Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, prohibit the use of anything, dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire. Footballers wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. A team of players wore numbers from 1 to 11, corresponding to their playing positions, but at the professional level this has been superseded by squad numbering, whereby each player in a squad is allocated a fixed number for the duration of a season. Professional clubs usually display players' surnames or nicknames on their shirts, above their squad numbers. Football kit has evolved since the early days of the sport when players wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots.
In the twentieth century, boots became lighter and softer, shorts were worn at a shorter length, advances in clothing manufacture and printing allowed shirts to be made in lighter synthetic fibres with colourful and complex designs. With the rise of advertising in the 20th century, sponsors' logos began to appear on shirts, replica strips were made available for fans to purchase, generating significant amounts of revenue for clubs; the Laws of the Game set out the basic equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4: The Players' Equipment. Five separate items are specified: shirt, socks and shin pads. Goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify. Shirts must have sleeves, goalkeepers must wear shirts which are distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts must be the same colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, "provide a reasonable degree of protection".
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player "must not use equipment or wear anything, dangerous to himself or another player". It is normal for individual competitions to specify that all outfield players on a team must wear the same colours, though the Law states only "The two teams must wear colours that distinguish them from each other and the referee and the assistant referees". In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour; because of this requirement a team's second-choice is referred to as its "away kit" or "away colours", although it is not unknown at international level, for teams to opt to wear their away colours when not required to by a clash of colours, or to wear them at home. The England national team sometimes plays in red shirts when it is not required, as this was the strip worn when the team won the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In some cases both teams have been forced to wear their second choice away kits.
Many professional clubs have a "third kit", ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the same basic colour scheme for several decades, the colours themselves form an integral part of a club's culture. Teams representing countries in international competition wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation; these are based on the colours of the country's national flag, although there are exceptions—the Italian national team, for example, wear blue as it was the colour of the House of Savoy, the Australian team like most Australian sporting teams wear the Australian National Colours of green and gold, neither of which appear on the flag, the Dutch national team wear orange, the colour of the Dutch Royal House. Shirts are made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Most professional clubs have sponsors' logos on the front of their shirts, which can generate significant levels of income, some offer sponsors the chance to place their logos on the back of their shirts.
Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed. Competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. A player's number is printed on the back of the shirt, although international teams also place numbers on the front, professional teams print a player's surname above their number; the captain of each team is required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify them as the captain to the referee and supporters. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be made either of
Grant Holt is an English professional wrestler and former professional footballer, an academy coach at Championship club Norwich City. During his football career, Holt played for a number of non-league and professional clubs, making nearly 100 league appearances for Nottingham Forest before signing for Shrewsbury Town in 2008 where he became top goalscorer. A year he signed for Norwich where he won the Norwich City Player of the Year award in three consecutive seasons, helping Norwich to back-to-back promotions, became the sixth highest goalscorer in their history. Holt began his career as a youth player at his hometown club Carlisle United, but joined Workington after being released aged 18. While playing for Workington, Holt worked for a year as a tyre-fitter. Following success at Workington he signed for Halifax Town in the Third Division, he scored one goal for Halifax in the Football League Cup against Tranmere Rovers, went on loan to Australian club Sorrento for one month in 2001 and to Barrow.
He left in 2001 to play for the summer in Singapore with Sengkang Marine, under the understanding that he would be signed by Carlisle United on his return. However, Carlisle were unable to complete the transfer. Holt moved back to Barrow. Holt spent two seasons at Barrow in the Northern Premier League, he had trials with full-time teams but did not get signed until 2003, when Sheffield Wednesday signed him in March 2003. He only managed four goals. Holt dropped down to League Two, signing for Rochdale, for whom he made 83 appearances and scored 42 goals. Holt views his time as Rochdale as his major break-through and it made him a target for many higher league clubs, it was Nottingham Forest who paid £300,000 to secure his services in January 2006. Holt made a slow start to his time with Forest, scoring four times in as many months at the end of the 2005–06 campaign. In November 2006, he turned down a move to Bristol City due to personal reasons, after the two clubs had agreed a fee. However, despite being on the bench for half of Forest's matches in the 2006–07 season, he managed to score 18 goals in all competitions to become the club's top scorer.
Forest fans recognised Holt's performances by handing him the'Player of the Season' award. In the summer of 2007, Holt and Forest boss Colin Calderwood reached an "uneasy truce" after the striker had a transfer request rebuffed, when Forest refused to give him an improved contract. Holt made it clear that he would be "happy to stay" with Forest for the 2007–08 campaign, while Calderwood admitted "he's not a player we want to see leave". However, Holt failed to impress by only scoring three times all season, although he played out of position as a winger for the majority of the season. In March 2008, Holt signed on loan with Championship club, making his debut as a late substitute against Stoke City at the Britannia Stadium on 22 March, he made four substitute appearances before returning to Forest in the summer of 2008, saying he would like to stay and fight for his place in Forest's team next season, despite interest being shown from his home town club Carlisle United. On 24 June 2008, Shrewsbury Town broke their club transfer record by signing Holt for £170,000.
Holt opened his scoring account for the Shrews on his debut, scoring from the penalty spot against Macclesfield Town, in a game the Shrews won 4–0. On 7 October 2008, in a Football League Trophy second round match against Wycombe Wanderers, Holt scored five goals in the Shrews' 7–0 win. In the March 2009 edition of FourFourTwo, it was stated that Holt was the player to cover the greatest distance per game in both Leagues One and Two, averaging 4.8 kilometres per game. At the end of the season, Holt finished as joint-top scorer with Jack Lester for League Two, with 20 League goals, as well as, winning League Two Player of the Year, Shrewsbury Town Player of the Year and named in the League Two PFA Team of the Year for the 2008–09 season. On 24 July 2009, Holt transferred to Norwich City after Shrewsbury Town accepted an undisclosed bid, thought to be £400,000. Holt signed a three-year contract with the option of a further year at Carrow Road. Holt made his debut in the heavy 7–1 opening day defeat to Colchester United at Carrow Road, scored his first Norwich goals with a hat-trick against Yeovil Town in a first round League Cup tie on 11 August 2009.
His first league goals came with a brace against Wycombe Wanderers on 22 August 2009. Starting with that game, new manager Paul Lambert made, he won the League One Player of the Month award for October 2009, for "excellent performances throughout October", a month in which he scored "an impressive five goals in as many league fixtures". He reached the landmark of 20 goals for the season in the home game against Millwall on 26 December 2009. Holt received his first red card for Norwich City against Brentford on 23 January 2010, he finished the season winning the Norwich City Player of the Year award, having scored 30 goals in 44 appearances in total, as the club finished as champions of League One and earned promotion to The Championship. Holt scored his first goals of the 2010–11 season in the League Cup first round against Gillingham, netting a brace, his first league goal of the season came during stoppage time in a 1–0 away win over Scunthorpe United on 14 August 2010. He scored his first league hat-trick against local rivals Ipswich Town on 28 November 2010.
During his time at Norwich he passed the landmark of 150 career goals with a penalty in the first minute in the 3–1 win over Bristol City. He reached the landmark of 50 goals for Norwich City on 2 April 2011 when he scored a hat trick in a 6–0 win again
Woodlands Wellington FC
Woodlands Wellington Football Club is a former professional football club which last played in the S. League, the top division of football in Singapore, they are based in Woodlands at the 4,300 seater Woodlands Stadium, where they have played since their establishment. Woodlands Wellington FC are known for being the only non-Premier League team to be inducted into the S. League in its inaugural year in 1996. Woodlands Wellington FC's honours include winning the inaugural Singapore League Cup in 2007, defeating Sengkang Punggol FC 4–0 in the final, they finished runners-up in the Singapore FA Cup in 1997, in the Singapore Cup in 2005 and 2008 and won the President's Centennial Cup in 1998, a cup competition organized by the Philippine Football Federation to celebrate the centennial of Philippine Independence by defeating Hong Kong Rangers FC 2–1 in the final in Bacolod. Their best finish in the S-League came in the 1996 Tiger Beer Series, they have achieved 3rd place in 1997 and 2005. Woodlands Wellington FC planned to merge with Hougang United but the merge never happened.
Woodlands Wellington FC plays in Island Wide League and they plan to re-join S-League in the future. Woodlands Wellington was founded as Wellington Football Club in 1988 as a splinter group of Delhi Juniors. Despite their name, the team did not originate from New Zealand. Instead, the name stems from the Deptford Ground located on Wellington Road in Sembawang where the team started playing football in 1988. In 1991, they participated in the Sembawang Group League and National Island-Wide League, winning as champions in both competitions and setting a national record by beating Seletar Football Club by a 27-goal margin; this was one of the biggest wins the club had achieved, as they beat their opponents 28 – 1 at the Woodlands Stadium on 17 November 1991. Amalar Louis scored a record 12 goals in that match; the following year, Wellington FC joined the Singapore National Football League in Division 2, from which they were promoted as champions in 1994. The following season they were runners-up in the FA Cup.
Wellington Football Club were selected as one of eight clubs to compete in the newly formed S. League in its inaugural season in 1996, prompting the club to adopt Woodlands Stadium as their home ground and to change their name to Woodlands Wellington Football Club. Following their admission to the S. League, Wellington FC's founder, R. Vengadasalam, was appointed as the Team Manager of Woodlands Wellington and Bandai were announced as a sponsor in their maiden season in the S. League. Following this, they signed Jan Janostak, Joe Caleta and Ervin Boban, from the M-League, as well as Singapore national players Borhan Abu Samah, Tamil Marren, Zakaria Awang and Croatian goalkeeper Sandro Radun, who played for the Singapore FA in 1992. Woodlands Wellington played including their pre-season friendlies. Woodlands won the President's Centennial Cup in 1998, a cup competition organized by the Philippine Football Federation to celebrate the centennial of Philippine Independence, beating Sembawang Rangers 4–2 in the semi-final and Hong Kong Rangers FC 2–1 at the Negros Occidental Sports Complex in the final in Bacolod with both goals from Razali Ahmad.
While they enjoyed a successful period throughout the late nineties, Woodlands finished last in the 2001 S. League season, prompting them to sign Singapore internationals Zulkarnaen Zainal, Goh Tat Chuan and A. Siva Kumar; the transfers of Goh and Siva Kumar were controversial as Woodlands and Jurong were well-known rivals in the league. Woodlands Wellington made the headlines in the 2007 S. League season for a walkout by the entire Woodlands squad in a match against Tampines Rovers as a protest to the decisions made against them by referee P. Pandian. Woodlands had six points docked. Tampines coach Vorawan Chitavanich was reported as saying "I spoke to their coach just a little while ago and he said that they acted on the instructions of their club chairman." A report by The New Paper on 22 November 2012 suggested that Woodlands may be in financial trouble and could be the second club to sit out the 2013 S. League after Gombak United has announced earlier that it would not be taking part in the league in 2013.
This sparked off a supporter-driven "Save Woodlands" awareness campaign on the same day. The club held an open meeting with the supporters and press at Woodlands Stadium that evening and quashed the report. Team manager, Matthew Tay said that the club was preparing a pre-season tour of Malaysia, that the club would be signing players and would be aiming for a minimum 8th spot in the table this season. In November 2014, it was announced that Woodlands Wellington and Hougang United will merge for the 2015 season and a new club name will be used. However, the merge never occurred and the club now plays in 2016 Island Wide League; the club plans to re-join S-League in the future. Woodlands Stadium is the home ground of Woodlands Wellington, used for football matches. Apart from being used for competitive matches, the pitch is utilised by the club for their training sessions as well; the stadium was opened in August 1989 as part of the eight hectare Woodlands Sports Complex, which consists of the Woodlands Sports Hall and the Woodlands Swimming Complex.
All three facilities are operated by the Singapore Sports Council. Woodlands Stadium houses a natural grass football pitch, an eight-lane running track and partial athletic facilities. Besides the sporting facilities mention
Norwich City F.C.
Norwich City Football Club is a professional football club based in Norwich, England. The club participates in the Championship, the second tier of English football, having been relegated from the Premier League in 2016, they were first promoted to the top flight in 1972. Norwich have won the League Cup twice, in 1962 and 1985; the club has never won the top flight, but finished third in 1993. The club was founded in 1902. Since 1935, Norwich have played their home games at Carrow Road and have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with East Anglian rivals Ipswich Town, with whom they have contested the East Anglian derby 134 times since 1902; the fans' song "On the Ball, City" is the oldest football chant in the world, written in the 1890s and still sung today. The club participates in characteristic yellow and green kits and are nicknamed The Canaries after the history of breeding the birds in the area. Norwich City F. C. was formed following a meeting at the Criterion Cafe in Norwich on 17 June 1902 and played their first competitive match against Harwich & Parkeston, at Newmarket Road on 6 September 1902.
They joined the Norfolk & Suffolk League for the 1902–03 season, but following a FA Commission, the club was ousted from the amateur game in 1905, deemed a professional organisation. That year Norwich were elected to play in the Southern League and with increasing crowds, they were forced to leave Newmarket Road in 1908, moving to The Nest, a disused chalk pit; the club's original nickname was the Citizens, although this was superseded by 1907 by the more familiar Canaries after the club's chairman dubbed his boys'The Canaries' and changing their strip to yellow and green. During the First World War, with football suspended and facing spiralling debts, City went into voluntary liquidation on 10 December 1917; the club was reformed on 15 February 1919 – a key figure in the events was Charles Frederick Watling, future Lord Mayor of Norwich and the father of future club chairman, Geoffrey Watling. When, in May 1920, the Football League formed a third Division, Norwich joined the Third Division for the following season.
Their first league fixture, against Plymouth Argyle, on 28 August 1920, ended in a 1–1 draw. The club went on to endure a mediocre decade, finishing no higher than eighth but no lower than 18th; the following decade proved more successful for the club with a club-record victory, 10–2, over Coventry City and promotion as champions to the Second Division in the 1933–34 season under the management of Tom Parker. With crowds continuing to rise, with the Football Association raising concerns over the suitability of The Nest, the club considered renovation of the ground, but decided on a move to Carrow Road; the inaugural match, held on 31 August 1935, against West Ham United, ended in a 4–3 victory to the home team and set a new record attendance of 29,779. The biggest highlight of the following four seasons was the visit of King George VI to Carrow Road on 29 October 1938; the club was relegated to the Third Division at the end of the season. The league was suspended the following season as a result of the outbreak of the Second World War and did not resume until the 1946–47 season.
City finished this and the following season in 21st place, the poor results forcing the club to apply for re-election to the league. The club narrowly missed out on promotion under the guidance of manager Norman Low in the early 1950s, but following the return of Tom Parker as manager, Norwich finished bottom of the football league in the 1956–57 season; the 1958–59 season saw Norwich reach the semi-final of the FA Cup as a Third Division side, defeating two First Division sides on the way: Tottenham Hotspur and Matt Busby's Manchester United. In the 1959–60 season, Norwich were promoted to the Second Division after finishing second to Southampton, achieved a fourth-place finish in the 1960–61 season. In 1962 Ron Ashman guided Norwich to their first trophy, defeating Rochdale 4–0 on aggregate in a two-legged final to win the League Cup. Sixth place in the league was the closest the club came to promotion to the First Division again during the 1960s, but after winning the division in the 1971–72 season under manager Ron Saunders, Norwich City reached the highest level of English football for the first time.
They made their first appearance at Wembley Stadium in 1973, losing the League Cup final 1–0 to Tottenham Hotspur. Relegation to the Second Division in 1974 came after Saunders had departed and been succeeded by John Bond, but the board of directors kept faith in Bond and were rewarded. A successful first season saw promotion back to the First Division and another visit to Wembley, again in the League Cup final, this time losing 1–0 to Aston Villa. Bond departed to Manchester City in autumn 1980 and the club were relegated six months but bounced back the following season after finishing third under Bond's successor Ken Brown. Norwich had been the beneficiaries of one of English football's first million-pound transfers when they sold striker Justin Fashanu to Nottingham Forest in August 1981; the 1984–85 season was of mixed fortunes for the club. In the final, they beat Sunderland 1–0, but in the league both Norwich and Sunderland were relegated to the second tier of English football; this made Norwich the first English club to win a major trophy and suffer relegation in the same season.
Queens Park Rangers F.C.
Queens Park Rangers Football Club abbreviated to QPR, is a professional association football club based in White City, London. The team plays in the Championship, the second tier of English football, they were founded in 1886 after the merger of St Judes Institute. In the early years after the club's formation in its original home of Queen's Park, they played their home games at many different grounds, until the club settled into its current location at Loftus Road; the club's achievements include winning the League Cup in 1967, they were FA Cup finalists in 1982. Their highest league finish was achieved in 1975–76 when they were runners-up in the old First Division, now known as the Premier League. QPR have long-standing rivalries with several other clubs in the West London area; the most notable of these are Chelsea and Brentford, with whom they contest the West London Derbies. The club was formed in 1886; the resulting team was called Queen's Park Rangers, because most of the players came from the Queen's Park area of north-west London.
QPR became a professional team in 1889, played their home games in nearly 20 different stadia, before permanently settling at Loftus Road in 1917, although the team would attempt to attract larger crowds by playing at the White City Stadium for two short spells: 1931 to 1933, the 1962–63 season. QPR were promoted as champions of Division 3 South in the 1947–48 season. Dave Mangnall was the manager as the club participated in four seasons of the Second Division, being relegated in 1951–52. Tony Ingham was signed from Leeds United and went on to make the most league appearances for QPR. Arguably the club's greatest manager, Alec Stock, arrived prior to the start of the 1959–60 season; the 1960–61 season saw QPR achieve their biggest win to date: 9–2 vs Tranmere Rovers in a Division 3 match. In time, together with Jim Gregory who arrived as chairman in the mid-1960s, helped to achieve a total transformation of the club and its surroundings. In 1966–67, QPR won the Division Three championship and became the first Third Division club to win the League Cup on Saturday, 4 March 1967, beating West Bromwich Albion 3–2, coming back from a two-goal deficit.
It is still the only major trophy. It was the first League Cup final to be held at Wembley Stadium. After winning promotion in 1968 to the top flight for the first time in their history, Rangers were relegated after just one season and spent the next four years in Division Two. Terry Venables joined from Spurs at the beginning of the 1969–70 season and Rodney Marsh was sold to Manchester City. During this time, new QPR heroes emerged including Phil Parkes, Don Givens, Dave Thomas and Stan Bowles; these new signings were in addition to home-grown talent such as Dave Clement, Ian Gillard, Mick Leach and Gerry Francis. In 1974 Dave Sexton joined as manager and, in 1975–76 led QPR to the runners-up spot in the First Division, missing out on the championship by one point with a squad containing seven England internationals and internationals from the home nations. After completing their 42-game season, QPR sat at the top of the league, one point ahead of Liverpool who went on to defeat Wolverhampton Wanderers to clinch the title.
Wolves were relegated to the Second Division that same season. The late 1970s saw some cup success with Rangers reaching the semi-finals of the League Cup and in their first entry into European football reached the quarter finals of the UEFA Cup losing to AEK Athens on penalties. Following Sexton's departure in 1977 the club slipped into the Second Division in 1979. In 1980 Terry Venables took over as manager and in 1981 the club installed a'plastic pitch'. In 1982 QPR, still playing in the Second Division, reached the FA Cup Final for the only time in the club's history, facing holders Tottenham Hotspur. Tottenham won 1–0 in a replay; the following season QPR went on to win the Second Division championship and returned to English football's top division. After a respectable fifth-place finish, UEFA Cup qualification, the following year, Venables departed to become manager of Barcelona. In 1988 the club had 24-year-old Richard Thompson. Over the next seven years, various managers came and went from Loftus Road and the club spent many seasons finishing mid table but avoided relegation.
The most successful season during this period was the 1987–88 season in which QPR finished fifth, missing out on a UEFA Cup campaign due to the ban on English clubs in European competition as a result of the Heysel Stadium disaster. They were runners up in the 1986 League Cup, losing to Oxford United. Gerry Francis, a key player in the 1970s QPR side who had proved himself as a successful manager with Bristol Rovers, was appointed manager in the summer of 1991. In the 1991–92 First Division campaign they finished mid-table in the league and were founder members of the new Premier League, finishing fifth, as top London club, in the 1992–93 inaugural season. Francis oversaw one of QPR's most famous victories, the 4–1 win at Old Trafford in front of live TV on New Year's Day 1992. Midway through the 1994–95 season Francis resigned and quickly became manager of Tottenham Hotspur and Ray Wilkins was installed as player-manager. Wilkins led QPR to an eighth-place finish in the Premiership. In July 1995 the club's top goalscorer, Les Ferdinand, was sold for a club record fee of £6 million to Newcastle United.
QPR were relegated at the end of the 1995 -- 96 season. QPR competed in Division 1 until 2001 under a succession of managers. Gerry Francis returned in 1998.
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change – second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English, road uniforms in American English; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms.
In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. "Color vs. color" games are a rarity, having been discouraged in the era of black-and-white television. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League, while in baseball, visitors wear grey. In the National Basketball Association and NCAA basketball, home uniforms are white or yellow, visiting teams wear the darker colour. Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s. A "white vs. color" game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, "until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, it was the norm." Long after the advent of colour television, the use of white jerseys has remained in every game. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the 1955 season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. In 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings and Los Angeles Rams wore white for their home games according to Tim Brulia's research; the St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys; until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm, who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games.
The Cowboys still wear white at home today. White has been worn at home by the Miami Dolphins, Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles, several other NFL teams. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight – as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history. During the successful Joe Gibbs era, the Washington Redskins chose to wear white at home in the 1980s and 1990s, including the 1982 NFC Championship Game against Dallas. Since 2001 the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from 2004 to 2007, they wore white at home exclusively. In 2007, they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be "jinxed" because of defeats at Super Bowl V in 1971, in the 1968 divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Dallas's only victory in a conference championship or Super Bowl wearing the blue jerseys was in the 1978 NFC Championship game at the Los Angeles Rams. Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Denver Broncos, the New England Patriots; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0–4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls. Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the 1980 NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the 1980s, the Carolina Panthers did so from 1995 until 2006, including two playoff games; the Hous
Newcastle United F.C.
Newcastle United Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, that plays in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. Newcastle United was founded in 1892 by the merger of Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End, has played at its current home ground, St James' Park since; the ground was developed into an all-seater stadium in the mid-1990s and has a capacity of 52,354. The club has been a member of the Premier League for all but three years of the competition's history, spending 85 seasons in the top tier as of May 2016, has never dropped below English football's second tier since joining the Football League in 1893, they have won four League Championship titles, six FA Cups and a Charity Shield, as well as the 1969 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup and the 2006 UEFA Intertoto Cup. Newcastle United has the ninth highest total of trophies won by an English club; the club's most successful period was between 1904 and 1910, when they won an FA Cup and three of their First Division titles.
The club were successful in the Premier League in the 1990s and early 2000s without winning any trophies, but have been struggling since the 2006–07 season, were relegated in 2009 and 2016. They returned to the Premier League for the 2017–18 season after winning the Championship title the preceding year. Newcastle has a fierce local rivalry with Sunderland, the two clubs have engaged in the Tyne–Wear derby since 1898; the club's traditional kit colours are black shorts and black socks. Their traditional crest takes elements of the city coat of arms. Prior to each home game the team enters the field to "Local Hero", written by Newcastle native Mark Knopfler, while "Blaydon Races" is invariably sung during games; the club has been owned by Mike Ashley since 2007, succeeding long term chairman and owner Sir John Hall. The club is the 17th-highest revenue producing club in the world in terms of annual revenue, generating €169.3 million in 2015. Newcastle's highest placing was in 1999, when they were the fifth-highest revenue producing football club in the world, second in England only behind Manchester United.
The first record of football being played on Tyneside dates from 3 March 1877 at Elswick Rugby Club. That year, Newcastle's first football club, Tyne Association, was formed; the origins of Newcastle United Football Club itself can be traced back to the formation of a football club by the Stanley Cricket Club of Byker in November 1881. This team was renamed Newcastle East End F. C. in October 1882, to avoid confusion with the cricket club in Stanley, County Durham. Rosewood F. C. of Byker merged with Newcastle East End a short time later. In 1886, Newcastle East End moved from Byker to Heaton. In August 1882, Newcastle West End F. C. formed from West End Cricket Club, in May 1886, the club moved into St James' Park. The two clubs became rivals in the Northern League. In 1889, Newcastle East End became a professional team, before becoming a limited company the following March. However, on the other hand, Newcastle West End were in serious financial trouble and approached East End with a view to a take over.
Newcastle West End were dissolved, a number of their players and backroom staff joined Newcastle East End merging the two clubs, with Newcastle East End taking over the lease on St James' Park in May 1892. With only one senior club in the city for fans to support, development of the club was much more rapid. Despite being refused entry to the Football League's First Division at the start of the 1892–93 season, they were invited to play in their new Second Division. However, with no big names playing in the Second Division, they turned down the offer and remained in the Northern League, stating "gates would not meet the heavy expenses incurred for travelling". In a bid to start drawing larger crowds, Newcastle East End decided to adopt a new name in recognition of the merger. Suggested names included Newcastle F. C. Newcastle Rangers, Newcastle City and City of Newcastle, but Newcastle United was decided upon on 9 December 1892, to signify the unification of the two teams; the name change was accepted by the Football Association on 22 December, but the club was not constituted as Newcastle United Football Club Co. Ltd. until 6 September 1895.
At the start of the 1893–94 season, Newcastle United were once again refused entry to the First Division and so joined the Second Division, along with Liverpool and Woolwich Arsenal. They played their first competitive match in the division that September against Woolwich Arsenal, with a score of 2–2. Turnstile numbers were still low, the incensed club published a statement stating, "The Newcastle public do not deserve to be catered for as far as professional football is concerned"; however figures picked up by 1895–96, when 14,000 fans watched the team play Bury. That season Frank Watt became secretary of the club, he was instrumental in promotion to the First Division for the 1898–99 season. However, they lost their first game 4–2 at home to Wolverhampton Wanderers and finished their first season in thirteenth place. In 1903–04, the club built up a promising squad of players, went on to dominate English football for a decade, the team known for their "artistic play, combining team-work and quick, short passing".
Long after his retirement, Peter McWilliam, the team's defender at the time, said, "The Newcastle team of the 1900s would give any modern side a two goal start and beat them, further more, beat them at a trot." Newcastle United went on to win the League on three occasions during the 1900s. In 1904 -- 05, they nearly did the double. The