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House of Ascania

The House of Ascania is a dynasty of German rulers. It is known as the House of Anhalt, which refers to its longest-held possession, Anhalt; the Ascanians are named after Ascania Castle, known as Schloss Askanien in German, located near and named after Aschersleben. The castle was the seat of the County of Ascania, a title, subsumed into the titles of the princes of Anhalt; the earliest known member of the house, Count of Ballenstedt, first appears in a document of 1036. He is assumed to have been a grandson of Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark. From Odo, the Ascanians inherited large properties in the Saxon Eastern March. Esiko's grandson was Otto, Count of Ballenstedt, who died in 1123. By Otto's marriage to Eilika, daughter of Magnus, Duke of Saxony, the Ascanians became heirs to half of the property of the House of Billung, former dukes of Saxony. Otto's son, Albert the Bear, with the help of his mother's inheritance, the first Ascanian duke of Saxony in 1139. However, he soon lost control of Saxony to the rival House of Guelph.

Albert inherited the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1157 from its last Wendish ruler, he became the first Ascanian margrave. Albert, his descendants of the House of Ascania made considerable progress in Christianizing and Germanizing the lands; as a borderland between German and Slavic cultures, the country was known as a march. In 1237 and 1244, two towns, Cölln and Berlin, were founded during the rule of Otto and Johann, grandsons of Margrave Albert the Bear, they were united into one city, Berlin. The emblem of the House of Ascania, a red eagle and bear, became the heraldic emblems of Berlin. In 1320, the Brandenburg Ascanian line came to an end. After the Emperor had deposed the Guelph rulers of Saxony in 1180, Ascanians returned to rule the Duchy of Saxony, reduced to its eastern half by the Emperor; however in eastern Saxony, the Ascanians could establish control only in limited areas near the River Elbe. In the 13th century, the Principality of Anhalt was split off from the Duchy of Saxony.

The remaining state was split into Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg. The Ascanian dynasties in the two Saxon states became extinct in 1689 and in 1422 but Ascanians continued to rule in the smaller state of Anhalt and its various subdivisions until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia from 1762–1796, was a member of the House of Ascania, herself the daughter of Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. County and Duchy of Anhalt: c. 1100–1918 Duchy and Electorate of Saxony: 1112, 1139–1142, 1180–1422 County of Weimar-Orlamünde: 1112–1486 Margravate of Brandenburg: 1157–1320 Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg: 1269–1689 Principality of Lüneburg: 1369–1388 Principality and Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg: 1252–1468 and 1603–1863 Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst: 1252–1396 and 1544–1796 Principality of Anhalt-Aschersleben: 1252–1315 Principality and Duchy of Anhalt-Köthen: 1396–1561 and 1603–1847 Principality and Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau 1396–1561 and 1603–1863 Principality of Anhalt-Plötzkau 1544–1553 and 1603–1665 Principality of Anhalt-Harzgerode 1635–1709 Principality of Anhalt-Mühlingen: 1667–1714 Principality of Anhalt-Dornburg: 1667–1742 Principality of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym: 1718–1812 Russian Empire: 1762–1796 Askanien, Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1888 Trillmich, Kaiser Konrad II.

Und seine Zeit, Bonn, 1991 Ducal Family of Anhalt - official website European Heraldry page Marek, Miroslav. "GENEALOGY. EU: House of Ascania". Genealogy. EU. Stirnet: Brandenburg1 Stirnet: Ascania1

Operation Black Tulip

Operation Black Tulip was a plan proposed in 1945, just after the end of World War II, by Dutch minister of Justice Kolfschoten to forcibly deport all Germans from the Netherlands. The operation lasted from 1946 to 1948 and in the end 3,691 Germans were deported. After World War II, the Netherlands was a country in ruins and the major pre-war trade links with Germany and Indonesia were severed; because of the importance of trade with Germany, the proposed demand for compensation was dropped. But there was still a lot of resentment. Many people were arrested, most notably collaborators; the 25,000 Germans living in the Netherlands were branded as "hostile subjects". They were to be evicted in three groups in reverse order of entry; the first who had to leave were those who came after the start of the first world war those who came after 1932, the rest, many of whom were economic refugees from the 1920s. The operation started on 11 September 1946 in Amsterdam, where Germans and their families were taken from their homes in the middle of the night and given one hour to collect fifty kilograms of luggage.

They were allowed to take one hundred Guilders. The rest of their possessions went to the state, they were taken to internment camps near the German border, the biggest of, Mariënbosch concentration camp near Nijmegen. The operation ended in 1948, on 26 July 1951, the state of war with Germany ended, the Germans no longer being regarded as state enemies. After the plan was ended, little attention was devoted to it by the media. A 2005 episode of the Dutch TV show Andere Tijden focused on the events, in 2013 journalist Ad van Liempt, who had worked on the Andere Tijden documentary, published on it in his study of the postwar years Na de bevrijding: de loodzware jaren 1945-1950. Bakker-Schut Plan Flight and expulsion of Germans Bogaarts, Melchior D. "Weg met de moffen", Parlementaire geschiedenis van Nederland na 1945, D, Nijmegen, ISBN 90-71478-37-8. Bogaarts, M. D. "'Weg met de Moffen' – De uitwijzing van Duitse ongewenste vreemdelingen uit Nederland na 1945", Bijdragen en Mededelingen betreffende de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, Royal Dutch Historical Society, 96: 334–351 Black Tulip documentary

Ibanez GR

The Ibanez GR, or Ghostrider is a series of guitar produced by Ibanez. Ibanez first produced the prototypes of the Ibanez GR 220 guitar in its LA custom shop. Structurally, it resembles the Ibanez Artist guitars of the 1970s; the neck has the same width and 24​3⁄4" scale length as the Artist but Ibanez reduced the depth of the body-top arch to produce a flatter profile more like the modern guitars they were producing in the Ibanez RG series guitars. There were three Ghostrider models produced. All were set-neck construction: The GR220 had minimalist dot-inlays, chrome hardware, a carved maple top, two GRP90 pickups. Finishes came in a vibrant green and an enchanting transparent blue. Produced during 1995, 1996; the GR320 came with dual humbuckers. It had a Fender Telecaster style bridge, the bridge humbucker was mounted in this housing. Al Jourgensen was pictured with this guitar in an old Ibanez advertisement, it was available in cherry with black hardware. They were introduced in 94 and produced for a short time.

Seen as the premium model, the GR520 had a pair of'Infinity' humbuckers, a carved top, gold hardware, pearl/abalone block inlays and either vintage sunburst or orange sunburst finishes. It was produced from 94-96 or so

Bréguet 4

This article is about an aircraft of World War I. For the pre-war design of the same designation, see Breguet Type IV; the Bréguet Bre.4 known variously as the Type IV and BUM, was a French biplane bomber of World War I. A fighter version of it was produced as the BUC and BLC; the Bre.4 was developed during 1914 when French military planners began to express a preference for pusher- over tractor-configured aircraft, leading Bréguet Aviation to cease further development of its original Type IV design and pursue military contracts with an aircraft of the preferred layout. The Type IV was a two-bay, equal-span, unstaggered biplane that seated the pilot and observer in tandem open cockpits in a nacelle that carried the pusher engine at its rear, the tricycle undercarriage; as the prototype neared completion, the Bréguet factory at La Brayelle, Douai was threatened by the advancing German Army, the machine and its builders were evacuated to Villacoublay where construction and testing were completed.

At this point, André and Édouard Michelin approached the French government with an offer to sponsor the construction of 100 bombers for the French Army, were awarded a licence for the Bréguet design. This was put into production as the BUM. A revised version, the BLM, was the definitive Renault-powered version. Soon after the BUM entered service, the French Army requested that an escort fighter version be developed to protect the bombers from interception. Bréguet responded with a lightened design armed with a 37 mm Hotchkiss cannon, intended to pick off enemy fighters before they closed to within range of their machine guns; this entered production as the BUC in its original Canton-Unné powered version and BLC in its Renault version. Few of the BUC and BLC escort fighters were built, as their performance and utility were discovered to be lacking, the doctrine of the cannon-armed escort fighter was soon abandoned in favour of countering fighters with other similar fighters. Bréguet built 17 BUC/BLCs for the British Royal Navy's Royal Naval Air Service using British 225 hp Sunbeam Mohawk engines.

The Royal Navy called them the Bréguet de Chasse. They served alongside Caudron G.4s with No. 5 Wing RNAS – the Royal Navy's first air unit trained for long-range bombing – in Belgium from April to June 1916. Type IV Bréguet prototype. BUM Michelin-built, Canton-Unné-powered bomber version. BLM Michelin-built, Renault-powered bomber version. BUCMichelin-built, Canton-Unné-powered escort fighter version. BLCMichelin-built, Renault-powered escort fighter version. Bréguet de ChasseVersion of BLC for RNAS, powered by Rolls-Royce Falcon engine. FranceFrench Air Force RomaniaRoyal Romanian Air Force United KingdomRoyal Naval Air Service No. 5 Wing RNAS Data from General characteristics Crew: two and gunner Length: 9.50 m Wingspan: 16.40 m Height: 3.70 m Wing area: 54.0 m2 Empty weight: 1,160 kg Gross weight: 1,535 kg Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 2M7 water cooled radial engine, 149 kW Performance Maximum speed: 138 km/h Range: 399 km Endurance: 3 hoursArmament 1 × trainable 37 mm Hotchkiss cannon in front cockpit 300 kg of bombs Notes Bibliography

Freedom Project

Freedom Project is a Japanese promotional project by Nissin Cup Noodles for their 35th anniversary in 2006. As part of the project, the 7-part OVA series, titled Freedom, was commissioned with and designed by Katsuhiro Otomo serving as the character and mecha designer; the series is directed by Shuhei Morita, creator of the award-winning animation short Kakurenbo, is authored by celebrated writer Dai Satō, Katsuhiko Chiba and Yuuichi Nomura. The series displays its sponsor's product placement in numerous scenes in which characters are shown consuming Nissin Cup Noodles; the OVA is distributed by Bandai Visual. "Freedom Committee" is the collective term used for the entire creative team behind Freedom, which includes animators and production staff members who have worked on Steamboy. The theme song for the series, titled "This is Love", is performed by popular Japanese pop singer Utada Hikaru. A second song, "Kiss & Cry", Utada Hikaru's 19th Japanese single, was used for Nissin's fifth television commercial for Freedom, which began airing in Japan starting April 20, 2007.

Freedom is about a child, discovering a secret that could change the society he depends upon. Civilization on the Earth was destroyed by a permanent abnormal climate shift. Cities with millions of people had been built on the far side of the Moon and became the only place where humanity still survived; the remaining population declared the foundation of Republic Eden set forth expanding those lunar colonies that loved peace and freedom. More than 160 years have passed since then. In Eden, children complete their compulsory education program, they are integrated into the society as citizens. During their brief moratorium they are granted freedom. Like other boys, Takeru decides to take part in a race with his friends using machines particular to the Moon, called “Vehicle”, but what distinguishes. When his vehicle catches fire on a public road he is sentenced to 10 hours of "volunteer" work outside the dome, where he discovers the remains of a small crashed capsule bearing photographs and articles sent from Earth.

Structures visible in the background identify the location they were taken as the Kennedy launch facility in Florida. Infatuated with a young woman in the photograph, Takeru attempts to research conditions on Earth and finds that the library's information on the home planet is censored. Furthermore, nobody is permitted to travel far enough from the dome over the lunar surface to get within visual range, he discovers a small enclave of people living in a facility outside of Eden's centralized control, after befriending the enclave's leader is given access to a moon rover with sufficient range to get a view of Earth. He sees; the authorities of Eden pursue Takeru, attempting to suppress this discovery, but Takeru and his friend Bismarck manage to commandeer an old "escape" rocket and leave Eden to explore Earth first hand. The escape rocket's capsule comes down off course, landing in the ruins of Las Vegas, Takeru and Bismarck use Takeru's vehicle to make the overland trek across the United States.

Takeru — Age: 15 Height: 170 cm A third-generation Moon-dweller with a big appetite for Cup Noodles, Takeru has a warm and cheerful personality but is somewhat shy with girls. Takeru has a fascination for visiting the Earth. Kazuma — Age: 15 Height: 175 cm A close friend of Takeru, Kazuma is the quiet and cool type, he has a younger sister Chiyo. Bismarck — Age: 15 Height: 160 cm Close friends with Takeru and Kazuma, Bismarck has an introverted nature, he is called Biz by his friends. Although not an accomplished rider, he is an ace with vehicle mechanics. Taira — Age: 15 Height: 171 cm A Tube Race rival that Takeru met and lost out to in Freedom 1. Taira is an accomplished rider and leader of the Tube Racers group called Moon Shine. Junk — The owner of Moonraker, a garage found in Eden; this was where Takeru's vehicle was repaired and modified in preparation for the Tube Race in Freedom 1. Alan — A senior member of Freedom living in the subterranean levels of Eden's domes, he provides the high-powered engine for Takeru's damaged vehicle after his disastrous challenge with Taira.

Alan dons an Apollo jacket similar to the one worn by Takeru. His name is a reference to US Astronaut Alan Shepard. Ao - The young Native American woman in the photo that Takeru is trying to find. Chiyo — Kazuma's younger sister. Gosshu — A member of Moon Shine. Naomi — A member of Moon Shine; as with most other major film and animation releases in Japan, a wide array of promotional merchandise was marketed before and during the OVA's release, including Nissin Cup Noodles with lead character Takeru printed on the lid, small desktop figurines, a 4 flavours Nissin Cup Noodles bundled Freedom DVD gift set, a limited Nissin Cup Noodle container and badges designed by video rental outlet Tsutaya that came free with the purchase of Freedom 1, among tie-ins with other retailers. Although Freedom Project is a direct-to-video animation, it stands apart from conventional OVA series first by the involvement of Otomo, from the collabo

Hugh S. Hersman

Hugh Steel Hersman was a U. S. Representative from California. Born in Port Deposit, Hersman moved to California with his parents, who settled in Berkeley in 1881, he attended the public schools in California. He was graduated from the Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, in 1893, he studied at the University of California at Berkeley in 1897 and 1898. He served as president of the First National Bank, California, from 1914 to 1918, served as officer and director of various corporations. Hersman was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-sixth Congress, he was an unsuccessful for reelection in 1920 to the Sixty-seventh Congress. He served as member of the board of directors of the American Trust Co. Gilroy, California, he died in San Francisco, March 7, 1954. He was interred in Nottingham Cemetery, Maryland. United States Congress. "Hugh S. Hersman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov