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House of Dinefwr

The House of Dinefwr was a royal house of Wales and refers to the descendants of Cadell ap Rhodri, King of Seisyllwg, son of Rhodri the Great. With the death of Rhodri Mawr, the kingdom of Gwynedd passed to his eldest son Anarawd ap Rhodri. Rhodri's second son Cadell ap Rhodri, looked outside Gwynedd's traditional borders and took possession of the Early Medieval Kingdom of Dyfed by the late 9th century, establishing his capital at the citadel of Dinefwr. Cadell ap Rhodri's descendants are designated Dinefwr after the citadel from which they would rule Dyfed; the Dinefwr dynasty under king Hywel Dda would unite Dyfed and Seisyllwg into the kingdom of Deheubarth in the early 10th century. The Dinefwr dynasty would rule in Deheubarth until their conquest by the Anglo-Normans in the 13th century; this branch would compete with House Aberffraw for supremacy and influence in Wales throughout the 10th, 11th, 12th century, with Powys variously ruled between them. A cadet branch of Dinefwr would establish itself in Powys by the mid 11th century, designated Mathrafal after the castle there

East Koochiching, Minnesota

East Koochiching is an unorganized territory in Koochiching County, United States. The population was 383 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the unorganized territory has a total area of 386.1 square miles, of which 385.2 square miles of it is land and 0.9 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 383 people, 151 households, 109 families residing in the unorganized territory; the population density was 1.0 people per square mile. There were 273 housing units at an average density of 0.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the unorganized territory was 95.82% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.52% from other races, 2.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population. There were 151 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.2% were married couples living together, 1.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families.

23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.03. In the unorganized territory the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 118.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.1 males. The median income for a household in the unorganized territory was $32,083, the median income for a family was $32,857. Males had a median income of $35,156 versus $40,179 for females; the per capita income for the unorganized territory was $16,555. About 14.6% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.9% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over

Script (comics)

A script is a document describing the narrative and dialogue of a comic book in detail. It is the comic book equivalent of a film screenplay. In comics, a script may be preceded by a plot outline, is always followed by page sketches, drawn by a comics artist and inked, succeeded by the coloring and lettering stages. There are no prescribed forms of comic scripts, but there are two dominant styles in the mainstream comics industry, the full script and the plot script. In this style, the comics writer breaks the story down in sequence, page-by-page and panel-by-panel, describing the action and sometimes backgrounds and "camera" points-of-view of each panel, as well as all captions and dialogue balloons. For decades, this was the preferred format for books published by DC Comics. Peter David described his specific application of the full script method: "I break down each page on a panel by panel basis and label them as PANEL A, PANEL B, so on. I describe what's in each panel, do the dialogue, numbering the balloons.

I designate the panels with letters and the word balloons with numbers so as to minimize confusion for the letterer." In a plot script the artist works from a story synopsis from the writer, rather than a full script. The artist creates page-by-page plot details on his or her own, after which the work is returned to the writer for the insertion of dialogue. Due to its widespread use at Marvel Comics beginning in the 1960s under writer-editor Stan Lee and artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, this approach became known as the Marvel method or Marvel house style. Comics historian Mark Evanier writes that this "new means of collaboration... was born of necessity—Stan was overburdened with work—and to make use of Jack's great skill with storylines.... Sometimes Stan would type up a written plot outline for the artist. Sometimes, not." As comic-book writer-editor Dennis O'Neil describes, the Marvel method "... requires the writer to begin by writing out a plot and add words when the penciled artwork is finished....n the mid-sixties, plots were more than a typewritten page, sometimes less," while writers in times "might produce as many as twenty-five pages of plot for a twenty-two page story, include in them snatches of dialog.

So a Marvel Method plot can run from a couple of paragraphs to something much longer and more elaborate."The Marvel method was in place with at least one artist by early 1961, as Lee described in 2009 when speaking of his and Ditko's "short, five-page filler strips... placed in any of our comics that had a few extra pages to fill", most prominently in Amazing Fantasy but previously in Amazing Adventures and other "pre-superhero Marvel" science-fiction/fantasy anthology titles. "I'd dream up odd fantasy tales with an O. Henry type twist ending. All I had to do was give Steve a one-line description of the plot and he'd be off and running. He'd take those skeleton outlines I had given him and turn them into classic little works of art that ended up being far cooler than I had any right to expect."The October 2018 issue of DC Comics' in-house previews magazine, DC Nation, featured a look at the creative process that writer Brian Michael Bendis and artists Ryan Sook, Wade von Grawbadger and Brad Anderson employed on Action Comics #1004, which included pages of Bendis' script that were broken down panel by panel, albeit without dialogue.

Advantages of the Marvel method over the full script method that have been cited by creators and industry professionals include: The fact that artists, who are employed to visualize scenes, may be better equipped to determine panel structure The greater freedom this gives artists The lower burden placed on the writer. Cited disadvantages include: The fact that not all artists are talented writers, some struggle over aspects such as plot ideas and pacing It takes advantage of artists, who are paid for art alone though they are working as co-writers, In a variation of the plot script, attributed to Harvey Kurtzman, the writer breaks down the story into page roughs or thumbnail sketches, with captions and dialogue jotted down inside the roughs; the artist fleshes out the roughs onto full-size art board. Writer/artists Frank Miller and Jeff Smith favor this style. Attributed to William Gaines, the EC style is similar to the Kurtzman style, except the writer submits a tight plot to an artist, who breaks it down into panels that are laid out on the art board.

The writer writes all captions and dialogue, which are pasted inside these panels, the artist draws the story to fit all of this paste-up. This laborious and restrictive way of creating comics is no longer in general use. Glossary of comics terminology Script breakdown Screenwriting Storyboard