Nasher (Kharoti clan)
The Nashir are a noble Afghan family and Khans of the Pashtun Kharoti tribe. The family is originally from Qarabagh, Ghazni but founded modern day Kunduz in the early 20th century, members of the family now live in the United States, United Kingdom and Germany. The Nasher are often linked to the ancient Ghaznavid dynasty. D, when the Ghaznavid dynasty was defeated in 1148 by the Ghurids, the Ghaznavid Sultans continued to live in Ghazni, known as the Nasher. However, there is no evidence of a lineage to the Nasher. The Nasher lived as Khans of the Kharoti, a Pashtun tribe of Ghilji origin with a population of about 5. After the great Ghilji rebellion in 1885-1886, led by Alam Khan Nasher, economic development transformed Kunduz into a thriving city with new residential housing and hospitals for the factory workers. Sher Khan Nasher implemented Qizel Qala harbour that was named Sher Khan Bandar in his honour. As his power grew and he controlled the whole north of Afghanistan, the throne was within his reach.
Long before he became a radical, Nashir sent fellow Kharoti Hekmatyar to Kabuls famed Mahtab Qala military academy in 1968, after he was expelled from the Mahtab Qala, Nasher imprisoned him briefly for toying with Communist ideology. On a hunting trip, Nasher discovered ancient artefacts and invited Princeton-archaeologist Daniel Schlumberger with his team to examine Ai-Khanoum and it was soon found to be the historical Alexandria on the Oxus, possibly named اروکرتیه or Eucratidia), one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. The most populer Afghan singer, Farhad Darya Nasher, is a grandson of Sher Khan, the British and American Invasions Meher, Afghanistan, Dynamics of Survival Runion, Meredith L
A farmhouse is a building that serves as the primary residence in a rural or agricultural setting. Historically, farmhouses were often combined with space for animals called a housebarn, other farmhouses may be connected to one or more barns, built to form a courtyard, or with each farm building separate from each other. Types of farmhouses in Europe include the following, A Bresse house is a type of farmhouse found in the Bresse region that is characterized by its length, brick walls. A Mas is a traditional farmhouse unique to Provence and Southern France, historically there were three main types of German farmhouses, many of which survive today. The Low German house or Niedersachsenhaus is found mainly on the North German Plain and it is a large structure with a sweeping roof supported by two to four rows of internal posts. The large barn door at the gable end opens into a hall, or Deele, with cattle stalls and barns on either side. The Middle German house may be a unit, but access is from the side.
Later this type of mitteldeutsches Haus was expanded to two or more buildings around a farmyard, often with a second story. The South German house is found in southern Germany and has two variants, the Swabian or Black Forest house and the Bavarian farmstead. A Cascina a corte is a building whose arrangement is based on the Roman villa found in the Po Valley of northern Italy. A house called Casa colonica in Italy is a type of farmhouse where the work the land. Ta Tabibu farmhouse and Ta Xindi Farmhouse are two typical Maltese farmhouses built in the times with the use of Limestone material. In Maltese a farmhouse is called Razzett, other examples of Maltese farmhouses are the Ta Cisju Farmhouse and The Devils Farmhouse. Norwegian farmhouses used timber or logs and built using Scandinavian vernacular architecture, the first examples are traced back to the 13th century. In some cases farmhouses are built on steep hillsides of the such as the Me-Åkernes farm. An Alqueria is a complex named from the historical, Muslim region of Al-Andalus.
The Baserri is found in the Basque Country in Northern Spain, the Cabaña pasiega is a two-level dwelling for farmers and livestock found in Cantabria. The Masia originates from the Catalan Countries, and the Palloza is a primitive, a Hacienda occasionally functioned as a farmhouse
Early modern period
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Historians in recent decades have argued that from a worldwide standpoint, the period witnessed the exploration and colonization of the Americas and the rise of sustained contacts between previously isolated parts of the globe. The historical powers became involved in trade, as the exchange of goods, plants and food crops extended to the Old World. The Columbian Exchange greatly affected the human environment, New economies and institutions emerged, becoming more sophisticated and globally articulated over the course of the early modern period. This process began in the medieval North Italian city-states, particularly Genoa, the early modern period included the rise of the dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. The European colonization of the Americas and Africa occurred during the 15th to 19th centuries, the early modern trends in various regions of the world represented a shift away from medieval modes of organization and economically.
Historians typically date the end of the modern period when the French Revolution of the 1790s began the modern period. Early modern themes Other In 16th century China, the Ming Dynastys economy was stimulated by trade with the Portuguese, Spanish. China became involved in a new trade of goods, animals. Trade with Early Modern Europe and Japan brought in massive amounts of silver, during the last decades of the Ming the flow of silver into China was greatly diminished, thereby undermining state revenues and the entire Chinese economy. This damage to the economy was compounded by the effects on agriculture of the incipient Little Ice Age, natural calamities, crop failure, the ensuing breakdown of authority and peoples livelihoods allowed rebel leaders such as Li Zicheng to challenge Ming authority. The Ming Dynasty fell around 1644 to the Qing Dynasty, which was the last ruling dynasty of China, during its reign, the Qing Dynasty became highly integrated with Chinese culture. The Azuchi-Momoyama period saw the unification that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate.
The Edo period from 1600 to 1868 characterized early modern Japan, the Tokugawa shogunate was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period gets its name from the city, Edo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle from 1603 until 1868, in 1392, General Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon Dynasty with a largely bloodless coup. Joseon experienced advances in science and culture, King Sejong the Great promulgated hangul, the Korean alphabet. The period saw various other cultural and technological advances as well as the dominance of neo-Confucianism over the entirety of Korea, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, invasions by the neighboring Japanese and Qing Chinese nearly overran the Korean peninsula
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on the crossroads of Central Asia and Western Asia. It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 200 million people, in terms of area, it is the 33rd-largest country in the world with an area covering 881,913 square kilometres. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistans narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries in that it is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and it is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic, an ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. The new constitution stipulated that all laws were to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran.
Pakistan has an economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector. The Pakistani economy is the 24th-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is backed by one of the worlds largest and fastest-growing middle classes. The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule, the country continues to face challenging problems such as illiteracy and corruption, but has substantially reduced poverty and terrorism and expanded per capita income. It is a member of CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement, the name Pakistan literally means land of the pure in Urdu and Persian. It is a play on the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto, the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan, the earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab.
The Vedic Civilization, characterised by Indo-Aryan culture, laid the foundations of Hinduism, Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region. Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of education in the world. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled this region, the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharampala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Indus valley from Sindh to Multan in southern Punjab in 711 AD, the Pakistan governments official chronology identifies this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated 8 million people in 2013, and an area of 143,100 km2. It is bordered by Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the south, the Republic of Uzbekistan to the west, the Kyrgyz Republic to the north, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, a civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability, Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistans 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, many Tajiks speak Russian as their second language. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country and it has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances and cotton production. Tajikistan means the Land of the Tajiks, the suffix -stan is Persian for place of or country and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic tribe.
Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991 and this is due to a transliteration from the Russian, Таджикистан. In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/ and дж, Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. Tadjikistan is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts, the way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is. The earliest recorded history of the dates back to about 500 BCE when much, if not all. After the regions conquest by Alexander the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, northern Tajikistan was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states which was overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150 BCE. The Silk Road passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi commercial relations between Han China and Sogdiana flourished.
Sogdians played a role in facilitating trade and worked in other capacities, as farmers, glassmakers. Later the Hephthalite Empire, a collection of tribes, moved into the region. Central Asia continued in its role as a crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north. It was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire and Chinese from 650–680, the Samanid Empire,819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara which became the cultural centres of Iran and the region was known as Khorasan. The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania and ruled between 999–1211, during Genghis Khans invasion of Khwarezmia in the early 13th century the Mongol Empire took control over nearly all of Central Asia
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khiljis, Hotaks, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.
The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians.
These tribes migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as Ariana
Mīrwais Khān Hotak, known as Shāh Mirwais Ghiljī, was an influential tribal chief of the Ghilji Pashtuns from Kandahar, who founded the Hotak dynasty that existed from 1709 to 1738. After revolting and killing the Safavid Persian governor over the region, Gurgin Khan in April 1709 and he is widely known as Mīrwais Nīkə or Mīrwais Bābā in the Pashto language. In 1707, Kandahar was in a state of chaos, fought over by the Shia Safavid state of Persia and he was freed and even allowed to meet with the Shah, Sultan Husayn, on a regular basis. Having ingratiated himself with the Persian court, Mirwais sought and obtained permission to perform the pilgrimage to Mecca in the Ottoman Empire. At that time the once powerful Safavids were declining politically and militarily, riven by strife, royal intrigues, and endless wars against their arch rivals. During his time in Persia, Mirwais tried to learn all the weaknesses of the Safavids. While in Mecca, he sought a fatwa from the religious authorities against the foreign rulers who were persecuting his people in his homeland.
The Pashtun tribes rankled under the ruling Safavids because of their attempts to forcefully convert them from Sunni to Shia Islam. The fatwa was granted and he carried it with him to Iṣfahan and subsequently to Kandahar, with permission to return, with the death of Gurgin Khan, the Hotaki soldiers took control of the city and the province. Mirwais and his forces defeated a large Persian army that was sent to regain control over the area. Two years later, in A. D.1713, another Persian army commanded by Rustam Khán was defeated by the rebels, Mirwais Khan became the governor of the Greater Kandahar region, which covered most of present-day Afghanistan and part of pashtun areas of Balochistan, Pakistan. To the northwest were the Abdali Pashtuns and to the east lay the Moghul Empire, refusing the title of king, Mirwais was referred to as Prince of Qandahár and General of the national troops by his Afghan countrymen. In 1717, Mahmud took advantage of the weakness of the Persian Shah. Mirwais is buried in his mausoleum in the Kokaran section of Kandahar and he is regarded as one of Afghanistans greatest national heroes and admired by many Afghans, especially the Pashtuns.
Steven Otfinoski referred to him as Afghanistans George Washington in his 2004 book Afghanistan, there is a neighborhood called Mirwais Mina as well as a hospital called Mirwais Hospital, a high school and a business center named after him in Kandahar. There are schools and a number of institutions or places across Afghanistan built to honor him, a few direct descendants of Mirwais are living today among the Hotak tribe. Hotak dynasty History of Afghanistan Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Last Afghan empire
Isfahan, historically rendered in English as Ispahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 kilometres south of Tehran. The Greater Isfahan Region had a population of 3,793,104 in the 2011 Census, the counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, Shahinshahr, Falavarjan, Tiran o Karvan and Jay all constitute the metropolitan city of Isfahan. Isfahan is located on the main north–south and east–west routes crossing Iran and it flourished from 1050 to 1722, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries under the Safavid dynasty, when it became the capital of Persia for the second time in its history. Even today, the city retains much of its past glory and it is famous for its Persian–Islamic architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces and minarets. This led to the Persian proverb Esfahān nesf-e- jahān ast, the Naghsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan is one of the largest city squares in the world. It has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, the city has a wide variety of historic monuments and is known for the paintings and architecture.
Isfahan City Center is the 5th largest shopping mall in the world, see also, Names of Isfahan The name of the region derives from Middle Persian Spahān. Spahān is attested in various Middle Persian seals and inscriptions, including that of Zoroastrian Magi Kartir, the present-day name is the Arabicized form of Ispahan. The region appears with the abbreviation GD on Sasanian numismatics, in Ptolemys Geographia it appears as Aspadana, translating to place of gathering for the army. It is believed that Spahān derives from spādānām the armies, Old Persian plural of spāda, the history of Isfahan can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. In recent discoveries, archaeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages. It is said that after Cyrus the Great freed the Jews from Babylon some Jews returned to Jerusalem whereas some others decided to live in Persia, actually this happened in the Sasanid period when a Jewish colony was made in the vicinity of the Sasanid.
They did not settle anywhere or in any city without examining the water. They did all along until they reached the city of Isfahan, there they rested, examined the water and soil and found that both resembled Jerusalem. Upon they settled there, cultivated the soil, raised children and grandchildren, under the Parthians, Arsacid governors administered a large province from Isfahan, and the citys urban development accelerated to accommodate the needs of a capital city. The next empire to rule Persia, the Sassanids, presided over changes in their realm, instituting sweeping agricultural reform and reviving Iranian culture. The city was called by the name and the region by the name Aspahan or Spahan. The city was governed by Espoohrans or the members of seven noble Iranian families who had important royal positions, extant foundations of some Sassanid-era bridges in Isfahan suggest that the kings were fond of ambitious urban planning projects
Iran, known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars and thinkers.
During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris and Lurs.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably
Sultan Husayn, reigned 1694–1722, was a Safavid Shah of Iran. He ruled from 1694 until he was overthrown in 1722 by rebellious marauder Mahmud Hotaki and his reign saw the downfall of the Safavid dynasty, which had ruled Persia since the beginning of the 16th century. They decided to make Sultan Husayn shah and he had a reputation for being easy-going and had little interest in political affairs, his nickname being Yakhshidir, the response he was said to give when asked to decide on matters of state. The young king was a devout Muslim and one of his first acts was to power to the leading cleric Muhammad Baqer Majlesi. A series of measures against the Sufi order were introduced as well as prohibiting the consumption of alcohol and opium. Provincial governors were ordered to enforce Sharia law, power soon shifted away from Muhammad Baqer Majlesi to Sultan Husayns great aunt, Maryam Begum. Under her influence, Hosein became an alcoholic and paid less and less attention to affairs, devoting his time to his harem.
Sultan Husayns rule was relatively tranquil until he faced a revolt in Afghanistan. The Afghans were divided into two tribes, the Ghilzais and the Abdalis. In 1709, the Ghilzai Afghans of Kandahar, under their leader Mirwais, rebelled, in 1716, the Abdalis of Herat followed their example and Safavid expeditions to bring them back under control ended in failure. The Abdalis turned on the Ghilzais but were defeated by Mahmud Hotaki, in the meantime, Sultan Husayn was confronted by other rebellions resulting from his religious policy. The shah had passed a decree ordering the forced conversion of Zoroastrians, in 1717–20, the Sunnis of Kurdistan and Shirvan revolted. In Shirvan and Dagestan, the domains of the Safavids, the Lezgins and the rest of the Sunni inhabitants of the area called on their fellow Sunnis. Writer Jonas Hanway wrote that the city was ransacked, the main threat came from the Ghilzai Afghans. In 1722, Mahmud and his army swept westward aiming at the shahs capital Isfahan itself, rather than biding his time within the city and resisting a siege in which the small Afghan army was unlikely to succeed, Sultan Husayn marched out to meet Mahmuds force at Golnabad.
Here, on 8 March, the army was thoroughly routed and fled back to Isfahan in disarray. The shah was urged to escape to the provinces to raise more troops, Mahmuds siege of Isfahan lasted from March to October,1722. Lacking artillery, he was forced to resort to a blockade in the hope of starving the Persians into submission
He was the eldest son of Mirwais Hotak, the chief of the Ghilji Pashtun tribe of Afghanistan, who had made the Kandahar region independent from Persian rule in 1709. When Mirwais died in 1715, he was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Aziz, in 1720, Mahmud and the Ghiljis defeated the rival ethnic Afghan tribe of the Abdalis. However, Mahmud had designs on the Persian empire itself and he had already launched an expedition against Kerman in 1719 and in 1721 he besieged the city again. Failing in this attempt and in another siege on Yazd, in early 1722, Mahmud turned his attention to the shahs capital Isfahan, after first defeating the Persians at the Battle of Gulnabad. Rather than biding his time within the city and resisting a siege in which the small Afghan army was unlikely to succeed, here, on March 8, the Persian royal army was thoroughly routed and fled back to Isfahan in disarray. The shah was urged to escape to the provinces to raise more troops, Mahmuds siege of Isfahan lasted from March to October,1722.
Lacking artillery, he was forced to resort to a blockade in the hope of starving the Persians into submission. Sultan Husayns command during the siege displayed his lack of decisiveness. Starvation and disease finally forced Isfahan into submission, on October 23, Sultan Husayn abdicated and acknowledged Mahmud as the new shah of Persia. In the very early days of his rule, Mahmud displayed benevolence, treating the royal family well. But he was confronted with a claimant to the throne when Hoseins son. Mahmud sent an army against Tahmasps base, Tahmasp escaped and the Afghans took the city but, shocked at the treatment they received at the hands of the conquering army, the population rose up against them in January 1723. The revolt was a success and Mahmud was worried about the reaction when the surviving Afghans returned to Isfahan to bring news of the defeat. Suffering from mental illnesses and fearing a revolt by his subjects, Mahmud invited his Persian ministers and he executed up to 3,000 of the Persian royal guards.
At the same time the Persian arch rivals and his failure to impose his rule across Persia made Mahmud depressed and suspicious. He was concerned about the loyalty of his own men, when Sultan Husayn tried to stop the massacre, he was wounded, but his action led to Mahmud sparing the lives of two of his young children. Mahmud began to succumb to insanity as well as physical deterioration, on April 22,1725, a group of Afghan officers freed Ashraf Khan from the prison where he had been confined by Mahmud and launched a palace revolution which placed Ashraf on the throne. Michael Axworthy, The Sword of Persia, Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant Hardcover 348 pages Publisher, tauris Language, English ISBN 1-85043-706-8 An outline of the History of Persia during the last two centuries, The Afghan Invasion Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Last Afghan empire