Satu Mare County
Satu Mare County is a county of Romania on the border with Hungary and Ukraine. The capital city is Satu Mare. Besides Romanians, Satu Mare features a significant ethnic minority of Hungarians. In Hungarian, it is known as Szatmár megye, in German as Kreis Sathmar, in Ukrainian as Сату-Маре, in Slovak as Satmárska župa. Satu Mare is a multicultural city, with a population mix of Romanian, Roma and other ethnicities. In 2002, Satu Mare County had a population of 367,281 and the population density was 83/km². Romanians – 58.8% Hungarians – 35.2% Roma – 3.7% Germans – 1.7% Ukrainians, otherIn 2011, its population was 329,079 and population density was 74.48/km². Romanians – 57.73% Hungarians – 34.5% Roma – 5.32% Germans – 1.51% Rusyns, Slovaks, otherHungarians reside along the border with Hungary, but some are scattered throughout the whole county. Hungarians were concentrated in the cities, where administration resides, while the Romanian population was larger in the villages throughout the county.
In 1930 the Hungarians were representing 41,9% of the urban population in Satu Mare County and only 20,0% of the population in the villages according to census data. The proportion of different ethnic groups varied throughout the history, due to regime and political changes. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the Hungarian population increased its proportion in 1880 representing 44.4% and in 1910 reaching 55.1% of the county population, according to Árpád E. Varga. After World War I the Hungarian and German population declined; this county has a total area of 4,418 square kilometres. In the north are the Oaș Mountains, part of the Eastern Carpathians; this makes up around 17% of the area. The remainder is hills, forming 20% of the area, plains; the western county takes up the Eastern part of the Pannonian Plain. The county is crossed by the Someș River and Tur River and Crasna River; the county lies in the historical region of Maramureș and in the historical region of Crișana. Maramureș County in the East.
Hungary in the West – Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Ukraine in the North – Zakarpattia Oblast. Bihor County and Sălaj County in the South, it is a member of the Carpathian euroregion. Satu Mare County benefits from its position, close to the border of Romania with Hungary and Ukraine, it is one of the places which attracts foreign investment in industry and agriculture; the predominant industries in the county are: Textiles industry. Machine and automotive components. Food industry. Wood and furniture industry; the main tourist attractions in the county are: The "Oaș Country", with its strong Romanian folk traditions, on the North Eastern side of the county. The Oaș Mountains; the cities of Satu Mare and Carei. Tășnad Resort; the fortifications from Ardud and Medieșu Aurit The Satu Mare County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 33 counselors, with the following party composition: Satu Mare County has 2 municipalities, 4 towns and 59 communes: Municipalities Satu Mare – county seat.
Its territory lay in the historical Crişana region. After the administrative unification law in 1925, the name of the county remained as it was, but the territory was reorganized, it was bordered on the northwest by Hungary, on the north by Czechoslovakia, to the east by Maramureş County, to the southeast by Someș County, to the south and southwest by Sălaj County. Its territory is included in the current counties of Satu Mare and Maramureș. In 1930, the county was divided into eight districts: Plasa Arded Plasa Baia Mare Plasa Mănăștur Plasa Oașiu Plasa Satu Mare Plasa Seini Plasa Șomcuta Mare Plasa Ugocea The county included the city of Satu Mare and the urban communes Baia Mare and Baia Sprie. Prior to World War I, the territory of the county belonged to Austria-Hungary and was contained in the Szatmár County of the Kingdom of Hungary; the territory of Satu Mare County was transferred to Romania from Hungary as successor state to Austria-Hungary in 1920 under the Treaty of Trianon. In 1938, King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed.
10 ținuturi were created to be ruled by rezidenți regali - appointed directly by the King - instead of the prefects. Satu Mare County became part of Ținutul Crișuri. In 1940, the county was transferred back to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania under the Second Vienna Award. Beginning in 1944, Romanian forces with Soviet assistance recaptured the ceded territory and reintegrated into Romania. Romanian jurisdiction over the county per the Treaty of Trianon was reaffirmed in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947; the county was disestablished by the communist government of Romania in 1950, re-established in 1968 when Romania restored the county administrative system. According to the 1930 census data, the county population was 294,875, 60.5% Romanians, 25.2% Hungarians, 8.1% Jews, 3.2% Germans, as well as other minorities. From a religious point of view, the population consisted of 59.0% Greek Catholics, 15.0% Roman Cath
Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia
Dragoș known as Dragoș Vodă, or Dragoș the Founder was the first Voivode of Moldavia, who reigned in the middle of the 14th century, according to the earliest Moldavian chronicles. The same sources say that Dragoș came from Maramureş while chasing an aurochs or bison across the Carpathian Mountains, his descălecat, or "dismounting", on the banks of the Moldova River has traditionally been regarded as the symbol of the foundation of the Principality of Moldavia in Romanian historiography. Most details of his life are uncertain. Historians have identified him either with Dragoș of Bedeu or with Dragoș of Giulești, who were Vlach, or Romanian, landowners in the Kingdom of Hungary. Most Moldavian chronicles write that Dragoș came to Moldavia in 1359, but modern historians tend to propose an earlier date. Dragoș became the head of a march of the Kingdom of Hungary, which emerged after a Hungarian army inflicted a crushing defeat on a large army of the Golden Horde in 1345. Early sources say that he founded Baia and Siret, invited Saxon settlers who introduced viticulture in Moldavia.
According to the traditional dating, he died in 1361, but earlier years have been suggested by historians. Dragoș did not establish a royal dynasty, because his grandson, was expelled from Moldavia by Bogdan of Cuhea, another Vlach landowner from Maramureş; the early 16th-century Moldo-Russian Chronicle, which contains the most detailed description of the foundation of Moldavia, described Dragoș as one of the "Romans" who had received estates in Maramureș from "King Vladislav of Hungary". According to the chronicle, the king invited the "Romans" to fight against the Tatars and settled them in Maramureș after their victory over the invaders. Modern historians' attempts to determine Dragoș's family connections and to describe his early life have not produced a broad consensus. According to a scholarly theory, he was identical with Dragoș of Bedeu, mentioned in a royal charter, issued in late 1336. In that charter, Charles I of Hungary instructed the Eger Chapter to determine the boundaries of the domain of Bedeu that he had donated to the brothers Drag and Dragoș.
Drag and Dragoș were mentioned as the king's "servants", showing that they were directly subjected to the sovereign, like all noblemen in the Kingdom of Hungary. Historian Radu Carciumaru says that the identification of Dragoș of Bedeu with Dragoș, the first ruler of Moldavia has not been convincingly proven. A second scholarly hypothesis suggests that another Vlach lord, Dragoș of Giulești, was the founder of Moldavia, he was the son of one Giula, son of Dragoș, to whom Charles I of Hungary granted two estates in Maramureș – Giulești and the nearby Nireș – at an unspecified date, according to a royal charter, dated to 15 September 1349. Giula and his six sons remained loyal to Charles I's son and successor, Louis I of Hungary when two other Vlach lords, Bogdan of Cuhea and Stephen, son of Iuga, tried to persuade them to turn against the sovereign. In revenge, Bogdan of Cuhea and Stephen expelled them from their estates. In his diploma, King Louis ordered John, the Vlach voivode of Maramureș, to reinstate Dragoș of Giulești and his family in the possession of their estates.
Historians Victor Spinei and István Vásárhelyi say that Dragoș of Giulești and Dragoș, voivode of Moldavia were not identical. Based on the similarity of certain place names in Maramureș and Moldavia, taking into account local folklore, historian Ștefan S. Gorovei proposes that Dragoș was a member of the Codrea family who held the domain of Câmpulung in Maramureș, he says that parallel toponyms – for instance, Bedeu in Maramureș and Bădeuți in Moldavia – shows that Vlach groups from the region of Câmpulung settled in the basin of the Siret River. According to Carciumaru, no documentary evidence substantiates Gorovei's theory; the Ragusan historian, Jacob Luccari, who completed his chronicle in 1601, wrote that Dragoș had been "the baron of Khust, a town in Transylvania" before moving to Moldavia. Khust was a fortified town in Maramureș in the 14th century; the Drágffys, who were descended from Dragoș, held Khust for a short period at the end of the century, but no document proves that Dragoș had whenever held the same town.
The Moldavian chronicles preserved several variants of the legend of Dragoș's hunting for an aurochs or bison, ending with his "dismounting" by the Moldova River, which gave rise to the development of Moldavia. The Anonymous Chronicle of Moldavia contains a short summary: "In the year 6867 Dragoș Voivode came from the Hungarian country, from Maramureș, hunting an aurochs...". The Moldo-Polish Chronicle preserved a more detailed story: "By the will of God, the first voivode, Dragoș, came from the Hungarian country from the town and river of, hunting an aurochs which he killed on the river Moldova. There he feasted with his noblemen, liking the country he remained there, bringing from Hungary as colonists...". According to the most comprehensive Moldo-Russian Chronicle, after the hunting Dragoș returned to Maramureș to persuade the local Vlachs to accompany him back to Moldavia. On the other hand, the 17th-century Grigore Ureche did not mention Dragoș when narrating the legend of the "dismounting".
According to Ureche's version, Transylvanian shepherds chased the aurochs and killed it at Boureni whose name is connected to the Romanian word for aurochs. Ureche stated that the head of an aurochs was put on the coat-of-arms of Moldavia on this occasion. Scholar Mircea Eliade dedicated a separate chapter to "Voiv
Voivode of Transylvania
The Voivode of Transylvania was the highest-ranking official in Transylvania within the Kingdom of Hungary from the 12th century to the 16th century. Appointed by the monarchs, the voivodes – themselves the heads or ispáns of Fehér County – were the superiors of the ispáns of all the other counties in the province, they had wide-ranging administrative and judicial powers, but their jurisdiction never covered the whole province. The Saxon and Székely communities – organized into their own districts or "seats" from the 13th century – were independent of the voivodes; the kings exempted some Transylvanian towns and villages from their authority over the centuries. So, the Voivodeship of Transylvania "was the largest single administrative entity" in the entire kingdom in the 15th century. Voivodes enjoyed income from the royal estates attached to their office, but the right to "grant lands, collect taxes and tolls, or coin money" was reserved for the monarchs. Although Roland Borsa, Ladislaus Kán and some other voivodes rebelled against the sovereign, most remained faithful royal officials.
Because of the gradual disintegration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary in the 16th century, the last voivodes of Transylvania, who came from the Báthory family, ceased to be high-ranking officials. Instead they were the heads of state, although under Ottoman suzerainty, of a new principality emerging in the eastern territories of the kingdom. Accordingly, Stephen Báthory, the voivode elected by the Diet of the new realm abandoned the title of voivode and adopted that of prince in 1576, upon his election as King of Poland; the origin of the office is unclear. The title voivode is of Slavic origin with a meaning of "commander, lieutenant". Although Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos wrote of the voivodes or chieftains of the Hungarian tribes around 950, he seems to have adopted the term used by a Slavic interpreter; the border position of Transylvania led to the formation of the voivodeship, since the monarchs could not maintain direct control over this remote region. Thus the voivodes remained provincial officials of the kings.
The voivodes were heads of Fehér County from 1201, which may indicate that their position had its origin in the office of that county's ispán. Two royal charters issued in 1111 and 1113 mention one Mercurius "princeps Ultrasilvanus", but he may have been only an important landowner in Transylvania without holding any specific office; the title voivode was first documented in 1199, but Leustach Rátót voivode living some years earlier was mentioned by a document from 1230. In addition to voivode, royal charters used the titles banus and herzog for the same office in the next decades, showing that the terminology remained uncertain until the second half of the 13th century; the territories under the jurisdiction of the voivodes are known as Voivodeship of Transylvania or Voivodate of Transylvania. Voivodes were the chiefs of the ispáns of the Transylvanian counties. Although the counties in Transylvania were first attested from the 1170s, earlier references to fortresses at their seats and archaeological finds suggest that a system of counties existed in the 11th century.
For instance, Torda County was first mentioned in a charter of 1227, but a royal castle at Torda had been documented in 1097, three burials coin-dated to the reign of Stephen I of Hungary were unearthed in the same fortress. The ispáns of the Transylvanian counties of Doboka, Kolozs, Küküllő and Torda were not listed among the witnesses of royal charters from the beginning of the 13th century, hinting that their direct connection to the monarchs had by that time been interrupted. Thereafter they were employed by the voivode who dismissed them at will. Only the heads of Szolnok County remained directly connected to the monarchs for a longer period, until their office was united with the voivodeship in the 1260s; the voivodes were the ispáns of the nearby Arad County between 1321 and 1412. The kings exempted some communities from the jurisdiction of the voivodes; the Diploma Andreanum, a royal charter of 1224, placed the territory of the Saxons between Broos and Barót under the authority of the Count of Hermannstadt, appointed by and directly subordinate to the monarchs.
A special royal official, the Count of the Székelys, administered the Székely community from around 1228. In the latter case, the two offices were united by custom in 1462: from on each voivode was appointed Count of the Székelys. Following the Mongol invasion of 1241 and 1242, King Béla IV of Hungary exempted the inhabitants of Bilak, Gyulafehérvár, Tasnád and Zilah. King Charles I of Hungary granted immunity to the Saxon communities of Birthälm, Mediasch in 1315, but the same monarch annulled other communities' similar privileges in 1324. Altrodenau and Bistritz received immunity in 1366; the office of voivode was one of the most important royal honours in the kingdom. All income from lands attached to the Transylvanian royal castles was collected for the voivodes, they enjoyed the income from fines, but royal revenues from taxes and mines remained the kings' due. During most of the 14th century, the voivodes held the castles at Bánffyhunyad, Boroskrakkó, Csicsóújfalu, Déva, Hátszeg (Haț
Maramureș County is a county of Romania, in the Maramureș region. The county seat is Baia Mare. In Hungarian it is known as Máramaros megye, in Ukrainian as Мараморо́щина, in German as Kreis Marmarosch. In 2011 the county had a population of 461,290 and a population density of 73.17 inhabitants per square kilometre. Romanians - 82.38% Hungarians - 7.53% Ukrainians - 6.77% Romani - 2.73% Germans - 0.27%, others. In 1910, 18.4% of the county were Jewish. Maramureș County is situated in the northern part of Romania, has a border with Ukraine; this county has a total area of 6,304 square kilometres, of which 43% is covered by the Rodna Mountains, with its tallest peak, Pietrosul, at 2,303 metres altitude. Together with Gutâi and Țibleș mountain ranges, the Rodna mountains are part of the Eastern Carpathians; the rest of the county are hills and valleys. The county is crossed by Tisa River and its main tributaries: Iza, Vișeu, Mara rivers. Suceava County to the East. Satu Mare County to the West. Ukraine to the North - Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast.
Sălaj County, Cluj County and Bistrița-Năsăud County to the South. Maramureș is known for its pastoral and agricultural traditions unscathed by the industrialisation campaign, carried on during Romania's communist period. Ploughing, planting and hay making and handling are done through manual labour; the county is home to a strong mining industry of extraction of metals other than iron. The industrial plants built around Baia Mare during the communist period polluted the area in the past, but due to the decline of the city's industrial activity, the area is less polluted; the region is known for its beautiful rural scenery, local small woodwork and craftwork industry as well as for its churches and original rural architecture. There are not many paved roads in rural areas, most of them are accessible; the county's main tourist attractions: The cities of Baia Mare and Sighetu Marmației. The villages on the Iza, Vișeu Valleys; the Wooden churches of Maramureș The Wooden churches of Lăpuș The Wooden churches of Chioar The Merry Cemetery of Săpânța The Rodna Mountains.
The landscape of Cavnic. The Maramureș County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 35 councilors, with the following party composition: Maramureș County has 2 municipalities, 11 towns and 63 communes. Municipalities Baia Mare - county seat. In the 12th century by the separation from Borsova Máramaros County in created in the north-eastern border of the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1241 the Tatar invasion decimated about half of the local population. Inthe 14th century Duke Bogdan of Maramureș said to be founder of Moldavia. In the Middle Ages, the historical region of Máramaros was known for its salt mines and for its lumber. In 1920 after the Treaty of Trianon, the northern part of the county became part of newly formed Czechoslovakia; the southern part became part of the Kingdom of Romania. After the administrative unification law in 1925, the county remained as it was, with the identical name and territory. In 1938 King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed.
10 ținuturi were created to be ruled by rezidenți regali - appointed directly by the King - instead of the prefects. Maramureș County became part of Ținutul Crișuri. In 1940 the county was transferred back to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania under the Second Vienna Award. Beginning in 1944, Romanian forces with Soviet assistance recaptured the ceded territory and reintegrated it into Romania, re-establishing the county. Romanian jurisdiction over the county per the Treaty of Trianon was reaffirmed in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947; the county was disestablished by the communist government of Romania in 1950, re-established in 1968 when Romania restored the county administrative system. In 1930, the county was divided into three districts: Plasa Iza Plasa Sighet Plasa Vișeu Subsequently the Iza and Sighet districts were reorganized into three districts, adding one: Plasa Şugatag According to the 1930 census, the county's population was 194,619, 57.9% Romanian, 20.9% Jews, 11.9% Ruthenians, 6.9% Hungarians, 2.0% Germans, as well as other minorities.
The following composition was recorded from the religious point of view: 64.4% Greek Catholic, 21.0% Jewish, 6.4% Roman Catholic, 5.3% Eastern Orthodox, 1.8% Reformed, as well as other minorities. In 1930 the county's urban population ethnically consisted of 38.6% Jews, 35.4% Romanians, 19.9% Hungarians, 4.5% Ruthenians, as well as other minorities. Yiddish was spoken by 36.6% of the urban population, followed by Romanian, Ukrainian, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban inhabitants were Jewish, Greek Catholics, Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, as well as other minorities. Natives of the county include: Augustin Buzura Ștefan Hrușcă Gheorghe Pop de Băsești Paula Seling Elie Wiesel
The Ruthenian Voivodeship was a voivodeship of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1434 until the 1772 First Partition of Poland. With a center in the city of Lviv. Together with a number of other voivodeships of southern and eastern part of the Kingdom of Poland, it formed Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown, with its capital city in Kraków. Following the Partitions of Poland, most of Ruthenian Voivodeship, except for its northeastern corner, was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, as part of the province of Galicia. Today, the former Ruthenian Voivodeship is divided between Ukraine. Following the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia was divided between Poland and Lithuania. In 1349 the Polish portion was transformed into the Ruthenian domain of the Crown, while the Duchy of Volhynia was held by Prince Lubart. With the death of Casimir III the Great, the Kingdom of Poland was passed on to the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ruthenian domain was governed by Ruthenian starosta general, one of whom was Wladyslaw of Opole.
The voivodeship was created in 1434 based on the 1430 Jedlnia-Cracow Privilege on territory that belonged to the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia. Between 1349 and 1434, the territory along with the Western Podolie was known as Ruthenian Domain of the Crown and in such manner the King of Poland were titled as the Lord of Ruthenian lands. Western Podolie was added to the domain in 1394. In 1434 on territory of the domain were created Ruthenian Voivodeship and Podolian Voivodeship. In Polish sources, western outskirts of the region was called Ziemia czerwieńska, or "Czerwień Land", from the name of Cherven, a town that existed there. Today there are several towns with none of them related to Red Ruthenia; this area was mentioned for the first time in 981, when Volodymyr the Great of Kievan Rus' took it over on the way into Poland. In 1018 it attached to Poland and 1031 back to Kievan Rus'. For 150 years it existed as the independent Principality of Halych and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, before being conquered by Casimir III of Poland in 1349.
Since these times the name Ruś Czerwona is recorded, translated as "Red Ruthenia", applied to a territory extended up to Dniester River, with priority transferred to Przemyśl. Since the times of Władysław II Jagiełło, the Przemyśl voivodeship was called Ruthenian Voivodeship, with its center transferred to Lwów, it consisted of five lands: Lwów, Halych, Przemyśl, Chełm. The territory was controlled by the Austrian Empire from 1772 to 1918, when it was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Zygmunt Gloger, in his monumental book Historical Geography of the Lands of Old Poland, provides this description of the Ruthenian Voivodeship: In the 10th and 11th centuries and Czerwien were the largest gords in this region. On, Halych emerged as the capital of the province, while the city of Lwów was founded only in 1250. In ca. 1349, King Casimir III of Poland took control over Principality of Halych. The province was governed by royal starostas, the first one of whom was a man named Jasiek Tarnowski.
Most in final years of reign of King Władysław II Jagiełło, it was named the Ruthenian Voivodeship, as at that time the voivodes of Przemysl began calling themselves the voivodes of Rus'. Firs such voivode was Jan Mezyk of Dabrowa; the Ruthenian Voivodeship consisted of five ziemias: those of Lwów, Sanok and Chelm. The two last ones had their own local authorities. Therefore, we should speak separately of four Ruthenian lands, the Land of Chelm, whose history was much different after the Partitions of Poland The lands of Lwow and Sanok had their sejmiks, which took place in their respective capitals. General sejmiks for these three lands were at Sadowa Wisznia, where seven deputies were elected to the Polish Sejm: two from each land, one from the County of Zydaczow. Starostas resided at Lwów, Zhydachiv and Sanok; the voivodeship had six senators: the Archbishop of Lwow, the Bishop of Przemysl, the Voivode of Ruthenia, the Castellan of Lwow, Castellans of Przemysl and Sanok The city of Lwów was the seat of a separate Lesser Poland Tribunal for the voivodeships of Ruthenia, Volhynia, Belz and Czernihow The County of Zydaczow though part of Lwow Land, was regarded as a separate ziemia, with its own coat of arms, granted in 1676.
In that years, Lwow Land had 618 villages and 42 towns, while County of Zydaczow had 170 villages and 9 towns. The Land of Przemysl was divided into two counties: those of Przeworsk. In 1676, the County of Przemysl had 657 villages and 18 towns, while the County of Przeworsk had 221 villages and 18 towns The Land of Sanok, located in the Carpathian Foothills, was not divided into counties. In 1676, it had 371 villages and 12 towns The Land of Halicz, with its own separate local government, was divided into the counties of Trembowla and Kolomyja, it had its own sejmik at Halicz, where six deputies were elected to the Polish Sejm one deputy to the Crown Tribunal and one to the Treasury Tribunal at Radom. The Land of Halicz had one senator, starostas, who resided in Halicz, Kolomuja, Rohatyn, Sniatyn and other locations. In 1676, it had 38 towns; the Land of Chelm was an enclave, separated from
Transylvania is a historical region, located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains; the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, the Romanian part of Banat. The region of Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, it contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Bistrița. The Western world associates Transylvania with vampires, because of the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations. Historical names of Transylvania are: Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania Russian: Ардял, translit. Ardjal, Трансильвания Transil'vanija Hungarian: Erdély Ukrainian: Семигород, translit. Semyhorod, Залісся Zalissja, Трансильванія Transyl'vanija Serbian: Ердељ, translit. Erdelj, Трансилванија Transilvanija Croatian: Sedmogradska, Transilvanija Bulgarian: Седмоградско, translit.
Sedmogradsko, Трансилвания Transilvanija Slovak: Sedmohradsko German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya Romani: TransilvaniyaIn Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania. The earliest known reference to Transylvania appears in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest". Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form Ultrasylvania Transsylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve; that was used as an alternative name in German überwald and Ukrainian Залісся. The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven castles", after the seven Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region; this is the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Croatian Sedmogradska, the Bulgarian Седмиградско, Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian Семигород.
The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum as Erdeuleu or Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, the word Elve denotes a region in connection with this to the Hungarian name for Muntenia. Erdel, Erdelistan, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as well; the first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu. The Romanian Ardeal is derived from the Hungarian Erdély. Transylvania has been dominated by several different countries throughout its history, it was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia. In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Huns, Gepids and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania, it is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula.
There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest. The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived; the Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula. Some historians assert Transylvania was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, while others claim that it was settled, since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. In 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, ruled by Calvinist Hungarian princes.
During that time, the ethnic composition of Transylvania transformed from an estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter to the sultan around 1650. For most of this period, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; the Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, the region was attached to the Habsburg Empire; the Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, but the territory of principality was administratively separa
The Frankopan family, was a Croatian noble family, whose members were among the great landowner magnates and high officers of the Kingdom of Croatia in union with Hungary. The Frankopan family was one of the leading Croatian aristocratic families from the 12th to the 17th century. Since the 15th century they were trying to link themselves to the Roman patrician Frangipani family; however Croatian Encyclopedia, Italian Encyclopedia and German Biographical Lexicon of the History of Southeastern Europe by the Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Studies question the bloodline connection between the two families and remind of the common fashion of medieval noble families in Europe to try and connect themselves to ancient Roman nobility. Along with the members of the Zrinski family the Frankopan ranked high in terms of importance by virtue of power, fame and role in Croatian and Hungarian history; the first known member of Croatian lineage of the Frankopan family was Dujam I Krčki, lord of Krk who received permission by Domenico Michieli, Doge of Venice from 1118 to 1130, to rule the island of Krk as vassal of the Republic of Venice.
His exact origin is unknown, but he and his descendants were referred to as the Counts of Krk in historical documents. In 1428 Nikola IV Krčki was the first of the Counts of Krk to call himself Frankapan. In 1430 he managed to receive recognition from Pope Martin V for being a descendant of the old Roman patrician family Frangipani and started using their name and coat of arms. In 1240–1241 the Mongol Empire advanced from Poland toward Hungary whose King, Béla IV resisted bravely but had to seek refuge in Dalmatia. King Béla stayed with the Frankopans who assisted him with arms and funds and brought him into safety in Veglia and brought him back to his own land; as reward the King gave the Frankopans the county of Senj with surrounding lands and the castle of Modruš. In 1246 there was another war, between Frederick II, Duke of Austria and Béla, with the assistance of the Frankopan, won a victory; as a further reward, King Béla by royal decree, created the Frankopans as Lords of their territory for them and their descendants.
The Frankopans supported the Catholic Church. In particular, Nikola Frankopan reconstructed the Holy House of Our Lady in 1294 in Tersatto, it is recorded that in 1291, Nikola Frankopan sent a delegation to Nazareth to measure the Holy House after the House had been saved by the Crusaders, brought to Trsat or Tersatto, on the Adriatic Coast where the Frankopans had a castle. In 1294 Nikola Frankopan, gave the Holy House to the Pope to be placed on Papal lands, at Loreto, near Ancona. Although the possessions of the family were exposed to every assault both from the east and the west, their power increased until the 17th century when their lands reached further east; the Zrinski and Frankopan families came into closer affinity by marriage ties until in the eyes of the European courts they had become one of the most important families of Croatia. In 1420 the Swedish King Erik of Pomerania called Ivan VI Frankopan, the eldest son of the Croatian ban Nikola IV, to Sweden to accompany the Swedish King to the Holy Land and to assist the King at the Court in Sweden.
Ivan VI Frankopan lived in Sweden at intervals between 1420 and 1430. After his father's death he returned to his home country, his eldest son called. In 1425 Emperor Sigismund confirmed the noble status of Nikola Frankopan referring to him as Niklas Frangiapan Comes de Begle, Segnie et Modrusse using the Latin title of comes, he granted the family the privileges of red wax, i.e. the right to use red wax for their seals. Sigismund underlines at the end of this document that no one must dispute these rights of the family. Bernardin Frankopan's paternal grandmother Dorothy was from a prominent Hungarian noble family, while his mother Isotta from Este family was Duchy of Ferrara of Ferrara. Through ancestry from royal Spanish families Bernardin had Árpád ancestry The Frankopan family was persecuted after the Zrinski-Frankopan conspiracy, where the Count Fran Krsto Frankopan participated in an uprising against Habsburg King Leopold I, he and his brother-in-law, Petar Zrinski were executed in Wiener Neustadt.
The line of Stjepan II Frankopan, Ban of Croatia, died out with Katarina Frankopan in the 16th century. The line of Sigismund Frankopan expired with Franjo Frankopan, Bishop of Eger in 1542. Another branch died out in 1572 with Ban of Croatia. Ivan V of Krk, Ban of Croatia Nikola IV Frankopan, first "Frankopan" and son of Ivan V of Krk Ban of Croatia Ivan VI Frankopan, son of Nikola IV Frankopan and Ban of Croatia Stjepan III Frankopan, son of Nikola IV Frankopan. Co-ruled with Ban Ivan VI Frankopan. Ivan VII Frankopan, ruled the Principality of Krk between 1451 and 1480. Bernardin Frankopan Son of Stjepan Frankopan. Influential nobleman and warrior. Nikola V Frankopan, son of Nikola IV Frankopan and Ban of Cr