William C Speidel, known as Bill Speidel, was a columnist for The Seattle Times and a self-made historian who wrote the books Sons of the Profits and Doc Maynard, The Man Who Invented Seattle about the people who settled and built Seattle, Washington. Speidel is credited with being one of the leaders of the movement to preserve and restore Pioneer Square, one of Seattle's oldest neighborhoods. By the 1960s, this area was run down and in disrepair, in danger of being rebuilt. Through the efforts of many people, Pioneer Square is once again a bustling center of activity and tourism with dozens of original buildings that have been restored to their original luster. In 1964, Speidel received and printed a letter from a reader asking about the underground areas of Pioneer Square, he replied via the paper that he did not know much about it, but that he would research it and get back to her. Once he did the research, he printed a response telling her to meet him at 3 p.m. the next Saturday in Pioneer Square, he would take her on a tour of the underground and what he had found.
The reader did show up, along with 500 other people. Speidel took up a collection of $1 from each of the visitors and proceeded on the first tour of the Seattle Underground. Since Memorial Day weekend 1965, the Underground Tour has given several tours a day every day except holidays and is one of the city's best known tourist attractions; as a Seattle historian, Speidel was something of a revisionist and the narration of the Underground Tour reflects that. Doc Maynard, whom Speidel called "The Man Who Invented Seattle", was given short shrift in what Speidel characterized as the "Party Line" on the city's history, in part because the longer-lived Arthur Denny was so influential on the writing of that history. Jacob Furth, whom Speidel wrote "may have been the most important citizen Seattle had" was lauded at the time of his death in 1914, but became, in Speidel's words, "a neglected giant", with "scant mention in our history books" and "no streets, parks or public buildings to honor him." Speidel made claims for brothel-owner Lou Graham as a key figure in the growth of the city.
Speidel, William. You Can't Eat Mount Rainier!. Portland, Oregon: Binfords & Mort. LCCN 55041684. Speidel, William. You Still Can't Eat Mount Rainier!. Vashon Island, WA: Nettle Creek. Speidel, William. Seattle underground. Seattle, WA: Seattle Guide. ASIN B0007HLBEA. Speidel, William. Sons of the Profits. USA: Nettle Creek. ISBN 0-914890-06-9. Speidel, William; the Wet Side Of The Mountains. Seattle, WA: Nettle Creek. ISBN 0-914890-01-8. Speidel, William, it Was a Hell of a Blast!. Universal Services. ASIN B00072GEVU. Speidel, William. Doc Maynard, The Man Who Invented Seattle. USA: Nettle Creek. ISBN 0-914890-02-6. Speidel, William. Luck Location & Lunacy. Seattle, WA: Seattle City Light. ASIN B00073BZSG. Speidel, William. Through the Eye of the Needle. USA: Nettle Creek. ISBN 0-914890-04-2
Victor Steinbrueck was a Seattle architect and University of Washington faculty member. Steinbrueck is best known for his efforts to preserve the city's Pioneer Square and Pike Place Market. Steinbrueck was born in Mandan, North Dakota, came to Seattle in 1913. In 1930 he enrolled in the University of Washington Program in Architecture, graduating in 1935 with a Bachelor of Architecture. In this period he worked in the Civilian Conservation Corps. After apprenticing in a number of private Seattle firms and serving in the military during World War II, he joined the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Washington in 1946, he initiated his own practice and, over the next two decades, designed a series of regional-modernist residences, built with indigenous materials suited to the climate. Steinbrueck's focus on the character of Seattle's architecture and urban places dates from the early 1950s when he authored A Guide to Seattle Architecture, published for American Institute of Architects national convention held in Seattle in 1953.
Steinbrueck went on to publish several other books promoting awareness of the unique character of Seattle: Seattle Cityscape, Market Sketchbook, Seattle Cityscape #2. In the 1960s Steinbruck became active in historic preservation, with others fought developers' plans to obliterate Seattle's most significant historic district, he was instrumental in the creation of Seattle's first two historic districts, Pioneer Square and Pike Place Market. His own projects were guided by a strong sense of public spirit and social consciousness: low-income housing, the inclusion of social services, a number of city parks co-designed with landscape architect Richard Haag, including the one that now bears his name. Working as a consultant to John Graham & Company, Steinbrueck played a key role in the design work of the Space Needle contributing the hour glass shape of the support structure. In 1963, Steinbrueck was elected a Fellow in the American Institute of Architects. Steinbrueck, Victor, A Guide to Seattle Architecture, 1850-1953, Reinhold Publishing Co.
New York 1953. Steinbrueck, Seattle Cityscape, University of Washington Press, Seattle 1962 Steinbrueck, Market Sketchbook, University of Washington Press, Seattle 1968 Steinbrueck, Seattle Cityscape #2, University of Washington Press and London 1973 Steinbrueck and Nyberg, Folke, A Visual Inventory of Buildings and Urban Design Resources for Seattle, Historic Seattle Preservation and Development Authority, Seattle 1975-77. Available from Historic Seattle Victor Steinbrueck Park Veith, Thomas, "Victor Steinbrueck," in Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects, University of Washington Press and London, 1994, pages 276-281 Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, "Victor Steinbrueck Finds His Voice: From the Argus to Seattle Cityscape," Pacific Northwest Quarterly 99/3, pages 122-133. Steinbrueck, Victor Eugene at HistoryLink.org Victor Steinbrueck, Life & Ideas Photographs of Victor Steinbrueck's works from the Phyllis and Robert Massar Photograph Collection of Pacific Northwest Architecture - University of Washington Digital Collection
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
A historic district or heritage district is a section of a city which contains older buildings considered valuable for historical or architectural reasons. In some countries or jurisdictions, historic districts receive legal protection from certain types of development considered to be inappropriate. Historic districts may or may not be the center of the city, they may be coterminous with the commercial district, administrative district, or arts district, or separate from all of these. In Canada, such districts are called "heritage conservation districts" or "heritage conservation areas" and are governed by provincial legislation. Many jurisdictions within the United States have specific legislation identifying and giving protection to designated historic districts; the term "Historic District" is not used in the United Kingdom. The equivalent urban areas are known as Conservation Areas. Iranian Heritage and Tourism organization has nominated and selected several cities for their valuable historical monuments and districts.
Baft-e Tarikhi is the name. Naein and Yazd are examples of Iranian cities with historic districts. Old City Old Town Downtown Central Business District Historic overlay district Media related to Historic districts at Wikimedia Commons
Multistorey car park
A multistorey car park or parking garage is a building designed for car parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place. It is an indoor, stacked car park. Parking structures may be heated. Design of parking structures can add considerable cost for planning new developments, can be mandated by cities or states in new building parking requirements; some cities such as London have abolished enacted minimum parking requirements. The earliest known multi-storey car park was opened in May 1901 by City & Suburban Electric Carriage Company at 6 Denman Street, central London; the location had space for 100 vehicles over seven floors. The same company opened a second location in 1902 for 230 vehicles; the company specialized in the sale, valeting and on-demand delivery of electric vehicles that could travel about 40 miles and had a top speed of 20 miles per hour. The earliest known multi-storey car park in the United States was built in 1918 for the Hotel La Salle at 215 West Washington Street in the West Loop area of downtown Chicago, Illinois.
It was designed by Roche. The Hotel La Salle was demolished in 1976, but the parking structure remained because it had been designated as preliminary landmark status and the structure was several blocks from the hotel, it was demolished in 2005 after failing to receive landmark status from the city of Chicago. A 49-storey apartment tower, 215 West, has taken its place featuring a multistorey car park; the movement of vehicles between floors can take place by means of: interior ramps – the most common type exterior ramps – which may take the form of a circular ramp vehicle lifts – the least common automated robot systems – combination of ramp and elevatorWhere the car park is built on sloping land, it may be split-level or have sloped parking. Many car parks are independent buildings dedicated to that use; the design loads for car parks are less than the office building they serve, leading to long floor spans of 55–60 feet that permit cars to park in rows without supporting columns in between.
The most common structural systems in the United States for these structures are either prestressed concrete double-tee floor systems or post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete floor systems. In recent times, car parks built to serve residential and some business properties have been built as part of a larger building underground as part of the basement, such as at the Atlantic Station redevelopment in Atlanta; this saves land for other uses, is cheaper and more practical in most cases than a separate structure, is hidden from view. It protects customers and their cars from weather such as rain, snow, or hot summer sunshine that raises a vehicle's interior temperature to high levels. Underground parking of only two levels was considered an innovative concept in 1964, when developer Louis Lesser developed a two-level underground parking structure under six 10-storey high-rise residential halls at California State University, Los Angeles, which lacked space for horizontal expansion in the 176-acre university.
The simple two-level parking structure was considered unusual enough in 1964 that a separate newspaper section entitled "Parking Underground" described the car park as an innovative "concept" and as "subterranean spaces". In Toronto, a 2,400 space car park below Nathan Phillips Square is one of the world's largest. Car parks which serve shopping centres can be built adjacent to the centre for easier access at each floor between shops and parking. One example is Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota, USA, which has two large car parks attached to the building, at the eastern and western ends. A common position for car parks within shopping centres in the UK is on the roof, around the various utility systems, enabling customers to take lifts straight down into the centre. Examples of such are Festival Place in Basingstoke; these car parks have low ceiling clearances, which restrict access by full-size vans and other large vehicles. On 15 December 2013, a man was killed during a robbery in the multistorey car park at The Mall at Short Hills in Millburn, New Jersey.
The paramedics responding to the shooting were delayed because their ambulance was too large to enter the structure. In the United States, costs for multi-storey parking structures are estimated to cost between $25,000 per space, with underground parking costing around $35,000 per space. Parking structures are subjected to the heavy and shifting loads of moving vehicles, must bear the associated physical stresses. Expansion joints are used between sections not only for thermal expansion but to accommodate the flexing of the structure's sections due to vehicle traffic. Seismic retrofits can be applied; some parking structures have collapsed, either during construction or years later. In July 2009 a fourth-floor section failed at the Centergy building in midtown Atlanta, pancaking down and destroying more than 30 vehicles but injuring no-one. In December 2007, a car crashed into the wall of the deck at the SouthPark Mall in Charlotte, North Carolina, weakening it and causing a small collapse which destroyed two cars below.
On the same day, one under construction in Jacksonville, Florida collapsed as concrete was being poured on the sixth floor. In November 2008, the sudden collapse of the middle level of a deck in Montreal was preceded by warning signs some weeks before, including cracks and w
Occidental Park (Seattle)
Occidental Park referred to as Occidental Square and Occidental Mall, is a 0.6 acre public park located in the Pioneer Square district of Seattle, Washington. Created in 1971, it consists of the Occidental Avenue S. right-of-way between S. Washington and S. Jackson Streets, plus half a city block between S. Main and S. Jackson Streets; the Seattle Waterfront Streetcar bisects it, running along S. Main Street; the park is in the heart of Seattle's largest art gallery district, several galleries face onto Occidental Mall. The Downtown Seattle Association began "activating" the park with summertime seating and activities in 2015 under a public–private partnership bringing events to be hosted in the park. Occidental Park is the starting point for the "March to the Match", a parade of Seattle Sounders FC supporters to Century Link Field prior to each home game. Occidental Hotel Media related to Occidental Park at Wikimedia Commons Occidental Park
The Flatiron Building the Fuller Building, is a triangular 22-story, 285-foot tall steel-framed landmarked building located at 175 Fifth Avenue in the Flatiron District neighborhood of borough of Manhattan, New York City. Upon completion in 1902, it was one of the tallest buildings in the city at 20 floors high and one of only two "skyscrapers" north of 14th Street – the other being the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, one block east; the building sits on a triangular block formed by Fifth Avenue and East 22nd Street – where the building's 87-foot back end is located – with East 23rd Street grazing the triangle's northern peak. As with numerous other wedge-shaped buildings, the name "Flatiron" derives from its resemblance to a cast-iron clothes iron; the building, called "one of the world's most iconic skyscrapers and a quintessential symbol of New York City", anchors the south end of Madison Square and the north end of the Ladies' Mile Historic District. The neighborhood around it is called the Flatiron District after its signature building, which has become an icon of New York City.
The Flatiron Building was designated a New York City landmark in 1966, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1989. The site on which the Flatiron Building would stand was bought in 1857 by Amos Eno, who shortly built the Fifth Avenue Hotel on a site diagonally across from it. Eno tore down the four-story St. Germaine Hotel on the south end of the lot, replaced it with a seven-story apartment building, the Cumberland. On the remainder of the lot he built four three-story buildings for commercial use; this left four stories of the Cumberland's northern face exposed, which Eno rented out to advertisers, including The New York Times, who installed a sign made up of electric lights. Eno put a canvas screen on the wall, projected images onto it from a magic lantern on top of one of his smaller buildings, presenting advertisements and interesting pictures alternately. Both the Times and the New York Tribune began using the screen for news bulletins, on election nights tens of thousands of people would gather in Madison Square, waiting for the latest results.
During his life Eno resisted suggestions to sell "Eno's flatiron", as the site had become known, but after his death in 1899 his assets were liquidated, the lot went up for sale. The New York State Assembly appropriated $3 million for the city to buy it, but this fell through when a newspaper reporter discovered that the plan was a graft scheme by Tammany Hall boss Richard Croker. Instead, the lot was bought at auction by William Eno, one of Amos's sons, for $690,000 – the elder Eno had bought the property for around $30,000 forty years earlier. Three weeks William re-sold the lot to Samuel and Mott Newhouse for $801,000; the Newhouses intended to put up a 12-story building with street-level retail shops and bachelor apartments above, but two years they sold the lot for about $2 million to Cumberland Realty Company, an investment partnership created by Harry S. Black, CEO of the Fuller Company; the Fuller Company was the first true general contractor that dealt with all aspects of building construction except design, they specialized in building skyscrapers.
Black intended to construct a new headquarters building on the site, despite the recent deterioration of the surrounding neighborhood, he engaged Chicago architect Daniel Burnham to design it. The building, which would be Burnham's first in New York City, would be the first skyscraper north of 14th Street, it was to be named the Fuller Building after George A. Fuller, founder of the Fuller Company and "father of the skyscraper", who had died two years earlier, but locals persisted in calling it "The Flatiron", a name which has since been made official; the Flatiron Building was designed by Chicago's Daniel Burnham as a vertical Renaissance palazzo with Beaux-Arts styling. Unlike New York's early skyscrapers, which took the form of towers arising from a lower, blockier mass, such as the contemporary Singer Building, the Flatiron Building epitomizes the Chicago school conception: like a classical Greek column, its facade – limestone at the bottom changing to glazed terra-cotta from the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company in Tottenville, Staten Island as the floors rise – is divided into a base and capital.
Early sketches by Daniel Burnham show a design with an clockface and a far more elaborate crown than in the actual building. Though Burnham maintained overall control of the design process, he was not directly connected with the details of the structure as built. Working drawings for the Flatiron Building, remain to be located, though renderings were published at the time of construction in American Architect and Architectural Record. Building the Flatiron was made feasible by a change to New York City's building codes in 1892, which eliminated the requirement that masonry be used for fireproofing considerations; this opened the way for steel-skeleton construction. Since it employed a steel skeleton – it could be built to 22 stories easily, which would have been difficult using other construction methods of that time, it was a technique familiar to the Fuller Company, a contracting firm with considerable expertise in building such tall structures. At the vertex, the triangular tower is only 6.5 feet wide.