from media sources and historic photos, his book, Art Music and Life was released by Qualibre Publications in 2009 and is a mix of his best work and anecdotal comments and related stories. He still does portraits of famous automobiles for the Saratoga Auto Museum in Saratoga Springs, New York, where he resides. George's brother Chris Frayne is credited with the cover art for the Lost in the Ozone, Sleazy Roadside Stories, Hot Licks, Cold Steel & Truckers' Favorites, Country Casanova albums, he shared credit with George for the album cover for Aces High, designed other album covers in the music industry. Chris Frayne died in 1992 of multiple sclerosis. Official website Commander Cody at awpi.com Amsterdam 1976 – live pics
Grapevine is an unincorporated community in Kern County, California, at the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley. The small village is directly adjacent to Interstate 5 and consists of travelers and roadside services. At an elevation of 1,499 feet, the community is located at the foot of a grade known as The Grapevine that starts at the mouth of Grapevine Canyon south of the community, ascends the canyon to the Tejon Pass in the Tehachapi Mountains via Interstate 5; the village and grade are named, not for the once-winding road known as the Grapevine that used to climb the steep mountain canyon, but for the canyon it passed through with its wild grapes that still grow along the original road. Its Spanish name was La Cañada de las Uvas, i.e. Grapevine ravine. Before the road was straightened and widened during 1933–34 by the three-lane Ridge Route Alternate, the Grapevine was infamous for its high accident rate. There are escape ramps branching off both sides of the downward part of the road for heavy trucks whose brakes fail on this five mile long, 6% grade, 1600 foot ascent - and now straight - grade.
The road is subject to severe closure to traffic in winter. The stretch of I-5 through the Grapevine and the Tejon Pass is sometimes closed by the California Highway Patrol because of the icy conditions combined with the steep grade of the pass, the high traffic during the winter holidays. Heavy rains will cause mud and rockslides, closing the freeway; the Highway Patrol is concerned with the large number of big-rigs that pass through, that just one accident in the icy or snowy conditions might force traffic to slow down or come to a complete stop, leaving hundreds of vehicles stalled at once. Whenever there is such a closure, traffic must either wait for it to reopen, or endure a slow multi-hour detour running between Bakersfield and Los Angeles via CA 58; the top of the Grapevine is registered as California Historical Landmark #283, where Don Pedro Fages passed through in 1772 during his explorations through California. In 1955, Charlie Ryan wrote and performed a popular song known as "Hot Rod Lincoln", about a teenager who races his souped-up Lincoln against a Cadillac up the Grapevine hill.
While Ryan never drove up the Grapevine, this song was inspired by his own experience racing a friend between Coeur d'Alene and Lewiston, Idaho. The song was an answer to the 1951 song "Hot Rod Race" by Arkie Shibley, referring to the same stretch of road in central California. Commander Cody and his Lost Planet Airmen recorded another version of "Hot Rod Lincoln", a hit in 1971; the ZIP Code is 93243, the community is inside area code 661. A post office operated at Grapevine from 1923 to 1960; the community of Wheeler Ridge lies three miles north of Grapevine on Interstate 5, with Lebec nine miles south. Ridge Route, the former route bypassed by Interstate 5 The Mountain Enterprise - local newspaper serving readers of Grapevine and some other small communities
The Tejon Pass known as Portezuelo de Cortes, Portezuela de Castac, Fort Tejon Pass, is a mountain pass between the southwest end of the Tehachapi Mountains and northeastern San Emigdio Mountains, linking Southern California north to the Central Valley. It has been traversed by major roads such as the El Camino Viejo, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road, the Ridge Route, U. S. Route 99, now Interstate 5; the highest point of the pass is near the northwestern-most corner of Los Angeles County, north of Gorman. Its highest point is 4,144 feet or 4,160 feet, 70 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles and 46 miles south of Bakersfield; the route of Interstate 5 winds through Tejon Pass, connecting the southern part of the state with the San Joaquin Valley and the north. The pass has a gradual rise from its southern approach of 1,362 feet at Santa Clarita, but a precipitous descent through Grapevine Canyon toward the San Joaquin Valley on the north, where it ends at Grapevine at 1,499 feet. On its northward slope lies Fort Tejon State Historic Park, the site of a former U.
S. Army post, first garrisoned on August 10, 1854. Historians speak of the area around Gorman, California, as "one of the oldest continuously used roadside rest stops in California." This is because pre-Columbian indigenous Californians "would have stopped there when it was the Tataviam village of Kulshra'jek", a trading crossroads for hundreds to thousands of years. In 1772, Lieutenant Pedro Fages crossed the pass in pursuit of military deserters, named it Portezuelo de Cortes. Fages named the canyon beyond the pass leading down into the Tulare Basin, Cañada de las Uvas for all the grape vines growing in it. In the late 18th century, El Camino Viejo, a road between Los Angeles and the Mission Santa Clara de Asis began to be used for travel north and south along the western San Joaquin Valley, it crossed over the pass and turned westward up Cuddy Canyon, descended San Emigdio Creek into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1806, Father Jose Maria Zalvidea, diarist for the expedition of First Lieutenant Francisco Ruiz into the San Joaquin Valley, named the canyon and pass, discovered in 1776 by the explorer priest, Father Francisco Garces.
He recorded the name as "Tejon" —after a dead badger found at the canyon's mouth. This original Tejon Pass, was situated 15 miles to the northeast of; the old pass went through the Tehachapi Mountains, at the top of the divide between Tejon Creek Canyon in the San Joaquin Valley and Cottonwood Creek Canyon in Antelope Valley. Before 1854, the main route of travel into the San Joaquin Valley had come directly north from Elizabeth Lake across the Antelope Valley, over this original Tejon Pass, down into Tejon Canyon, proceeded west along Tejon Creek—into the lands of the Rancho Tejon, granted in 1843; this route to the pass diverted from the El Camino Viejo at Elisabeth Lake, from 1849 to before 1854 it was the main road connecting the southern part of the state to the trail along the eastern side of the San Joaquin Valley to the goldfields to the north. In 1843, Rancho Castac was established in La Cañada de las Uvas. During that same year, the first grant of Rancho Los Alamos y Agua Caliente included the pass, now called Portezuela de Castac.
After the establishment of Fort Tejon and the Stockton - Los Angeles Road, the Portezuela de Castac began to be called the "Fort Tejon Pass." The rather poor wagon route of the old Tejon Pass route was abandoned, the Fort Tejon Pass took the shortened name it has today. In 1858 the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line ran through the pass on the Stockton - Los Angeles Road; the Butterfield Overland was discontinued in 1861 but was replaced by the Telegraph Stage Line, which stopped at all the former stations, including Gorman's, where the horses were changed. Six of them were used for the pull up from Bakersfield to Gorman's; the Ridge Route was the first automobile highway linking the Central Valley with the Los Angeles Basin. It was laid in a sinuous fashion through the ridges and gullies of the Sierra Pelona Mountains to the Tejon Pass around 1910; the northern portion of this highway, which became a part of U. S. Route 99, was known as "The Grapevine." The Ridge Route was replaced by a three-lane alternate highway in 1933, a four-lane expressway in 1947, by the eight-lane Interstate 5 Freeway in 1970.
The pass is sunny in summer and autumn, but is subject to severe weather and closure to traffic in winter. The 40-mile stretch of Interstate 5 between Grapevine and Castaic is sometimes closed by the California Highway Patrol because of the icy conditions combined with the steep grade of the pass, the high traffic during the winter holidays; the Highway Patrol is concerned with the number of big-rigs that pass through, that one accident in the snowy conditions might force traffic to slow down or come to a complete stop, leaving hundreds of vehicles stalled at once. Whenever there is such a closure, traffic must either wait for it to reopen, or endure a multi-hour detour running between Bakersfield and Los Angeles via CA 58; this historic gap has given its name to the Mountain Communities of the Tejon Pass. Beginning on the south at Santa Clari
Hot rods are old, classic or modern American cars with large engines modified for faster speed. The origin of the term "hot rod" is unclear. For example, some claim. Other origin stories include replacing the engine's camshaft or "rod" with a higher performance version. Hot rods were favorites for greasers The term has broadened to apply to other items that are modified for a particular purpose, such as "hot-rodded amplifier". There are various theories about the origin of the term "hot rod"; the common theme is that "hot" related to "hotting up" a car, which means modifying it for greater performance. One theory is that "rod" means roadster, a lightweight 2-door car, used as the basis for early hot rods. Another theory is that "rod" refers to camshaft, a part of the engine, upgraded in order to increase power output. In the early days, a car modified for increased performance was called a "gow job"; this term morphed into the hot rod in the early to middle 1950s. The term "hot rod" has had various uses in relation to performance cars.
For example, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment in its vehicle emissions regulations, refers to a hot rod as any motorized vehicle that has a replacement engine differing from the factory original. The predecessors to the hotrod were the modified cars used in the Prohibition era by bootleggers to evade revenue agents and other law enforcement. Hot rods first appeared in the late 1930s in southern California, where people raced modified cars on dry lake beds northeast of Los Angeles, under the rules of the Southern California Timing Association, among other groups; this gained popularity after World War II in California, because many returning soldiers had received technical training. The first hot rods were old cars, modified to reduce weight. Engine swaps involved fitting the Ford flathead V8 engine into a different car, for example the common practice in the 1940s of installing the "60 horse" version into a Jeep chassis. Typical modifications were removal of convertible tops, bumpers, and/or fenders.
Wheels and tires were changed for improved handling. Hot rods built before 1945 used'35 Ford wire-spoke wheels. After World War II, many small military airports throughout the country were either abandoned or used, allowing hot rodders across the country to race on marked courses. Drag racing had tracks as long as 1 mi or more, included up to four lanes of racing simultaneously; as some hot rodders raced on the street, a need arose for an organization to promote safety, to provide venues for safe racing. The National Hot Rod Association was founded in 1951, to take drag racing off the streets and into controlled environments. In the'50s and'60s, the Ford flathead. Many hot rods would upgrade the brakes from mechanical to hydraulic and headlights from bulb to sealed-beam. A typical mid-1950s to early 1960s custom Deuce was fenderless and steeply chopped, powered by a Ford or Mercury flathead, with an Edelbrock intake manifold and Collins magneto, Halibrand quick-change differential. Front suspension hairpins were adapted from sprint cars, such as the Kurtis Krafts.
As hot rodding became more popular and associations catering to hot rodders were started, such as the magazine Hot Rod, founded in 1948. As automobiles offered by the major automakers began increasing performance, the lure of hot rods began to wane. With the advent of the muscle car, it was now possible to purchase a high-performance car straight from the showroom; however the 1973 Oil Crisis caused car manufacturers to focus on fuel efficiency over performance, which led to a resurgence of interest in hot rodding. As the focus shifted away from racing, the modified cars became known as "street rods"; the National Street Rod Association began hosting events. By the 1970s, the 350 cu in small-block Chevy V8 was the most common choice of engine for hot rods. Another popular engine choice is the Ford Windsor engine. During the 1980s, many car manufacturers were reducing the displacements of their engines, thus making it harder for hot rod builders to obtain large displacement engines. Instead, engine builders had to modify the smaller engines to obtain larger displacement.
While current production V8s tended to be the most frequent candidates, this applied to others. In the mid-1980s, as stock engine sizes diminished, rodders discovered the 215 cu in aluminum-block Buick or Oldsmobile V8 could be modified for greater displacement, with wrecking yard parts; this trend was not limited to American cars. There is still a vibrant hot rod culture worldwide in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Sweden; the hot rod community has now been subdivided into two main groups: hot rodders. There is a contemporary movement of traditional hot rod builders, car clubs and artists who have returned to the roots of hot rodding as a lifestyle; this includes a new breed of traditional hot rod builders and styles, as well as classic style car clubs. Events like GreaseOrama feature the greaser lifestyle. Magazines like Ol' Skool Rodz and Gals, Rat-Rods and Rust Queens cover events and people. Author Tom Wolfe was
Country rock is a subgenre of popular music, formed from the fusion of rock and country. It was developed by rock musicians who began to record country-flavored records in the late-1960s and early-1970s; these musicians recorded rock records using country themes, vocal styles, additional instrumentation, most characteristically pedal steel guitars. Country rock began with artists like Bob Dylan, the Byrds, Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, the Flying Burrito Brothers, Gram Parsons and others, reaching its greatest popularity in the 1970s with artists such as Emmylou Harris, the Eagles, Linda Ronstadt, Michael Nesmith and Pure Prairie League. Country rock influenced artists in other genres, including the Band, Grateful Dead, Creedence Clearwater Revival, the Rolling Stones, George Harrison's solo work, it played a part in the development of Southern rock. Rock and roll has been seen as a combination of rhythm and blues and country music, a fusion evident in 1950s rockabilly. There has been cross-pollination throughout the history of both genres.
John Einarson states, that "rom a variety of perspectives and motivations, these musicians either played rock & roll attitude, or added a country feel to rock, or folk, or bluegrass, there was no formula". Country influences can be heard on rock records through the 1960s, including the Beatles' 1964 recordings "I'll Cry Instead", "Baby's in Black" and "I Don't Want to Spoil the Party", the Byrds' 1965 cover version of Porter Wagoner's "Satisfied Mind", on the Rolling Stones "High and Dry", as well as Buffalo Springfield's "Go and Say Goodbye" and "Kind Woman". According to The Encyclopedia of Country Music, the Beatles' "I Don't Want to Spoil the Party", their cover of the Buck Owens country hit "Act Naturally" and their 1965 album Rubber Soul can all be seen "with hindsight" as examples of country rock. In 1966, as many rock artists moved towards expansive and experimental psychedelia, Bob Dylan spearheaded the back-to-basics roots revival when he went to Nashville to record the album Blonde on Blonde, using notable local musicians like Charlie McCoy.
This, the subsequent more country-influenced albums, John Wesley Harding and Nashville Skyline, have been seen as creating the genre of country folk, a route pursued by a number of acoustic, folk musicians. Dylan's lead was followed by the Byrds, who were joined by Gram Parsons in 1968. Parsons had mixed country with rock and folk to create what he called "Cosmic American Music". Earlier in the year Parsons had released Safe at Home with the International Submarine Band, which made extensive use of pedal steel and is seen by some as the first true country-rock album; the result of Parsons' brief tenure in the Byrds was Sweetheart of the Rodeo considered one of the finest and most influential recordings in the genre. The Byrds continued for a brief period in the same vein, but Parsons left soon after the album was released to be joined by another ex-Byrds member Chris Hillman in forming the Flying Burrito Brothers. Over the next two years they recorded the albums The Gilded Palace of Sin and Burrito Deluxe, which helped establish the respectability and parameters of the genre, before Parsons departed to pursue a solo career.
Country rock was a popular style in the California music scene of the late 1960s, was adopted by bands including Hearts and Flowers and New Riders of the Purple Sage. Some folk-rockers followed the Byrds into the genre, among them the Beau Brummels and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band. A number of performers enjoyed a renaissance by adopting country sounds, including: the Beatles, who re-explored elements of country in their albums, like "Rocky Raccoon" and "Don't Pass Me By" from their eponymous "White Album", "Octopus's Garden" from Abbey Road. One of the few acts to move from the country side towards rock were the bluegrass band the Dillards; the greatest commercial success for country rock came in the 1970s, with the Doobie Brothers mixing in elements of R&B, Emmylou Harris becoming the "Queen of country-rock" and Linda Ronstadt creating a successful pop-oriented brand of the genre. Pure Prairie League, formed in Ohio in 1969 by Craig Fuller, had both critical and commercial success with 5 straight Top 40 LP releases, including Bustin' Out, acclaimed by Allmusic critic Richard Foss as "an album, unequaled in country-rock" and Two Lane Highway, described by Rolling Stone as "a worthy companion to the likes of the Byrds' Sweetheart of the Rodeo and other gems of the genre".
Former members of Ronstadt's backing band went on to form the Eagles, who emerged as one of the most successful rock acts of all time, producing albums that included Desperado and Hotel