Batiste is a fine cloth made from cotton, polyester, or a blend, the softest of the lightweight opaque fabrics. Batiste is a fine cloth made from cotton or linen such as cambric. Batiste was used as a lining fabric for high-quality garments. Batiste is used for handkerchiefs and lingerie. In 1901 Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language defined batiste as "usual French name for cambric" or "applied in commerce to a fine texture of linen and cotton"."Cambric" is a synonym of the French word batiste, itself attested since 1590. Batiste itself comes from the Picard batiche, attested since 1401, derived from the old French battre for bowing wool; the modern form batiste or baptiste comes from a popular merge with the surname Baptiste, pronounced Batisse, as indicated by the use of the expressions thoile batiche and toile de baptiste for the same fabric. The alleged invention of the fabric, around 1300, by a weaver called Baptiste or Jean-Baptiste Cambray or Chambray, from the village of Castaing in the peerage of Marcoing, near Cambrai, has no historic ground.
Lightweight opaque fabrics are thin and light but not as transparent as sheer fabrics. The distinction between the two is not always pronounced. End uses include apparel and furnishings. Organdy and batiste begin as the same greige goods, they differ from one another in the way. Lawn and batiste do not receive the acid finish and, remain opaque. Better quality fabrics are made of combed yarns. Cambric Media related to Batiste at Wikimedia Commons
Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. This is done by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads under two or more warp threads and so on, with a "step," or offset, between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern; because of this structure, twill drapes well. Twill weaves can be classified from four points of view: According to the stepping: Warp-way: 3/1 warp way twill, etc. Weft-way: 2/3 weft way twill, etc. According to the direction of twill lines on the face of the fabric: S-Twill or left-hand twill weave: 2/1 S, etc. Z-Twill or right-hand twill weave: 3/2 Z, etc. According to the face yarn: Warp face twill weave: 4/2 S, etc. Weft face twill weave: 1/3 Z, etc. Double face twill weave: 3/3 Z, etc. According to the nature of the produced twill line: Simple twill weave: 1/2 S, 3/1 Z etc. Expanded twill weave: 4/3 S, 3/2 Z, etc. Multiple twill weave: 2/3/3/1 S, etc. In a twill weave, each weft or filling yarn floats across the warp yarns in a progression of interlacings to the right or left, forming a pattern of distinct diagonal lines.
This diagonal pattern is known as a wale. A float is the portion of a yarn. A twill weave requires three or more harnesses, depending on its complexity and is the second most basic weave that can be made on a simple loom. Twill weave is designated as a fraction, such as 2⁄1, in which the numerator indicates the number of harnesses that are raised, the denominator indicates the number of harnesses that are lowered when a filling yarn is inserted; the fraction 2⁄1 is read as "two up, one down". The minimum number of harnesses needed to produce a twill can be determined by totaling the numbers in the fraction. Twill weave can be identified by its diagonal lines. Twill fabrics technically have a front and a back side, unlike plain weave, whose two sides are the same; the front side of the twill is called the back the technical back. The technical face side of a twill weave fabric is the side with the most pronounced wale. If there are warp floats on the technical face, there will be filling floats on the technical back.
If the twill wale goes up to the right on one side, it will go up to the left on the other side. Twill fabrics have no "up" and "down". Sheer fabrics are made with a twill weave; because a twill surface has interesting texture and design, printed twills are much less common than printed plain weaves. When twills are printed, this is done on lightweight fabrics. Soiling and stains are less noticeable on the uneven surface of twills than on a smooth surface, such as plain weaves, as a result twills are used for sturdy work clothing and for durable upholstery. Denim, for example, is a twill; the fewer interlacings in twills as compared to other weaves allow the yarns to move more and therefore they are softer and more pliable, drape better than plain-weave textiles. Twills recover from creasing better than plain-weave fabrics do; when there are fewer interlacings, the yarns can be packed closer together to produce high-count fabrics. With higher counts, including high-count twills, the fabric is more durable, is air- and water-resistant.
Twills can be divided into warp-faced. Even-sided twills include foulard or surah, houndstooth, serge and twill flannel. Warp-faced twills include cavalry twill, covert, drill, fancy twill and lining twill; the dictionary definition of twill at Wiktionary Media related to Twill at Wikimedia Commons
Tweed is a rough, woolen fabric, of a soft, flexible texture, resembling cheviot or homespun, but more woven. It is woven with a plain weave, twill or herringbone structure. Colour effects in the yarn may be obtained by mixing dyed wool. Tweeds are an icon of traditional Scottish and Irish clothing, being desirable for informal outerwear, due to the material being moisture-resistant and durable. Tweeds are made to withstand harsh climates and are worn for outdoor activities such as shooting and hunting, in both Ireland and Scotland. In Ireland, tweed manufacturing is most associated with County Donegal; the original name of the cloth was tweel, Scots for twill, the material being woven in a twilled rather than a plain pattern. A traditional story has the name coming about by chance. Around 1831, a London merchant received a letter from a Hawick firm, Wm. Watson & Sons, Dangerfield Mills about some "tweels"; the merchant misinterpreted the handwriting, understanding it to be a trade-name taken from the river Tweed that flows through the Scottish Borders textile area.
The goods were subsequently advertised as Tweed and the name has remained since. Traditionally used for upper-class country clothing like shooting jackets, tweed became popular among the Edwardian middle classes who associated it with the leisurely pursuits of the elite. Due to their durability tweed Norfolk jackets and plus-fours were a popular choice for hunters, cyclists and early motorists, hence Kenneth Grahame's depiction of Mr. Toad in a Harris tweed suit. Popular patterns include houndstooth, associated with 1960s fashion, gamekeeper's tweed worn by academics, Prince of Wales check commissioned by Edward VII, herringbone. During the 2000s and 2010s, it was not uncommon for members of long-established British and American land-owning families to wear high quality heirloom tweed inherited from their grandparents, some of which pre-dated the Second World War. In modern times, cyclists may wear tweed; this practice has its roots in the British young fogey and hipster subcultures of the late 2000s and early 2010s, whose adherents appreciate both vintage tweed, bicycles.
Some vintage Danemann upright pianos have a tweed cloth backing to protect the internal mechanism. Scottish bagpipes were covered in tweed as an alternative to tartan wool; the term "tweed" is used to describe coverings on instrument cables and vintage or retro guitar amplifiers, such as the Fender tweed and Fender Tweed Deluxe. Despite the common terminology, these coverings were cotton twill, not tweed. Tweed was worn by many fictional characters from the Victorian and Edwardian periods, including the detective Sherlock Holmes. Basil Rathbone and Jeremy Brett both wore keeper's tweed deerstalkers and Inverness capes, but more recent portrayals of Sherlock have abandoned the hat. Although Robert Downey Jr.'s character wore a fedora, both he and Doctor Watson wore tweed overcoats, as was fashionable in Victorian England. Due to the popularity of Benedict Cumberbatch's portrayal of Sherlock, the tweed overcoat entered high fashion in the 2010s. Television actors playing intellectuals or older men wear Harris tweed, including Anthony Head in Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Mads Mikkelsen as Hannibal Lecter.
Notable movie characters who have worn tweed include Sean Connery in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Harrison Ford himself in the opening scenes of Indiana Jones and the Crystal Skull. Additionally, windowpane tweed suits are worn by actors portraying members of the English upper classes, such as Hugh Fraser in Agatha Christie's Poirot, Peter Davison as Campion, or the male cast of Downton Abbey. Tweed sportcoats were worn by several incarnations of The Doctor from Doctor Who, including the Second Doctor, Seventh Doctor and Eleventh Doctor. For Matt Smith's Doctor, the BBC used cloth sourced from China rather than genuine Harris Tweed. Harris Tweed: A handwoven tweed, defined in the Harris Tweed Act of 1993 as cloth, "Handwoven by the islanders at their homes in the Outer Hebrides, finished in the Outer Hebrides, made from pure virgin wool dyed and spun in the Outer Hebrides". Donegal tweed: A handwoven tweed manufactured in County Donegal, Ireland. Donegal has for centuries been producing tweed from local materials.
Sheep thrive in the hills and bogs of Donegal, indigenous plants such as blackberries, fuchsia and moss provide dyes. Silk tweed: A fabric made of raw silk with flecks of colour typical of woollen tweeds. British Country Clothing Sports Jacket Norfolk jacket 2010s in fashion 2000s in fashion 1970s fashion 1960s fashion 1950s fashion 1920s in fashion Eleventh Doctor "What is Tweed?". A Hume. Reynolds, Francis J. ed.. "Tweed". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier & Son Company. National Library of Scotland: SCOTTISH SCREEN ARCHIVE Anderson, Fiona. Tweed. London: Bloomsbury Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84520-697-0. Media related to Tweed at Wikimedia Commons
Calico is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and not processed cotton. It may contain unseparated husk parts, for example; the fabric is far less fine than muslin, but less coarse and thick than canvas or denim, but it is still cheap owing to its unfinished and undyed appearance. The fabric was from the city of Calicut in southwestern India, it was made by the traditional weavers called cāliyans. The raw fabric was dyed and printed in bright hues, calico prints became popular in Europe. Calico originated in southwestern India during the 11th century; the cloth was known as "cāliyan" to the natives. It was mentioned in Indian literature by the 12th century when the writer Hēmacandra described calico fabric prints with a lotus design. By the 15th century calico from Gujǎrāt made its appearance in Egypt. Trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onwards. Calico was woven using Sūrat cotton for both the weft. In the 18th century, England was famous for its worsted cloth; that industry, centred in the east and south in towns such as Norwich, jealously protected their product.
Cotton processing was tiny: in 1701 only 1,985,868 pounds of cottonwool was imported into England, by 1730 this had fallen to 1,545,472 pounds. This was due to commercial legislation to protect the woollen industry. Cheap calico prints, imported by the East India Company from Hindustān, had become popular. In 1700 an Act of Parliament passed to prevent the importation of dyed or printed calicoes from India, China or Persia; this caused demand to switch to imported grey cloth instead—calico that had not been finished—dyed or printed. These were printed with popular patterns in southern England. Lancashire businessmen produced grey cloth with linen warp and cotton weft, known as fustian, which they sent to London for finishing. Cottonwool imports recovered though, by 1720 were back to their 1701 levels. Again the woollen manufacturers, in true protectionist fashion, claimed that the imports were taking jobs away from workers in Coventry. A new law passed, enacting fines against anyone caught wearing stained calico muslins.
Neckcloths and fustians were exempted. The Lancashire manufacturers exploited this exemption. There now was an artificial demand for woven cloth. In 1764, 3,870,392 pounds of cotton-wool were imported; this change in consumption patterns, as a result of the restriction on imported finished goods, was a key part of the process that reduced the Indian economy from sophisticated textile production to the mere supply of raw materials. These events occurred under colonial rule, which started after 1757, were described by Nehru and some more recent scholars as "de-industrialization." Early Indian chintz, that is, glazed calico with a large floral pattern. Were produced by painting techniques; the hues were applied by wooden blocks, the cloth manufacturers in Britain printing calico used wooden block printing. Calico printers at work are depicted in one of the stained glass windows made by Stephen Adam for the Maryhill Burgh Halls, Glasgow. Confusingly and silk printed this way were known as linen calicoes and silk calicoes.
Early European calicoes would be cheap plain-weave white cotton fabric with equal weft and warp plain weave cotton fabric in, or cream or unbleached cotton, with a design block-printed using a single alizarin dye fixed with two mordants, giving a red and black pattern. Polychromatic prints were possible, using two sets of an additional blue dye; the Indian taste was for dark printed backgrounds while the European market preferred a pattern on a cream base. As the century progressed the European preference moved from the large chintz patterns to smaller, tighter patterns. Thomas Bell patented a printing technique in 1783 that used copper rollers, Livesey and Company put the first machine that used it into operation near Preston, Lancashire in 1785; the production volume for printed cloth in Lancashire in 1750 was estimated at 50,000 pieces of 30 yards In 1850 it was 20,000,000 pieces. After 1888, block printing was only used for short-run specialized jobs. After 1880, profits from printing fell due to overcapacity and the firms started to form combines.
In the first, three Scottish firms formed the United Turkey Red Co. Ltd in 1897, the second, in 1899, was the much larger Calico Printers' Association 46 printing concerns and 13 merchants combined, representing 85% of the British printing capacity; some of this capacity was removed and in 1901 Calico had 48% of the printing trade. In 1916, they and the other printers formed and joined a trade association, which set minimum prices for each'price section' of the industry; the trade association remained in operation until 1954, when the arrangement was challenged by the government Monopolies Commission. Over the intervening period much trade had been lost overseas. In the UK, Australia and New Zealand: Calico – simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton. Muslin – a fine, light plain weave cotton fabric. Muslin gauze – muslin. Gauze – soft and fine cotton fabric with a open plain weave. Cheesecloth – gauze. In the US: Calico – cotton fabric with a small, all-over floral print Muslin – simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton and/or a fine, light plain weave cotton fabric.
Muslin gauze – the lightest, most open weave of muslin. Gauze – any light fabric, genera
Warp and weft
Warp and weft are the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric. The lengthwise or longitudinal warp yarns are held stationary in tension on a frame or loom while the transverse weft is drawn through and inserted over-and-under the warp. A single thread of the weft crossing the warp is called a pick. Terms vary; each individual warp thread in a fabric is called end. Inventions during the 18th century spurred the Industrial Revolution, with the "picking stick" and the "flying shuttle" speeding up production of cloth; the power loom patented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 allowed sixty picks per minute. The words warp and weft derive from the Old English word wefan, to weave. Warp means "that, thrown away"; the warp is the set of yarns or other elements stretched in place on a loom before the weft is introduced during the weaving process. It is regarded as the longitudinal set in a finished fabric with two or more sets of elements; the term is used for a set of yarns established before the interworking of weft yarns by some other method, such as finger manipulation, yielding wrapped or twined structures.
Simple looms use a spiral warp, in which the warp is made up of a single long yarn wound in a spiral pattern around a pair of sticks or beams. The warp must be strong to be held under high tension during the weaving process, unlike the weft which carries no tension; this requires the yarn used for warp ends, or individual warp threads, to be made of spun and plied fibre. Traditionally wool, linen and silk were used. However, improvements in spinning technology during the Industrial Revolution created cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used in mechanized weaving. Artificial or man-made fibres such as nylon or rayon were employed. While most weaving is weft-faced, warp-faced textiles are created using densely arranged warp threads. In these the design is in the warp, requiring all colors to be decided upon and placed during the first part of the weaving process, which cannot be changed; such limitations of color placement create weavings defined by length-wise stripes and vertical designs.
Many South American cultures, including the ancient Incas and Aymaras, employed backstrap weaving, which uses the weight of the weaver's body to control the tension of the loom. Because the weft does not have to be stretched on a loom the way the warp is it can be less strong, it is made of spun fibre wool and cotton, today of synthetic fiber such as nylon or rayon. The weft is threaded through the warp using a "shuttle", air jets or "rapier grippers". Hand looms were the original weaver's tool, with the shuttle being threaded through alternately raised warps by hand; the expression "warp and weft" is used metaphorically. Warp and weft are sometimes used more in literature to describe the basic dichotomy of the world we live in, as in, up/down, in/out, black/white, Sun/Moon yin/yang, etc; the expression is used for the underlying structure upon which something is built. The terms "warp" and "woof" are found in some English translations of the Bible in the discussion of mildews found in cloth materials in Leviticus 13:48-59.
In Guru Granth Sahib many shabads in Gurbani use the metaphor of warp and weft to describe the state where our soul imbibes into the Almighty as a fabric. Weft is a hairdressing term for temporary hair extensions; these can be attached to a person's hair variously by cornrow braiding, using metal cylinders or gluing. The result is called a weave. Knot density Pile Warp knitting Barber, E. J. W.. Prehistoric Textiles. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00224-X. Burnham, Dorothy K.. Warp and Weft: A Textile Terminology. Royal Ontario Museum. ISBN 0-88854-256-9
Buckram is a stiff cotton cloth with a loose weave muslin. The fabric is soaked in wheat starch paste, glue, or pyroxylin, as sizing and dried; when rewetted or warmed, it can be shaped to create durable firm fabric for book covers and elements of clothing. In bookbinding, pyroxylin impregnated fabrics are considered superior to starch-filled fabrics because their surfaces are more water resistant, they are more resistant to insects and fungi, are stronger, they wear well and are suitable for use in library binding where many people will be handling the same books. Pyroxylin allows for unique decorative effects on book covers. They, are water repellant and immune to insect attack and fungi, but they do not wear as well as starch impregnated cloths because of cracking at the joints and occasional peeling of the coating. In the Middle Ages, "bokeram", as it was known was fine cotton cloth, not stiff; the etymology of the term is uncertain. In bookbinding, buckram has several attractive qualities.
In addition to being durable, buckram does not allow the bookbinder's paste to seep through and cause discoloration or stains on the book's front and back covers. Millinery buckram is different from bookbinding buckram; the former is impregnated with a starch which allows it to be softened in water, pulled over a hat block, left to dry into a hard shape. Millinery buckram comes in three weights: baby buckram, single-ply buckram, double buckram. US patent US1712991A, Method for preparing buckram
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea