House is a genre of electronic dance music characterized by a repetitive four on the floor beat and a tempo of 120 to 130 beats per minute. It was created by DJs and music producers from Chicago's underground club culture in the 1980s, as DJs from the subculture began altering disco dance tracks to give them a more mechanical beat and deeper basslines; the genre was pioneered by DJs and producers from Chicago and New York such as Frankie Knuckles, Larry Levan, Ron Hardy, Jesse Saunders, Chip E. Steve "Silk" Hurley, Farley "Jackmaster" Funk, Mr. Fingers, Marshall Jefferson and many others, its origins derive from within the Black American LGBT communities but has since spread to the mainstream. From its beginnings in the Chicago club and local radio scene, the genre expanded internationally to London to other American cities such as New York City and Detroit, has become a worldwide phenomenon since, it has spawned numerous subgenres, such as acid house, deep house, hip house, ghetto house, progressive house, tech house, electro house, many more.
House still has a huge impact on pop music in general and dance music in particular. It was picked up by major pop artists like Janet Jackson and Kylie Minogue, but produced some mainstream hits on its own, such as "French Kiss" by Lil Louis, "Show Me Love" by Robin S. or "Push the Feeling On" by Nightcrawlers. Many house producers did and do remixes for pop artists; until today, house music remained popular on radio and in clubs while retaining a foothold on the underground scenes across the globe. In its most typical form, the genre is characterized by repetitive 4/4 rhythms including bass drums, off-beat hi-hats, snare drums and/or claps at a tempo between 120 and 130 beats per minute, synthesizer riffs, deep basslines, but not sung, spoken or sampled vocals. In house, the bass drum is sounded on beats one and three, the snare drum, claps, or other higher-pitched percussion on beats two and four; the drum beats in house music are always provided by an electronic drum machine a Roland TR-808, TR-909, or a TR-707 rather than by a live drummer.
Claps, snare drum, or hi-hat sounds are used to add syncopation. One of signature rhythm riffs in early house, is built on the clave pattern. Congas and bongos may be added for an African sound. In some tracks, the drum sounds are "saturated" by boosting the gain to create a more aggressive edge. One classic subgenre, acid house, is defined through the squelchy sounds created by the Roland TB-303 bass synthesizer. House music could be produced on "cheap and consumer-friendly electronic equipment" and used sound gear, which made it easier for independent labels and DJs to create tracks; the electronic drum machines and other gear used by house DJs and producers was considered "too cheap-sounding" by "proper" musicians. House music producers use sampled instruments, rather than bringing in session musicians into a recording studio. Though a key element of house production is layering sounds, such as drum machine beats, synth basslines, so on, the overall "texture...is sparse". Unlike pop songs, which emphasize higher-pitched sounds, such as melody, in house music, the lower-pitched bass register is most important.
The structure of house music songs — or "tracks", as they are called — involves an intro, a chorus, various verse sections, a midsection and a brief outro. Some songs do not have a verse, repeating the same cycle. House music songs are based on eight-bar sections which are repeated. House music is based on bass-heavy loops or basslines produced by a synthesizer and/or from samples of disco, jazz-funk or funk songs. DJs and producers creating a song to be played in clubs create a "seven or eight-minute 12-inch mix". Unlike trance music songs, which are designed to keep building in intensity, house music songs are "more consistent" and are more based on "playing with the constituent parts and bringing them in and out" in a subtle way. House songs do build in up by adding layers of sound and texture, by increasing the volume. House songs may have vocals like a pop song, but some house tracks are "completely minimal instrumental music", as vocals are not required for the house genre. If a house track does have vocals, the vocal lines may be simple "words or phrases" that are repeated.
One of the main influences of house was disco. Like disco DJs, house DJs used a "slow mix" to "lin records together" into a mix. In the post-disco club culture during the early 1980s, DJs from the gay scene made their tracks "less pop-oriented," with a more mechanical, repetitive beat and deeper basslines, many tracks were made without vocals, or with wordless melodies. Disco became so popular by the late 1970s that record companies pushed non-disco artists to produce disco songs; when the backlash against disco started, known as "Disco sucks" dance music went from being produced by major label studios to being created by DJs in the underground club scene. While disco was associated with lush orchestration, with string orchestra and horn sections, various disco songs incorporated sounds produced with synthesizers and electronic drum machines, some compositions were electronic.
European Journal of Archaeology is an international, peer-reviewed academic journal of the European Association of Archaeologists. Since 2017, it has been published by Cambridge University Press; the journal was entitled the Journal of European Archaeology. The journal publishes archaeological research around Europe; the journal was published by SAGE, Maney and Taylor & Francis. The Journal contains open access articles; the following persons are or have been editors: John Chapman Mark Pearce Alan Saville Robin Skeates Catherine Frieman Zena Kamash Open access articles Most cited articles European Association of Archaeologists Twitter EAA European Association of Archaeologists Facebook page
USS Forrest, a Gleaves-class destroyer, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Lieutenant Dulany Forrest, an officer who served during the War of 1812. Forrest was launched on 14 June 1941 by Boston Navy Yard; the ship was commissioned on Lieutenant Commander M. Van Metre in command, she was reclassified DMS-24 on 15 November 1944. Forrest sailed from Boston 15 June 1942 for NS Argentia, Newfoundland, to augment the escort of the aircraft carrier Ranger, with whose force she returned to Newport on 22 June. On 1 July she sailed with the Ranger group for the coast of West Africa, where the carrier flew off Army aircraft for the burgeoning base at Accra. Returning to Norfolk on 5 August, Forrest served in training operations, submarine searches, coastal escort duty until 21 October, when she arrived at Bermuda to join the Ranger group for the invasion of North Africa, she screened air operations covering the landings at Safi and Fedhala from 8 to 12 November served in an antisubmarine patrol in advance of an incoming convoy until 18 November.
Forrest escorted a convoy to a point off Norfolk turned back to Bermuda to rendezvous with the cruiser Augusta with whom she returned to Norfolk 30 November. Between 2 December 1942 and 27 March 1943, Forrest twice crossed the Atlantic screening Ranger to an ocean launching point off Casablanca as well as serving on coastal and Gulf of Mexico escort duty. After training in Casco Bay, she joined the Ranger group for patrol duty out of Argentia, between 17 May and 24 July replenished at Boston for the crossing to Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands. From this base of the British Home Fleet, the Ranger group patrolled in search of German naval forces, on 4 October struck with great success at the shipping and shore installations at Bodø, Norway. In October she sailed south to join the escort for a British carrier returning from the Mediterranean to Scapa Flow, in November sortied in a combined task force to patrol the northwest coast of Norway covering the passage of a convoy to Russia. Returning to Boston for brief overhaul 3 December 1943, Forrest spent the months of January and February 1944 training precommissioning crews for new destroyers, escorting the aircraft carrier Hornet during her shakedown training off Bermuda.
Between 7 March and 2 April, she patrolled the Atlantic with the hunter-killer group headed by the escort carrier Guadalcanal. Forrest sailed from Norfolk 20 April for Northern Ireland, took up escort duties around the British Isles as men and ships were concentrated for the Normandy invasion; when bad weather postponed the landings intended for 5 June, Forrest was sent out on 4 June to recall convoys which had sailed, bound for Utah Beach. During the actual invasion of 6 June, she screened transports lying in the Baie de la Seine, on 12, 16, 17 June, she bombarded shore targets to aid the troops advancing ashore. After escorting battleships to Plymouth, England, 18 June, Forrest returned to the assault area 21 June to cover sweeping operations off the Cotentin Peninsula, she engaged shore batteries on 22 and 24 June, returning to the Isle of Portland, the next day. Four days Forrest got underway for Belfast and Taranto, from which she sailed 11 August 1944 for the invasion of southern France, arriving in the inner fire support area off St. Tropez on 15 August.
For the next two months, she escorted convoys from Palermo, Naples and Oran to the southern coast of France, guarding the men and supplies which made the push northward possible. She returned to Norfolk 8 November for conversion to a high speed minesweeper. Forrest trained in Chesapeake Bay for Pacific duty, for which she sailed 17 January 1945, calling at San Diego and Pearl Harbor for further training and arriving Ulithi on 9 March 1945. Ten days she sortied for minesweeping operations to clear Okinawa waters for the assault on 1 April, after which she served in patrol, screened smaller minesweepers, performed local escort missions, carried put the usual multiplicity of destroyer assignments. Several times she assisted ships stricken by kamikaze attacks, on 27 May her own turn came. Three enemy aircraft were sighted; the third, crashed her starboard side at the waterline, killing 5 and wounding 13 of her men. As damage control and fire fighting measures were being taken she headed for Kerama Retto and repairs.
Forrest sailed from Okinawa on 25 June 1945 for the east coast, reaching Boston 6 August 1945. There she was decommissioned on 30 November 1945, sold 20 November 1946. Forrest received six battle stars for World War II service; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Navsource.org: USS Forrest hazegray.org: USS Forrest