Lady Margaret Beaufort
Lady Margaret Beaufort was the mother of King Henry VII and paternal grandmother of King Henry VIII of England. She was a key figure in an influential matriarch of the House of Tudor, she is credited with the establishment of two prominent Cambridge colleges, founding Christ's College in 1505 and beginning the development of St John's College, completed posthumously by her executors in 1511. Lady Margaret Hall, the first Oxford college to admit women, is named after her and has a statue of her in the college chapel, she was the daughter and sole heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his third surviving son, John of Gaunt by Katherine Swynford. Margaret was born at Bletsoe Castle, Bedfordshire, on either 31 May 1441 or, more on 31 May 1443; the day and month are not disputed, as she required Westminster Abbey to celebrate her birthday on 31 May. The year of her birth is more uncertain. William Dugdale, the 17th-century antiquary, suggested that she may have been born in 1441, based on evidence of inquisitions post mortem taken after the death of her father.
Dugdale has been followed by a number of Margaret's biographers. At the moment of her birth, Margaret's father was preparing to go to France and lead an important military expedition for King Henry VI. Somerset negotiated with the king to ensure that in case of his death the rights to Margaret's wardship and marriage would be granted only to his wife; as a tenant-in-chief of the crown the wardship of his heir fell to the crown under the feudal system. Somerset fell out with the king after coming back from France and was banished from the royal court pending a charge of treason against him, he died shortly afterwards. According to Thomas Basin, Somerset died of illness, but the Crowland Chronicle reported that his death was suicide. Margaret, as his only child, was heiress to his fortune. Upon her first birthday, the king broke the arrangement with Margaret's father and granted the wardship of her extensive lands to William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, although Margaret herself remained in the custody of her mother.
Margaret's mother was pregnant at the time of Somerset's death, but the child did not survive and Margaret remained the sole heir. Although she was her father's only legitimate child, Margaret had two maternal half-brothers and three maternal half-sisters from her mother's first marriage whom she supported after her son's accession to the throne. Margaret was married to John de la Pole; the wedding may have been held between 28 January and 7 February 1444, when she was a year old but no more than three. However, there is more evidence to suggest they were married in January 1450, after Suffolk had been arrested and was looking to secure his son's future. Papal dispensation was granted on 18 August 1450, necessary because the spouses were too related, this concurs with the date of marriage. Margaret never recognised this marriage. Three years the marriage was dissolved and King Henry VI granted Margaret's wardship to his own half-brothers and Edmund Tudor. In her will, made in 1472, Margaret refers to Edmund Tudor as her first husband.
Under canon law, Margaret was not bound by the marriage contract as she was entered into the marriage before reaching the age of twelve. Before the annulment of her first marriage, Henry VI chose Margaret as a bride for his half-brother, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond. Edmund was the eldest son of Catherine of Valois, by Owen Tudor. Margaret was 12 when she married the 24-year-old Edmund Tudor on 1 November 1455; the Wars of the Roses had just broken out. He died of the plague in captivity at Carmarthen on 3 November 1456, leaving a 13-year-old widow, seven months pregnant with their child. Taken into the care of her brother-in-law Jasper, at Pembroke Castle, the Countess gave birth on 28 January 1457 to her only child, Henry Tudor, the future Henry VII of England; the birth was difficult. She never gave birth again. Margaret and her son remained in Pembroke until the York triumphs of 1461 saw the castle pass to Lord Herbert of Raglan. From the age of two, Henry lived with his father's family in Wales, from the age of fourteen, he lived in exile in France.
During this period, the relationship between mother and son was sustained by letters and a few visits. The Countess always respected the memory of Edmund as the father of her only child. In 1472, sixteen years after his death, Margaret specified in her will that she wanted to be buried alongside Edmund though she had enjoyed a long and close relationship with her third husband, who had died in 1471. On 3 January 1458, the teenaged Margaret married Sir Henry Stafford, son of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham. A dispensation for the marriage, necessary because Margaret and Stafford were second cousins, was granted on 6 April 1457; the Countess enjoyed a long and harmonious marital relationship during her marriage to Stafford and they were given somewhat ruinous Woking Palace where Margaret sometimes retreated and which she restored. Margaret and her husband were given 400 marks' worth of land by Buckingham, but Margaret's own estates were still the main source of income, their marriage bore no children.
In 1471, Stafford
Earl of Northumberland
The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerage of England and of Great Britain, succeeding the title Earl of Northumbria. Its most famous holders were the House of Percy, who were the most powerful noble family in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages; the heirs of the Percys, via a female line, were made Duke of Northumberland in 1766. William de Percy, 1st Baron Percy, who came from the village of Percy in Normandy, was in the train of William I. After arriving in England following the Harrying of the North, he was bestowed modest estates in Yorkshire by Hugh d'Avranches. However, by the reign of Henry II the family was represented by only an heiress, Agnes de Percy following the death of the third feudal baron; as her dowry contained the manor of Topcliffe in Yorkshire, Adeliza of Louvain, the widowed and remarried second wife of Henry I, arranged the marriage of Agnes with her own young half-brother, Joscelin of Louvain. After their wedding, the nobleman from the Duchy of Brabant in the Holy Roman Empire settled in England.
He adopted the surname Percy and his descendants were created Earls of Northumberland. The Percys' line would go on to play a large role in the history of both Scotland; as nearly every Percy was a Warden of the Marches, Scottish affairs were of more concern than those in England. In 1309 Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy purchased Alnwick Castle from Bishop of Durham; the castle had been founded in the late 11th century by Ivo de Vesci, a Norman nobleman from Vassy, Calvados in Normandy. Descendent of Ivo de Vesci John de Vesci succeeded to his father's titles and estates upon his father's death in Gascony in 1253; these included the barony of Alnwick and a large property in Northumberland and considerable estates in Yorkshire, including Malton. Due to being under age, King Henry III of England conferred the wardship of John's estates to a foreign kinsmen, which caused great offence to the de Vesci family; the family's property and estates had been put into the guardianship of Bek, who sold them to the Percys.
From this time the fortunes of the Percys, though they still held their Yorkshire lands and titles, were linked permanently with Alnwick and its castle. Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy, granted the lands of Patrick IV, Earl of March, in Northumberland, by Edward II in 1316, began to improve the size and defences of the castle, he was given the manor and castle of Skipton. Was granted, by Edward III, the castle and barony of Warkworth in 1328, he was at the siege of Dunbar and the Battle of Halidon Hill and was subsequently appointed constable of Berwick-upon-Tweed. In 1346, Henry commanded the right wing of the English Army which defeated a larger Scottish force at the Battle of Neville's Cross, his son, Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy married Mary of Lancaster, an aunt of John of Gaunt's wife Blanche of Lancaster. In 1377 the next Henry Percy, was created Earl of Northumberland, which title he was given after the coronation of Richard II. Nor was this all, for he was that Northumberland whose doings in the next reign fill so large a part of Shakespeare's Henry IV, he was the father of the most famous Percy of all, Henry Percy the fifth, better known as "Hotspur."
Hotspur never became Earl of Northumberland, being slain at Shrewsbury in the lifetime of his father, whose estates were forfeited under attainder on account of the rebellion of himself and his son against King Henry IV. Henry V restored Hotspur's son, the second Earl, to his family honours, the Percys were staunch Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses which followed, the third Earl and three of his brothers losing their lives in the cause; the fourth Earl was involved in the political manoeuvrings of the last Yorkist kings Edward IV and Richard III. Through either indecision or treachery he did not respond in a timely manner at the Battle of Bosworth Field, thus helped cause his ally Richard III's defeat at the hands of Henry Tudor. In 1489, he was murdered by some of his tenants; the fifth Earl displayed magnificence in his tastes, being one of the richest magnates of his day, kept a large household establishment. Henry Percy, the sixth Earl of Northumberland, loved Anne Boleyn, was her accepted suitor before Henry VIII married her.
He married to the daughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury, but as he died without a son, his nephew, Thomas Percy became the seventh Earl. Thereafter, a succession of plots and counterplots—the Rising of the North, the plots to liberate Mary Queen of Scots, the Gunpowder Plot – each claimed a Percy among their adherents. On this account the eighth and ninth Earls spent many years in the Tower, but the tenth Earl, fought against King Charles in the Civil War, the male line of the Percy-Louvain house ending with Josceline, the eleventh Earl; the heiress to the vast Percy estates married the Duke of Somerset. The current duke lives at Syon House, just outside London. Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland Sir Henry Percy called Harry Hotspur KG heir apparent Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, grandson of Henry and son of "Hotspur" Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland, son of Henry 2nd Earl John Neville, Earl of Northumberland, Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, son of Henry 3rd
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Catherine Parr (1512 – 5 September 1548 was Queen of England and Ireland as the last of the six wives of King Henry VIII, the final queen consort of the House of Tudor. She married him on 12 July 1543, outlived him by one year. With four husbands she is the most-married English queen. Catherine enjoyed a close relationship with Henry's three children and was involved in the education of Elizabeth I and Edward VI, she was influential in Henry's passing of the Third Succession Act in 1543 that restored both his daughters and Elizabeth, to the line of succession to the throne. Catherine was appointed regent from July to September 1544 while Henry was on a military campaign in France and in case he lost his life, she was to rule as regent until Edward came of age; however he did not give her any function in government in his will. In 1543, she published Psalms or Prayers, anonymously. On account of Catherine's Protestant sympathies, she provoked the enmity of anti-Protestant officials, who sought to turn the King against her.
However and the King soon reconciled. Her book Prayers or Meditations became the first book published by an English queen under her own name, she assumed the role of Elizabeth's guardian following the King's death, published a second book, The Lamentation of a Sinner. Henry died on 28 January 1547. After the king's death, Catherine was allowed to keep the queens gowns as queen dowager. About six months after Henry's death, she married her fourth and final husband, Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley; the marriage was short-lived, as she died on Wednesday, 5 September 1548 due to complications of childbirth. Parr's funeral was held on 7 September 1548. Parr's funeral was the first Protestant funeral held in English in England and Ireland. Catherine Parr was born in 1512 in August, she was the eldest child of Sir Thomas Parr, lord of the manor of Kendal in Westmorland, of the former Maud Green, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Green, lord of Greens Norton and Joan Fogge. Sir Thomas Parr was a descendant of King Edward III, the Parrs were a substantial northern family which included many knights.
Catherine's paternal grandparents were Sir William Parr and Elizabeth FitzHugh, a daughter of Henry, Baron FitzHugh of Ravensworth Castle and Lady Alice Neville, sister of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. Catherine had a younger brother, William created first Marquess of Northampton, younger sister, Anne Countess of Pembroke. Sir Thomas was a close companion to King Henry VIII, was rewarded as such with responsibilities and/or incomes from his positions as Sheriff of Northamptonshire, Master of the Wards, Comptroller to the King, in addition to being the lord of Kendal. Catherine's mother was a close friend and attendant of Katherine of Aragon, Catherine Parr was named after Queen Katherine, her godmother, it was once thought. However, at the time of her birth, Kendal Castle was in poor condition. During her pregnancy, Maud Parr remained at court, attending the Queen, by necessity the Parr family was living in their townhouse at Blackfriars. Historians now consider it unlikely that Sir Thomas would have taken his pregnant wife on an arduous two-week journey north over bad roads to give birth in a crumbling castle in which neither of them seemed to spend much time.
Catherine's father died when she was young, she was close to her mother as she grew up. Catherine's initial education was similar to other well-born women, but she developed a passion for learning which would continue throughout her life, she was fluent in French and Italian, began learning Spanish after becoming queen. According to biographer Linda Porter, the story that as a child, Catherine could not tolerate sewing and said to her mother "my hands are ordained to touch crowns and sceptres, not spindles and needles" is certainly apocryphal. In 1529, when she was seventeen, Catherine married Sir Edward Burgh, a grandson of Edward Burgh, 2nd Baron Burgh. Earlier biographies mistakenly reported. Following the 2nd Baron Burgh's death in December 1528, Catherine's father-in-law Sir Thomas Burgh was summoned to Parliament in 1529 as Baron Burgh. Catherine's first husband may have been in poor health, he served as a feoffee as a justice of the peace. His father secured a joint patent in survivorship with his son for the office of steward of the manor of the soke of Kirton in Lindsey.
The younger Sir Edward Burgh died in the spring of 1533, not surviving to inherit the title of Baron Burgh. Following her first husband's demise, Catherine Parr may have spent time with the Dowager Lady Strickland, Katherine Neville, the widow of Catherine's cousin Sir Walter Strickland, at the Stricklands' family residence of Sizergh Castle in Westmorland. In the summer of 1534, Catherine married secondly John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer, her father's second cousin and a kinsman of Lady Strickland. With this marriage, Catherine became only the second woman in the Parr family to marry into the peerage; the twice-widowed Latimer was twice Catherine's age. From his first marriage to Dorothy de Vere, sister of John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford, he had two children and Margaret. Although Latimer was in financial difficulties after he and his brothers had pursued legal action to claim the title of Earl of Wa
Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester
Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester, KG was an English nobleman and politician. He was the legitimised bastard son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset by his mistress Joan Hill, he was born in about 1460, an illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset by his mistress Joan Hill. He was invested as a Knight of the Garter in about 1496. On his marriage in 1492 he was styled Baron Herbert in right of his wife, in 1506 he was created Baron Herbert of Ragland and Gower. On 1 February 1514, he was created Earl of Worcester and was at some time appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household to King Henry VIII; as Lord Chamberlain, Somerset was responsible for the preparations for the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. He married three times, although his second marriage is uncertain: Firstly on 2 June 1492, to Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert, daughter of William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, 2nd Baron Herbert, in right of whom he was created Lord Herbert. By Elizabeth Herbert he had the following children: Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester, only son and heir Elizabeth Somerset, his only daughter, wife successively of Sir John Savage and Sir William Brereton.
Secondly to Elizabeth West, daughter of Sir Thomas West, 8th Baron De La Warr. His supposed marriage to Elizabeth West, may be an error made by Dugdale, repeated by writers. By Elizabeth West he had the following progeny: Sir Charles Somerset Sir George Somerset Lady Mary Somerset of Worcester, wife successively of William Grey, 13th Baron Grey de Wilton and of Robert Carre. Thirdly to Eleanor Sutton, daughter of Edward Sutton, 2nd Lord Dudley. Somerset died on 15 March 1526 and was buried with his first wife at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Burke, Burke's genealogical and heraldic history of peerage and knightage, G. P. Putnam's Sons:New York, 1914. Gurney, E. Henry, Reference handbook for readers and teachers of English history, Ginn & Company:Boston, 1890. McClain, Beaufort: the duke and his duchess, 1657-1715, Yale University Press, 2001
Duke of Norfolk
The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, the Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England; the seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current duke is Edward 18th Duke of Norfolk; the dukes have been Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England. All past and present dukes have been descended from Edward I; the son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was Henry Earl of Surrey. Before the Dukes of Norfolk, there were the Bigod Earls of Norfolk, starting with Roger Bigod from Normandy, their male line ended with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who died without an heir in 1307, so their titles and estates reverted to the crown. Edward II granted his brother, Thomas of Brotherton, the title of Earl of Norfolk in 1312, it passed to Thomas's daughter, to her grandson, Thomas Mowbray. When Richard II made Thomas Mowbray the Duke of Norfolk in 1397, he conferred upon him the estates and titles that had belonged to the Earls of Norfolk.
His elderly grandmother Margaret was still alive, so at the same time she was created Duchess of Norfolk for life. Mowbray died in exile in 1399, some months after his grandmother, his dukedom was repealed, his widow took the title of Countess of Norfolk. Between 1401 and 1476, the Mowbray family held the title and estates of the Duke of Norfolk. John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk, died without male issue in 1476, his only surviving child being the 3-year-old Anne Mowbray. At the age of 3, a marriage was arranged between Anne and Richard, Duke of York, the four-year-old son of Edward IV, she remained Richard's child bride until she died at the age of 8. In accordance with the marriage arrangements, Richard inherited the lands and wealth of the Mowbray family, he was made Duke of Norfolk. However, upon the death of Edward IV, the throne was seized by Edward's brother, Richard III. After Prince Richard was confined in June 1483 to the Tower of London, where his elder brother was lodged, both Richard and Edward were declared illegitimate.
They subsequently disappeared, the titles of both York and Norfolk were forfeited to the crown. This left John Howard, the son of Thomas Mowbray's elder daughter Margaret, as heir to the dukedom, his support for Richard III's usurpation secured his creation as 1st Duke of Norfolk in 1483, in the title's third creation. From this point to the present, the title has remained in the hands of the descendants of John Howard; the Catholic faith of the Howard dynasty resulted in conflict with the reigning monarch during and after the reign of Henry VIII. In 1546, Thomas Howard, the third Duke, fell out of favour with the dying Henry and was attainted on 27 January 1547. Imprisoned in the Tower of London, he narrowly escaped execution through Henry's death the following day, but remained imprisoned until the death of Edward VI and the accession of the Catholic Queen Mary to the English throne in 1553, upon which his lands and titles were restored to him. However, the Duke died the following year aged around 81, was succeeded by his grandson Thomas as the fourth Duke of Norfolk.
Following Mary's death in 1553 and the accession of her sister Elizabeth I, the Duke was imprisoned for scheming to marry Elizabeth's cousin Mary, Queen of Scots. After his release under house arrest in 1570 and subsequent participation in the Ridolfi plot to enthrone Mary and Catholicism in England, he was executed in 1572 for treason and his lands and titles again became forfeit. In 1660, the fourth Duke's great-great-grandson, the 23rd Earl of Arundel, was restored to the family lands and dukedom. Mentally infirm, the fifth Duke never married and died in 1677, he was succeeded by his younger brother Henry as the 6th Duke, through whom the 7th Duke, 8th Duke and 9th Duke of Norfolk were descended in the male-line. At the death of the 9th Duke, the title was inherited in 1777 by his heir male, Charles Howard, a grandson of Charles Howard of Greystoke, a younger brother of the 5th and 6th Dukes, he was succeeded by his son, whose lack of a legitimate male heir resulted in the title passing to Bernard Howard, a great-grandson of Bernard Howard of Glossop, the youngest brother of the 5th and 6th Dukes.
The title passed to his son in 1842, Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk, the father of Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk, Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Glossop. The title passed through the line of the elder brother from 1856 until the death in 1975 of Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk without male issue, he was succeeded by his second cousin once removed, Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk, a great-grandson of the aforementioned 1st Baron Howard of Glossop. The current Duke of Norfolk is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, who succeeded his father, Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk, in 2002. In addition to the ducal title, the Dukes of Norfolk hold the hereditary position of Earl Marshal, which has the duty of organizing state occasions such as the coronation of the monarch and the state opening of Parliament. For the last five centuries, save some periods when it was under attainder, both the Dukedom and the Earl-Marshalship have been in the hands of the Howard family.
According to The House of Lords Act 1999, due to his duties as Earl Marshal, Norfolk is one of only two hereditary pee
Charles II of England
Charles II was king of England and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, king of England and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim.
After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance; the major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir, Duke of York, was a Catholic.
The crisis saw the birth of anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685, he was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses, he was succeeded by his brother James. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630, his parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII.
Charles was their second child. Their first son died within a day. England and Ireland were predominantly Anglican and Catholic. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud, he was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country.
By spring 1646, his father was losing the war, Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Setting off from Falmouth after staying at Pendennis Castle, he went first to the Isles of Scilly to Jersey, to France, where his mother was living in exile and his first cousin, eight-year-old Louis XIV, was king. Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who falsely claimed that they had secretly married, her son, James Crofts, was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.
Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, England became a republic. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland; when negotiations with the Scot