The Scottish Deerhound, or the Deerhound, is a large breed of hound, once bred to hunt the Red Deer by coursing. The Scottish Deerhound's antecedents existed back to a time before recorded history, they would have been kept by the Gaels and Picts, used to help in providing part of their diet hoofed game. Archaeological evidence supports this in the form of Roman pottery from around 1st Century CE found in Argyll which depicts the deerhunt using large rough hounds. Other similar evidence can be found on standing stones from around the 7th century AD reflecting a hunt using hounds, such as the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. In outward appearance, the Scottish Deerhound is similar to the Greyhound, but larger and more boned. However, Deerhounds have a number of characteristics. While not as fast as a Greyhound on a smooth, firm surface, once the going gets rough or heavy they can outrun a Greyhound; the environment in which they worked, the cool wet, hilly Scottish Highland glens, contributed to the larger, rough-coated appearance of the breed.
The Deerhound is related to the Irish Wolfhound and was the main contributor to the recovery of that breed when it was re-created at the end of the 19th century. The Deerhound was bred to hunt red deer by “coursing”, “deer-stalking” until the end of the 19th century. With modern rifles and smaller deer-forests, slower tracking dogs were preferred to fast and far-running Deerhounds. In coursing deer, a single Deerhound or a pair was brought as close as possible to red deer released to run one of them down by speed, which if successful would happen within a few minutes - were there sustained chases. With the eventual demise of the clan systems in Scotland, these hunting dogs became sporting animals for landowners and the nobility, but were bred and hunted by common folk when feasible; as fast and silent hunters they made quick work of any game the size of a hare or larger and were regarded by nobility and poachers alike. One of the most precarious times in the breed’s history seems to have been towards the end of the nineteenth century, when many of the large Scottish estates were split into small estates for sporting purposes, few kept Deerhounds.
The new fashion was for stalking and shooting, which required only a tracking dog to follow the wounded animal, using a collie or similar breed. Although a few estates still employed Deerhounds for their original work, the breed was left in the hands of a few enthusiasts who made them a show breed. In Australia, deerhounds have been used to hunt wild boar. In addition, according to Teddy Roosevelt in "Hunting the Grisley and Other Sketches", some Canadian and American wolf hunters used them; the Scottish Deerhound resembles a rough-coated Greyhound. It larger in size and bone. Height of males from 30 to 32 inches or more, weight 85 to 110 pounds, it is one of the tallest sighthounds, with a harsh 3-4 inch long coat and mane, somewhat softer beard and moustache, softer hair on breast and belly. It has small, dark "rose" ears which are soft and folded back against the head unless held semi-erect in excitement; the harsh, wiry coat in modern dogs is only seen in self-coloured various shades of gray.
Deerhounds could be seen with true brindle and red fawn coats, or combinations. 19th century Scottish paintings tend to indicate these colours were associated with a wire haired coat, with show breeders preferring a longer coat, these genes now appear to be lost. A white chest and toes are allowed, a slight white tip to the tail; the head is long, skull flat, with a tapering muzzle. The eyes are dark brown or hazel in colour; the teeth should form a level, complete scissor bite. The long straight or curved tail, well covered with hair, should reach the ground; the Scottish Deerhound is gentle and friendly. The breed is famed for being eager to please, with a bearing of gentle dignity, it is however a true sighthound, selected for generations to pursue game. The Deerhound needs considerable exercise when young to develop properly and to maintain its health and condition; that does not mean. Deerhounds should not be raised with access only to leash walking or a small yard, this would be detrimental to their health and development.
City dwellers with conviction, can keep the dog both healthy and happy, as long as they are willing to take their Deerhounds to nearby parks for lengthy runs and rigorous fetching sessions within these wider running courses. Young Deerhounds can sometimes, depending on the individual, be quite destructive when they are not given sufficient exercise, they do require a stimulus, preferably another Deerhound, a large area to exercise properly and frequently. They are gentle and docile indoors and are good around company and children. Longevity: the US health survey states 8.4 for males and 8.9 for females, the UK survey puts the average at 8.3 and median at 8.6. The serious health issues in the breed include cardiomyopathy.
The dachshund is a short-legged, long-bodied, hound-type dog breed. They may be wire-haired, or long-haired; the standard-size dachshund was developed to scent and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature dachshund was bred to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits. In the Western United States, they have been used to track wounded deer and hunt prairie dogs. Dachshunds participate in conformation shows, field trials and many other events organized through pure-bred dog organizations such as the American Kennel Club. According to the AKC, the dachshund is ranked in 13th place in popularity amongst dog breeds in the United States; the name dachshund is of German origin and means "badger dog," from Dachs and Hund. The pronunciation varies in English: variations of the first and second syllables include, and. Although "dachshund" is a German word, in modern German they are more known by the short name Dackel or Teckel; the German word is pronounced. Because of their long, narrow build, they are nicknamed wiener dog or sausage dog.
Dachshund may be mispronounced as "dash-hound" by some English speakers. While classified in the hound group or scent hound group in the United States and Great Britain, the breed has its own group in the countries which belong to the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Many dachshunds the wire-haired subtype, may exhibit behavior and appearance that are similar to that of the terrier group of dogs. An argument can be made for the scent group classification because the breed was developed to use scent to trail and hunt animals, descended from the Saint Hubert Hound like many modern scent hound breed such as bloodhounds and Basset Hounds. A typical dachshund is muscular with short stubby legs, its front paws are disproportionately large, being paddle-shaped and suitable for digging. Its skin is loose enough not to tear; the dachshund has a deep chest. Its snout is long. According to the AKC standards for the breed, "scars from honorable wounds shall not be considered a fault" because the dachshund is a hunting dog.
There are three dachshund coat varieties: smooth coat and wirehaired. Longhaired dachshunds have short featherings on legs and ears. Wirehaired dachshunds are the least common coat variety in the United States and the most recent coat to appear in breeding standards. Dachshunds have a wide variety of patterns, the most common one being red, their base coloration can be single-colored, tan pointed, in wirehaired dogs, a color referred to as wildboar. Patterns such as dapple, sable and piebald can occur on any of the base colors. Dachshunds in the same litter may be born in different coat colors depending on the genetic makeup of the parents; the dominant color in the breed is red, followed by tan. Tan pointed dogs have tan markings over the eyes, ears and tail; the reds range from coppers to deep rusts, with or without somewhat common black hairs peppered along the back and ear edges, lending much character and an burnished appearance. Sabling should not be confused with a more unusual coat color referred to as sable.
At a distance, a sable dachshund looks somewhat like a black and tan dog. Upon closer examination, one can observe that along the top of the dog's body, each hair is banded with red at the base near the skin transitioning to black along the length of the strand. An additional striking coat marking is the brindle pattern. "Brindle" refers to dark stripes over a solid background—usually red. If a dachshund is brindled on a dark coat and has tan points, it will have brindling on the tan points only. One single, lone stripe of brindle is a brindle. If a dachshund has one single spot of dapple, it is a dapple; the Dachshund Club of America and the American Kennel Club consider both the piebald pattern and the double dapple pattern to be nonstandard. However, both types continue to be shown and sometimes win in the conformation ring. Dogs that are double-dappled have the merle pattern of a dapple, but with distinct white patches that occur when the dapple gene expresses itself twice in the same area of the coat.
The DCA excluded the wording "double-dapple" from the standard in 2007 and now use the wording "dapple" as the double dapple gene is responsible for blindness and deafness. There are three types of dachshund, which can be classified by their coats: short-haired, called'smooth'. Although the standard and miniature sizes are recognized universally, the rabbit size is not recognized by clubs in the United States and the United Kingdom; the rabbit size is recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, which contain kennel clubs from 83 countries all over the world. An increasin
The Afghan Hound is a hound, distinguished by its thick, silky coat and its tail with a ring curl at the end. The breed is selectively bred for its unique features in the cold mountains of Afghanistan, its local name is Tāžī Spay or Sag-e Tāzī. Other names for this breed areTāzī, Balkh Hound, Baluchi Hound, Barakzai Hound, Shalgar Hound, Kabul Hound, Galanday Hound or sometimes incorrectly African Hound; the Afghan Hound has been identified as a basal breed that predates the emergence of the modern breeds in the 19th Century. It is most related to the Saluki. Today's modern purebred Afghan Hound descends from dogs brought to Great Britain in the 1920s which King Amanullah of the Afghan Royal Family gave away as gifts; some had been kept as others as guardians. Although the breed is demonstrably ancient, verifiable written or visual records that tie today's Afghan Hound breed to specific Afghan owners or places are absent. There is much speculation about the breed's origin and possible connections with the ancient world among fanciers and in non-scientific breed books and breed websites.
Connections with other types and breeds from the same area may provide clues to the history. A name for a desert coursing Afghan hound, suggests a shared ancestry with the similar Tasy breed from the Caspian Sea area of Russia and Turkmenistan. Other types or breeds of similar appearance are the Taigan from the mountainous Tian Shan region on the Chinese border of Afghanistan, the Barakzay, or Kurram Valley Hound. There are at least 13 types known in Afghanistan, some are being developed into modern purebred breeds; as the lives of the peoples with whom these dogs developed change in the modern world these landrace types of dogs lose their use and disappear. Once out of Afghanistan, the history of the Afghan Hound breed became entwined with that of the earliest dog shows and the Kennel Club. Various sighthounds were brought to England in the 1800s by army officers returning from British India and Persia, were exhibited at dog shows, which were just becoming popular, under various names, such as Barukzy hounds.
They were called "Persian Greyhounds" by the English, in reference to their own indigenous sighthound. One dog in particular, was brought in 1907 from India by Captain Bariff, became the early ideal of breed type for what was still called the Persian Greyhound. Zardin was the basis of the writing of the first breed standard in 1912, but breeding of the dogs was stopped by World War I. Out of the longhaired sighthound types known in Afghanistan, two main strains make up the modern Afghan Hound breed; the first were a group of hounds brought to Scotland from Balochistan by Major and Mrs. G. Bell-Murray and Miss Jean C. Manson in 1920, are called the Bell-Murray strain; these dogs were of the lowland or steppe type called kalagh, are less coated. The second strain was a group of dogs from a kennel in Kabul owned by Mrs. Mary Amps, which she shipped to England in 1925, she and her husband came to Kabul after the Afghan war in 1919, the foundation sire of her kennel in Kabul was a dog that resembled Zardin.
Her Ghazni strain were the more coated mountain type. Most of the Afghans in the United States were developed from the Ghazni strain from England; the first Afghans in Australia were imported from the United States in 1934 of the Ghazni strain. The French breed club was formed in 1939; the mountain and steppe strains became mixed into the modern Afghan Hound breed, a new standard was written in 1948, still used today. The afghan hound can come with a much more "patterned" coat; this descends from the Bell-Murray's and the Ghazni lines, is displayed in much lighter feathering of coat, deeper saddle and much shorter hair on the face and neck. It is believed that these particular afghan hounds were a product of much hotter parts of the country; the spectacular beauty of Afghan Hound dogs caused them to become desirable showdogs and pets, they are recognised by all of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world. One of the Amps Ghazni, won BIS at Crufts in 1928 and 1930. An Afghan hound was featured on the cover of Life Magazine, November 26, 1945.
Afghan Hounds were the most popular in Australia in the 1970s…and won most of the major shows. An Afghan Hound won BIS at the 1996 World Dog Show in Budapest. Afghan hounds were BIS at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1957 and again in 1983; that win marked the most recent win at Westminster for breeder-owner-handler, Chris Terrell. The Afghan Hound breed is no longer used for hunting, although it can be seen in the sport of lure coursing; the Afghan Hound is tall, standing in height 61–74 cm and weighing 20–27 kg. The coat may be any colour, but white markings on the head, are discouraged. A specimen may have facial hair; the mustache is called "mandarins." Some Afghan Hounds are white, but parti-color hounds are penalized in the AKC standard, but not by the FCI. The long, fine-textured coat requires considerable grooming; the long topknot and the shorter-haired saddle on the back of the dog are distinctive features of the Afghan Hound coat. The high hipbones and unique small ring on the end of the tail are characteristics of the breed.
The temperament of the typical Afghan Hound can be aloof and dignified
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food, the meat of those animals. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world. Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport; the term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, the word derived from the generic Old English gamen "joy, sport, merriment". Quarry in the generic meaning is early modern, in the more specific sense "bird targeted in falconry" late 14th and 15th centuries as quirre "entrails of deer placed on the hide and given to the hunting-dogs as a reward", from Old French cuiriee "spoil, quarry", but influenced by corée "viscera, entrails". Wild game meat is considered to be superior in nutrient density, has lower fat content, than meat procured through contemporary farming methods, while the cost in time and money to procure wild game is much higher. Small game includes small animals, such as rabbits, geese or ducks. Large game includes animals like deer and bear.
Big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large African, mammals which are hunted for trophies. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world; this is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted. Sometimes a distinction is made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild turkey and domestic turkey. Fish caught for sport are referred to as game fish; the flesh of the animal, when butchered for consumption is described as having a "gamey" flavour. This difference in taste can be attributed to the wild diet of the animal, which results in a lower fat content compared to domestic farm raised animals. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either "small game" or "large game". A single small game licence may be subject to yearly bag limits.
Large game are subject to individual licensing where a separate licence is required for each individual animal taken. In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bushmeat. Animals hunted for bushmeat include, but are not limited to: Various species of antelope, including duikers Various species of primates like mandrills or gorillas Rodents like porcupines or cane ratsSome of these animals are endangered or otherwise protected, thus it is illegal to hunt them. In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as the big game. See the legal definition of game in Swaziland. South Africa is a famous destination for game hunting, with its large biodiversity and therefore rather impressive variety of game species. Many creatures have returned to former areas from which they were once taken from as a result of being killed for big-game hunting. Species of creatures hunted include: South Africa has 62 species of gamebirds, including guineafowl, partridge, sandgrouse, geese, snipe and korhaan.
Some of these species are no longer hunted, of the 44 indigenous gamebirds that can be utilised in South Africa, only three, namely the yellow-throated sandgrouse, Delegorgue's pigeon and the African pygmy goose warrant special protection. Of the remaining 41 species, 24 have shown an increase in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so; the status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the remaining three species. The gamebirds of South Africa where the population status in 2005 was secure or growing are listed below: In Australia, game includes: Game in New Zealand includes: Chamois Deer, multiple species Pig Tahr Duck, multiple species In the U. S. and Canada, white-tailed deer are the most hunted big game. Other game species include: In the PRC there is a special cuisine category called ye wei, which includes animals in the wild. In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831, it is illegal to shoot game at night. Other that are hunted for food in the UK are specified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.
UK law defines game as including: Black grouse Red grouse Brown hare Ptarmigan Grey partridge and red-legged partridge Common pheasantDeer are not included in the definition, but similar controls provided to those in the Game Act apply to deer. Deer hunted in the UK are: Red deer Roe deer Fallow deer Sika deer Muntjac deer Chinese water deer and hybrids of these deerOther animals which are hunted in the UK include: Duck, including mallard, tufted duck, teal and pochard Goose, including greylag goose, Canada goose, pink-footed goose and in England and Wales white-fronted goose Woodpigeon Woodcock Snipe Rabbit Golden ploverCapercaillie are not hunted in the UK because of a recent decline in numbers and conservation projects towards their recovery; the ban is considered voluntary on private lands, few birds live away from RSPB or Forestry Commission land allegedly. In Iceland game includes: Reindeer Ptarmigan, a popular Christmas dish in Iceland Puffin Auk Goos
The Hortaya borzaya is an old Asian sighthound breed originating in the former Kievan Rus Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russian Empire. It is a dog of large size, of lean but at the same time robust build, of elongated proportions. In its everyday life the hortaya is balanced, it has a piercing sight, capable of seeing a moving object at a far distance. In spite of its calm temperament the dog has a active reaction to running game. Hortaya are excellent, enduring hunting dogs endowed with a good, basic obedience and lacking aggression towards humans; the Hortaya is a sight hound of a large to large size depending on breed type. The breed has five distinct types, with at least as many subtypes to each main type; the result of this is a broad variability, adapting the breed to the large variety of geography and prey found across the huge expanse of its habitat. All breed standards for Hortaya are performance based, rather than appearance based, but because certain characteristics make for skilled hunting dogs, most Hortaya are similar in shape and build.
The legs are long, the spine flexible, the chest disproportionately deep in comparison to the waist, in order to accommodate large, powerful lungs. Small ears and a long, narrow skull are typical. Hortaya males range from females from 24 to 28 inches; the weight depends on type and can range from 18 kilograms up to 35 kilograms. In general, the Hortaya is heavier; when not hunting, the typical gait of the breed is a fluid and effortless trot. When chasing the prey, Hortaya gallop in fast leaps of great length; the short, dense fur can come in any color, as the only breed standards for the Hortaya are health and skill. Dark-coloured dogs have a black nose, while light-coloured dogs have a brown nose. Eyes may be any color, have a black or dark rim. Starting in the 2000s, some Hortaya were exported to parts of Europe and North America, where a breed standard for a new, as-yet unnamed subtype was established. Among these dogs, coat colour and colour combinations are restricted to a few types: white, cream of all shades, red and brindle, solid or piebald.
A black overlay and black mask, grey or red tan markings are normal. Atypical colours and markings, like brown or chocolate, a saddle or dapple pattern, diluted colors with blue or light eyes are not allowed; this subtype is still being defined, further restrictions may be implemented, but the standard of the original Hortaya remains unchanged. The Hortaya borzaya is of a distinctly Asian character, it is never aggressive or fierce towards humans though quite vigilant. Due the rigorous selection on hunting in a team with its owner, the Hortaya belongs to the trainable sight hounds, showing a good basic obedience and high intelligence, it is close to wolves in its pack behaviour. Thus it is no problem to keep larger groups of Hortaya together in a kennel; as rural people in Eurasia do not at all tolerate dogs which harm their livestock, properly socialized Hortaya do not hunt domestic animals and can be taught which animals are off limits to them. The breed is late in development vigorous and long-lived.
It is not rare that older dogs, retired from active hunting, start their breeding career at an age of 8 or 9 years in perfect health and without any impairment. Breed-specific illnesses or hereditary diseases, such as hip dysplasia and elbow dysplasia, are so far unknown; the life expectancy of the Hortaya borzaya depends on its use. In regions where they are hunted on large prey predators, there may be quite some dogs killed young during the hunt. If you subtract these dangers, 14-15 healthy years as an average is not uncommon. However, great care has to juvenile; the breed was formed on a meagre basic and low diet with but rare and small amounts of meat high quality meat. Most of the year Hortaya get little more than the scraps from the table, a gruel of oats, bread soaked in milk and whatever rodents they can hunt for themselves around the house. Only during the spring slaughter/lambing season and the main hunting season do they get more meat: the innards and offals from what they hunt for their masters.
As a result, this breed has no tolerance for high quality, high protein dog foods and supplements, the young, still growing dogs will suffer irreversible and lethal damage to their bone structure and cartilage when faultily fed. In its original habitat, the Hortaya borzaya is still purely a hunting sight hound, it is used on all game living in the steppe for hunting hares, foxes and Saiga antelopes. It is enduring, capable of working from early morning to late evening. Up to 8–10 runs on game in a day is a feasible workload. Unlike the Whippet or Greyhound, the Hortaya is not a short distance sprinter. Game is chased for distances up to 4 km on the open steppe, a Hortaya can repeat such runs after only a short rest. Unlike most sight hounds, the Hortaya does not hunt using sight alone. Hortaya hunt singly on smaller game, or as pairs and larger groups on wolves and dee
The Africanis is a landrace of Southern African dogs. It is believed to be of ancient origin, directly descended from hounds and pariah dogs of ancient Africa, introduced into the Nile Valley from the Levant. Africanis is an umbrella name for all the aboriginal dogs in Southern Africa. While the Africanis Society of Southern Africa has conceptualised the Eurocentric term of "Africanis" to encapsulate all African breeds of dog, there do exist numerous specialised types developed by various African ethnic groups with their own indigenous and ancient names; these types are not "landraces" as dictated by the Africanis Society, but rather unusual types developed for certain specific conditions and that do exhibit differences in one type from the other. The Africanis Society of Southern Africa aims to conserve the Africanis as a landrace rather than develop it as a breed. While the Africanis is recognized by the Kennel Union of South Africa as an emerging breed, researchers on the ground, such as anthropologist Sian Hall, hold that the various different types of indigenous African dogs have developed, over thousands of years, as types suited to their specific conditions by Africa's own indigenous peoples.
They therefore have no need to be Eurocentrically regarded as an "emerging breed" by European canine institutions. Hall holds that the dogs have developed as distinct types among the various African groups and that each deserves to be regarded and recognised as such, it follows that one breed description cannot be allocated to the many different types of indigenous dogs on the African continent. The Africanis is a short-coated, medium-sized dog, well-muscled and longer than tall, it can be of any colour and comes with a ridgeback. There is a wirehaired variety of the breed, but it is rare; the height varies from 50 to 60 cm. The Africanis is well disposed without being obtrusive: a friendly dog showing watchful territorial behaviour; the breed is independent and territorial, but trainable. They can however, become grumpy as they grow older and may become quite difficult when kept with other dogs in a pack, it is my experience that the Africanis is a marvellous house dog. Guided by its instinct of subservience it will steal your heart.
- Johan Gallant, President of the Africanis Society of Southern Africa. One view holds that it has over the years developed a natural resistance against internal and external parasites, although they do appear to be susceptible to introduced diseases such as distemper and parvovirus and to tick-borne biliary. Others suffer from cancer. Rabies is prevalent among the indigenous dog populations of southern Africa, it is therefore essential to ensure that any indigenous African dog, including the Europeanised Africanis, be inoculated annually for all the usual contagious diseases and understood that they are as susceptible to other diseases as any other domesticated dog. There is some evidence that dog domestication occurred in Europe or Siberia, see Origin of the domestic dog; the traditional African dog is a descendant of dogs, interbred with local wolves in the East and came to Africa. Their earliest presence has been established in Egypt and dated to 4700 BC. Archaeological records show that, from on, the dog spread along the Nile into Sudan and beyond.
At the same time, migrations and transhumance took it deep into the Sahara. By 2000 BC, this moving frontier stopped for a long period. Meanwhile, throughout the Egyptian dynasties, the breeding of swift and slender hounds together with a variety of common dogs became popular. For thousands of years, the aboriginal San populations in Southern Africa hunted without the help of dogs. Although the Khoikhoi brought domestic sheep along a western migratory route to the Cape of Good Hope just before the Christian era, there is no conclusive evidence that dogs were part of their party; the domestic dog first arrived in Southern Africa with the migration of the early Iron Age Bantu-speaking people. Dogs of Nilotic origin consecutively joined the early and later Iron Age migrations, it is accepted that these migrations traveled along the Albertine Rift and the Lake region. They followed tsetse-free corridors through Zambia and Zimbabwe to reach Botswana and South Africa; the earliest evidence for the presence of a domestic dog in South Africa has been established by Dr. Ina Plug, deputy director of the Transvaal Museum.
The remains were found near the Botswana border and dated at AD 570. By AD 650 the presence of the house dog is established in the Lower Thukela valley. By AD 800 it is part of a Khoikhoi settlement in Cape St. Francis, indicating that contact and trade between Bantu and Khoikhoi had been established. For hundreds of years this exclusive primitive canine gene pool adapted to various conditions of the Southern African landscape and, through natural selection, evolved into ecotypes all belonging to the same landrace, it is sometimes argued that dogs brought by the Arab trade, Eastern seafarers and Portuguese explorers might, over the years, have "contaminated" the traditional African dog. In other opinions, these chances are scant. Exotic canine influences became more after the colonisation of Transkei and Zululand during the 19th century; the true Africanis is still found today in tribal areas where people maintain their traditional lifestyle. The fast-changin
The Irish Dog is a breed of domestic dog a large sighthound from Ireland. The name originates from its purpose—wolf hunting with dogs—rather than from its appearance. Developed from war hounds with the purpose of being a hunting or guard dog; the Irish Wolfhound can be an imposing sight due to their formidable size. The breed is old; these dogs are mentioned, as cú in Irish laws and in Irish literature which dates from the 6th century or, in the case of the Sagas, from the old Irish period - AD 600-900. The word "Cú" became an added prefix of respect on the names of warriors as well as kings denoting that they were worthy of the respect and loyalty of a Cú. Ancient artworks and writings have encouraged modern authors to imagine their existence as a breed by 273 BC. However, there is indication that large dogs may have existed as early as 279 BC when the Tectosages and Tolistobogii Celts sacked Delphi. Survivors left accounts of the fierce Celts and the huge dogs who fought with them and at their side.
They were mentioned by Julius Caesar in his treatise, The Gallic Wars, by 391 AD, they were written about by Roman Consul, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, who received seven of them, "canes Scotici", as a gift to be used for fighting lions and bears, in his words, "all Rome viewed with wonder". Wolfhounds were bred as hunting dogs by the ancients; the Irish continued to breed them for this purpose, as well as to guard their homes and protect their stock. CúChulainn, a name which translates as "hound of Culann", gained his name when as a child, known as Sétanta, when he slew the ferocious guard dog of Culann, forcing him to offer himself as a replacement. During the English Conquest of Ireland, only the nobility were allowed to own Irish Wolfhounds, the numbers permitted depending on position, they were much coveted and were given as gifts to important personages and foreign nobles. Wolfhounds were the companions of the regal, were housed themselves alongside them. King John of England, in about 1210 presented an Irish hound, Gelert, to Llewellyn, a prince of Wales.
The poet The Hon William Robert Spencer Immortalized this hound in a poem. In his History of Ireland completed 1571, Edmund Champion gives a description of the hounds used for hunting the wolves on the Dublin and Wicklow mountains, he says: "They are not without wolves and greyhounds to hunt them, bigger of bone and limb than a colt". Due to their popularity overseas many were exported to European royal houses leaving numbers in Ireland depleted; this led to a declaration by Oliver Cromwell himself being published in Kilkenny on 27 April 1652 to ensure that sufficient numbers remained to control the wolf population. References to the Irish Wolfhound in the 18th century tell of its great size and greyhound shape as well as its scarcity. Writing in 1790, Bewick described it as the largest and most beautiful of the dog kind, he said that their aspect was mild, disposition peaceful, strength so great that in combat the Mastiff or Bulldog was far from being an equal to them. The last wolf in Ireland is thought to have been killed at Myshall, on the slopes of Mount Leinster in Co.
Carlow in 1786 by a pack of wolfdogs kept by a Mr Watson of Ballydarton. The remaining hounds in the hands of a few families who were descendants of the old Irish chieftains, were now symbols of status rather than hunters, they were said to be the last of their race. Scotsman Captain George Augustus Graham is responsible with a few other breeders for attempting to reaffirm the breed's existence. In 1879 he wrote: "It has been ascertained beyond all question that there are few specimens of the breed still left in Ireland and England to be considered Irish Wolfhounds, though falling short of the requisite dimensions; this blood is now in my possession." Captain Graham devoted his life to ensuring the survival of the Irish Wolfhound. Owing to the small numbers of surviving specimens outcrossing was used in the breeding programme, it is believed that Borzoi, Great Dane, Scottish Deerhound and English Mastiff dogs all played their part in Graham's creation of the dog we know. The famous English Mastiff Garnier's Lion was bred to the Deerhound Lufra, their offspring Marquis enters Wolfhound pedigrees through his granddaughter Young Donagh.
Graham included "a single outcross of Tibetan Wolf Dog". This was long assumed to have been a Tibetan Mastiff. However, a photograph of "Wolf" shows a bearded, long-coated dog—what would now be called a "Tibetan Kyi Apso" or "dokhyi apso". In 1885 Captain Graham with other breeders founded the Irish Wolfhound Club, the Breed Standard of Points to establish and agree the ideal to which breeders should aspire; the Wolfhound was a dog that only nobles could own and was taken up by the British during their rule in Ireland. This made it unpopular as a national symbol and the Kerry Blue Terrier was adopted by Republicans such as Michael Collins; the Wolfhound has been adopted as a symbol by both rugby codes. The national rugby league team is nicknamed the Wolfhounds, the Irish Rugby Football Union, which governs rugby union, changed the name of the country's A national team in that code to the Ireland Wolfhounds in 2010. Considered by the American Kennel Club to be the tallest of all dog breeds, describing the breed as, "Of great size and commanding appearance, the Irish Wolfhound is remarkable in combining power and