SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.

Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the government is responsible to the House of Commons and the prime minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although the House of Commons does not formally elect the prime minister, by convention and in practice, the prime minister is answerable to the House, therefore must maintain its support. In this way, the position of the parties in the House is of overriding importance. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the monarch appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the House—while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.

The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly: for instance, "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Before 2011, Parliament sat for anything up to five years; this was a maximum: the prime minister could, did, choose an earlier time to dissolve parliament, with the permission of the monarch. Since the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, the term has been fixed at five years.

However, an early general election can be brought about by the approval of MPs holding at least two-thirds of all seats or by a vote of no confidence in the government, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence. By the second of these mechanisms, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election; as at 31 October 2019, four of the nine last prime ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to form a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence in the prime minister or for personal reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to whoever can command a majority in the House, unless there is a hung parliament and a coalition is formed, it has become the practice to write the constitutions of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new party leader.

By convention, ministers are members of the House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened to be under way due to a recent death. As anticipated, he won that election, for the highest-majority seat in Scotland among his party. Since 1990 all cabinet ministers, save for three whose offices are an intrinsic part of the House of Lords, have belonged to the Commons. Few major cabinet positions have been filled by a peer in recent times. Notable exceptions are Peter Carington, 6th Lord Carrington, who served as Foreign Secretary from 1979 to 1982.

Gun mantlet

A gun mantlet is an armour plate or shield attached to an armoured fighting vehicle's gun, protecting the opening through which the weapon's barrel projects from the hull or turret armour and, in many cases, ensuring the vulnerable warhead of a loaded shell does not protrude past the vehicle's armour. On many tanks during World War II, the gun mantlet covered both the main gun and any coaxial armament, had the thickest armour on the vehicle. However, in many late Cold War and post-Cold War tank designs, the gun mantlet became one of the weaker parts of a vehicle's turret armour and thus a weakness; this was because as many mantlet designs were attached directly to the gun, it drastically increased the weight of the whole gun system and the amount of effort needed to elevate and depress it. This was an issue for gun stabilizers as they proved to be less efficient and accurate in keeping the gun steady with the added weight of the mantlet. Therefore, as seen in tanks such as the M1 Abrams and the Leopard 2, the mantlet had less armour than the rest of the turret to cut down on weight and they became far smaller to minimise the area that a projectile could hit for if it did, it would likely result in a penetration and disable the gun and damage the fighting compartment.

On vehicles such as the Chieftain, the mantlet is dispensed with completely. Gun shield Mantlet

Baguio Cathedral

Our Lady of the Atonement Cathedral, better known as Baguio Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral located at Cathedral Loop adjacent to Session Road in Baguio, the Philippines, is the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Baguio. Dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary under the title of Our Lady of Atonement, its distinctive pink exterior, twin spires and stained glass windows make it a popular tourist attraction in Baguio, it served as an evacuation centre under the Japanese Occupation during Second World War. The current parish priest is Bishop Carlito Cenzon. In 1907, a Catholic mission chapel, dedicated to St. Patrick, was established by Belgian missionaries from the Congregatio Immaculati Cordis Mariae; the site where the cathedral stands was a hill referred to as Kampo by the Ibaloi people. Construction of the cathedral itself began in 1920 under the leadership of the parish priest, Rev Florimond Carlu, who renamed the hill Mount Mary; the building was completed and consecrated in 1936.

It was dedicated to Our Lady of Atonement. During the Second World War, the cathedral was an evacuation centre, it withstood the carpet-bombing of Baguio by Allied forces during liberation on 15 March 1945; the remains of the thousands that had died in the bombardment are interred within the cathedral precinct. The cathedral has a distinctive pink façade with a rose window and twin square belfries with pyramidal roofs. Within its large courtyard is a viewing deck that overlooks Session Road and the downtown commercial district of Baguio; the cathedral is accessible to pedestrians from Session Road via 104-step stone staircase that ends at a Calvary, or through the adjacent campus of Saint Louis University. Roman Catholicism in the Philippines Official website Layug, Benjamin Locsin. A Tourist Guide to Notable Philippine Churches. Pasig, Philippines: New Day Publishers. Pp. 76–77. ISBN 971-8521-10-0