A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Splines are ridges or teeth on a drive shaft that mesh with grooves in a mating piece and transfer torque to it, maintaining the angular correspondence between them. For instance, a gear mounted on a shaft might use a male spline on the shaft that matches the female spline on the gear; the splines on the pictured drive shaft match with the female splines in the center of the clutch plate, while the smooth tip of the axle is supported in the pilot bearing in the flywheel. An alternative to splines is a key, though splines provide a longer fatigue life. There are several types of splines: Parallel key spline where the sides of the spaced grooves are parallel in both directions and axial. Involute spline where the sides of the spaced grooves are involute, as with an involute gear, but not as tall; the curves increase strength by decreasing stress concentrations. Crowned splines where the sides of the spaced grooves are involute, but the male teeth are modified to allow for misalignment. Serrations where the sides of the spaced grooves form a "V".
These are used on small-diameter shafts. Helical splines where the spaced grooves form a helix about the shaft; the sides may be involute. This can either minimize stress concentrations for a stationary joint under high load, or allow for rotary and linear motion between the parts. Ball splines where the "teeth" of the outer part are implemented with a ball bearing to allow for free linear motion under high torque. Drive shafts on vehicles and power take-offs use splines to transmit torque and rotation and allow for changes in length. Splines are used in several places on bicycles; the crank arm to BB shaft interfaces that are splined include ISIS Drive, Truvativ GXP and Howitzer, Shimano's Octalink and many others, most of which are proprietary. Some cranksets feature modular spiders. Cassettes engage the freehub via a spline that has one groove wider than the others to enforce a fixed orientation. Disc brake mounting interfaces that are splined include Centerlock, by Shimano. Aircraft engines may have a spline upon.
There may be a master spline, wider than the others, so that the propeller may go on at only one orientation, to maintain dynamic balance. This arrangement is found in larger engines, whereas smaller engines use a pattern of threaded fasteners instead. There are two types of splines and external. External splines may be broached, milled, rolled, ground or extruded. There are fewer methods available for manufacturing internal splines due to accessibility restrictions. Methods include those listed above with the exception of hobbing. With internal splines, the splined portion of the part may not have a through-hole, which precludes use of a pull / push broach or extrusion-type method. If the part is small it may be difficult to fit a milling or grinding tool into the area where the splines are machined. To prevent stress concentrations the ends of the splines are chamfered; such stress concentrations are a primary cause of failure in poorly designed splines. Hirth joint Keyed joint Reeding Coupling Robert Rich Robins.
"Tooth Engagement Evaluation of Involute Spline Couplings". Brigham Young University. Retrieved 2010-07-08
History of steam road vehicles
The history of steam road vehicles comprises the development of vehicles powered by a steam engine for use on land and independent of rails, whether for conventional road use, such as the steam car and steam waggon, or for agricultural or heavy haulage work, such as the traction engine. The first experimental vehicles were built in the 17th and 18th century, but it was not until after Richard Trevithick had developed the use of high-pressure steam, around 1800, that mobile steam engines became a practical proposition; the first half of the 19th century saw great progress in steam vehicle design, by the 1850s it was viable to produce them on a commercial basis. This progress was dampened by legislation which limited or prohibited the use of steam powered vehicles on roads; the 1880s to the 1920s saw continuing improvements in vehicle technology and manufacturing techniques, steam road vehicles were developed for many applications. In the 20th century, the rapid development of internal combustion engine technology led to the demise of the steam engine as a source of propulsion of vehicles on a commercial basis, with few remaining in use beyond the Second World War.
Many of these vehicles were acquired by enthusiasts for preservation, numerous examples are still in existence. In the 1960s the air pollution problems in California gave rise to a brief period of interest in developing and studying steam powered vehicles as a possible means of reducing the pollution. Apart from interest by steam enthusiasts, the occasional replica vehicle, experimental technology no steam vehicles are in production at present. Early research on the steam engine before 1700 was linked to the quest for self-propelled vehicles and ships; the size reduction necessary for road transport meant an increase in steam pressure with all the attendant dangers, due to the inadequate boiler technology of the period. A strong opponent of high pressure steam was James Watt who, along with Matthew Boulton did all he could to dissuade William Murdoch from developing and patenting his steam carriage, built in model form in 1784. Ferdinand Verbiest is suggested to have built what may have been the first steam powered car in about 1672, but little concrete information on this is known to exist.
During the latter part of the 18th century, there were numerous attempts to produce self-propelled steerable vehicles. Many remained in the form of models. Progress was dogged by many problems inherent to road vehicles in general, such as suitable power-plant giving steady rotative motion, braking, adequate road surfaces and vibration-resistant bodywork, among other issues; the extreme complexity of these issues can be said to have hampered progress over more than a hundred years, as much as hostile legislation. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot's "machine à feu pour le transport de wagons et surtout de l'artillerie" was built from 1769 in two versions for use by the French Army; this was the first steam wagon, not a toy, and, known to exist. Cugnot's fardier, a term applied to a massive two-wheeled cart for exceptionally heavy loads, was intended to be capable of transporting 4 tonnes, of travelling at up to 4 km/h; the vehicle was of tricycle layout, with two rear wheels and a steerable front wheel controlled by a tiller.
There is considerable evidence, from the period, that this vehicle ran, making it the first to do so. In 1801, Richard Trevithick constructed an experimental steam-driven vehicle, equipped with a firebox enclosed within the boiler, with one vertical cylinder, the motion of the single piston being transmitted directly to the driving wheels by means of connecting rods, it was reported as weighing 1520 kg loaded, with a speed of 14.5 km/h on the flat. During its first trip it was left unattended and "self-destructed". Trevithick soon built the London Steam Carriage that ran in London in 1803, but the venture failed to attract interest and soon folded up. In the context of Trevithick's vehicle, an English writer by the name of "Mickleham" in 1822 coined the term Steam Engine: "It exhibits in construction the most beautiful simplicity of parts, the most sagacious selection of appropriate forms, the most convenient and effective arrangement and connexion. In 1805 Oliver Evans built the "Oruktor Amphibolos", a steam-powered, flat-bottomed dredger that he modified to be self-propelled on both land and water.
It is believed to be the first amphibious vehicle, the first steam-powered road vehicle to run in the United States. However, no designs for the machine survive, the only accounts of its achievements come from Evans himself. Analysis of Evans's descriptions suggests that the 5hp engine was unlikely to have been powerful enough to move the vehicle either on land or water, that the chosen route for its demonstration would have had the benefit of gravity, river currents and tides to assist with the vehicles' progress; the dredger was not a success, after a few years lying idle, was dismantled for parts. More commercially successful for a time than Trevithick's carriage were the steam carriage services operated
A leaf spring is a simple form of spring used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Called a laminated or carriage spring, sometimes referred to as a semi-elliptical spring or cart spring, it is one of the oldest forms of springing, appearing on carriages in England after 1750 and from there migrating to France and Germany. A leaf spring takes the form of a slender arc-shaped length of spring steel of rectangular cross-section. In the most common configuration, the center of the arc provides location for the axle, while loops formed at either end provide for attaching to the vehicle chassis. For heavy vehicles, a leaf spring can be made from several leaves stacked on top of each other in several layers with progressively shorter leaves. Leaf springs can serve locating and to some extent damping as well as springing functions. While the interleaf friction provides a damping action, it is not well controlled and results in stiction in the motion of the suspension. For this reason, some manufacturers have used mono-leaf springs.
A leaf spring can either be attached directly to the frame at both ends or attached directly at one end the front, with the other end attached through a shackle, a short swinging arm. The shackle takes up the tendency of the leaf spring to elongate when compressed and thus makes for softer springiness; some springs called a spoon end, to carry a swiveling member. The leaf spring has seen a modern development in cars; the new Volvo XC90 has a transverse leaf spring in high tech composite materials, a solution, similar to the latest Chevrolet Corvette. This means a straight leaf spring, secured to the chassis, the ends of the spring bolted to the wheel suspension, to allow the spring to work independently on each wheel; this means the suspension is smaller and lighter than a traditional setup. There are a variety of leaf springs employing the word "elliptical". "Elliptical" or "full elliptical" leaf springs referred to two circular arcs linked at their tips. This was joined to the frame at the top center of the upper arc, the bottom center was joined to the "live" suspension components, such as a solid front axle.
Additional suspension components, such as trailing arms, would be needed for this design, but not for "semi-elliptical" leaf springs as used in the Hotchkiss drive. That employed the lower arc, hence its name. "Quarter-elliptic" springs had the thickest part of the stack of leaves stuck into the rear end of the side pieces of a short ladder frame, with the free end attached to the differential, as in the Austin Seven of the 1920s. As an example of non-elliptic leaf springs, the Ford Model T had multiple leaf springs over its differential that were curved in the shape of a yoke; as a substitute for dampers, some manufacturers laid non-metallic sheets in between the metal leaves, such as wood. Leaf springs were common on automobiles, right up to the 1970s in Europe and Japan and late 1970s in America when the move to front-wheel drive, more sophisticated suspension designs saw automobile manufacturers use coil springs instead. Today leaf springs are still used in heavy commercial vehicles such as vans and trucks, SUVs, railway carriages.
For heavy vehicles, they have the advantage of spreading the load more over the vehicle's chassis, whereas coil springs transfer it to a single point. Unlike coil springs, leaf springs locate the rear axle, eliminating the need for trailing arms and a Panhard rod, thereby saving cost and weight in a simple live axle rear suspension. A further advantage of a leaf spring over a helical spring is that the end of the leaf spring may be guided along a definite path. A more modern implementation is the parabolic leaf spring; this design is characterized by fewer leaves whose thickness varies from centre to ends following a parabolic curve. In this design, inter-leaf friction is unwanted, therefore there is only contact between the springs at the ends and at the centre where the axle is connected. Spacers prevent contact at other points. Aside from a weight saving, the main advantage of parabolic springs is their greater flexibility, which translates into vehicle ride quality that approaches that of coil springs.
There is a trade-off in the form of reduced load carrying capability, however. The characteristic of parabolic springs is better riding comfort and not as "stiff" as conventional "multi-leaf springs", it is used on buses for better comfort. A further development by the British GKN company and by Chevrolet with the Corvette among others, is the move to composite plastic leaf springs. Due to missing inter-leaf friction and internal dampening effects, this type of spring requires more powerful dampers or shock absorbers; when used in automobile suspension the leaf both supports an axle and locates/ locates the axle. This can lead to handling issues, as the flexible nature of the spring makes precise control of the unsprung mass of the axle difficult; some suspension designs use a Watts link and radius arms to locate the axle and do not have this drawback. Such designs can use softer springs; the various Austin-Healey 3000's and Fiat 128's rear suspension are examples. The leaf spring acts as a linkage for holding the axle in position and thus separate linkages are not necessary.
It makes the construction of the suspension strong. Because the positioning of the axle is carried out by the leaf springs, it is disadvantageous to use soft springs i.e. springs with low spring constant. Therefore, this type of suspension does not provide good riding comfort; the inter-leaf friction be
Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful work. Power is defined formally as units of energy per unit time. In SI units: watt = joule second = newton × meter second Since the development of technology and storage systems have been of immense interest to technologists and technology users. With the widespread establishment of electrical grids, power transmission is associated most with electric power transmission. Alternating current is preferred as its voltage may be stepped up by a transformer in order to minimize resistive loss in the conductors used to transmit power over great distances. Power transmission is performed with overhead lines as this is the most economical way to do so. Underground transmission by high-voltage cables is chosen in crowded urban areas and in high-voltage direct-current submarine connections. Power might be transmitted by changing electromagnetic fields or by radio waves. Electrical power transmission has replaced mechanical power transmission in all but the shortest distances.
From the 16th century through the industrial revolution to the end of the 19th century mechanical power transmission was the norm. The oldest long-distance power transmission technology involved systems of push-rods or jerker lines connecting waterwheels to distant mine-drainage and brine-well pumps. A surviving example from 1780 exists at Bad Kösen that transmits power 200 meters from a waterwheel to a salt well, from there, an additional 150 meters to a brine evaporator; this technology survived into the 21st century in a handful of oilfields in the US, transmitting power from a central pumping engine to the numerous pump-jacks in the oil field. Mechanical power may be transmitted directly using a solid structure such as a driveshaft. Factories were fitted with overhead line shafts providing rotary power. Short line-shaft systems were described by Agricola, connecting a waterwheel to numerous ore-processing machines. While the machines described by Agricola used geared connections from the shafts to the machinery, by the 19th century, drivebelts would become the norm for linking individual machines to the line shafts.
One mid 19th century factory had 1,948 feet of line shafting with 541 pulleys. Hydraulic systems use liquid under pressure to transmit power. Pumping water or pushing mass uphill with is one possible means of energy storage. London had a hydraulic network powered by five pumping stations operated by the London Hydraulic Power Company, with a total effect of 5 MW. Pneumatic systems use. A pneumatic wrench is used to remove and install automotive tires far more than could be done with standard manual hand tools. A pneumatic system was proposed by proponents of Edison's direct current as the basis of the power grid. Compressed air generated at Niagara Falls would drive far away generators of DC power; the War of Currents ended with alternating current as the only means of long distance power transmission. Thermal power can be transported in pipelines containing a high heat capacity fluid such as oil or water as used in district heating systems, or by physically transporting material items, such as bottle cars, or in the ice trade.
Power may be transmitted by nuclear fuels. Possible artificial fuels include radioactive isotopes, wood alcohol, grain alcohol, synthetic gas, hydrogen gas, cryogenic gas, liquefied natural gas. Distributed generation List of energy storage projects