Vologda is a city and the administrative and scientific center of Vologda Oblast, located on the Vologda River within the watershed of the Northern Dvina. Population: 301,755 ; the city serves as a major transport hub of the Northwest of Russia. The Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation has classified Vologda as an historic city, one of forty-one in Russia and one of only three in Vologda Oblast. 224 buildings in Vologda have been recognized as cultural heritage monuments. Two conflicting theories exist as to the date of Vologda's foundation; the year 1147 is the official date first fixed in 1780 by Alexey Zasetsky in his book "Stories about miracles of Gerasimus of Vologda". The story mentions; the date of the foundation of the monastery is taken as the date of the foundation of the city of Vologda and is mentioned in official city documents. This date, which would make Vologda to be of the same age as Moscow, is, not supported by any scientific data and is considered by authoritative sources to be fictional.
The story was only written in 1666 by a certain Foma, who got a request from Archbishop Markel to produce the vita of Gerasimus. Foma himself admitted; the story contains many contradicting details. Besides, the monastic life in the Russian north was not known in the 12th century: the first monastery in Vladimir was founded in 1152, in Rostov in 1212, in the Belozersk area in 1251. Archeological excavations do not confirm this date either. Instead, they demonstrate; the year 1264 was the first mention of Vologda when it was included in the list of possessions of the Novgorod Republic in the agreement between the Republic and the Grand Prince of Vladimir. This date is supported by archaeological data; the nucleus of Vologda in the 13th century was not located in the area, now the city center, but rather the area known now as "Lazy ground", close to the Resurrection church. This area was the center of Vologda up to 1565; until that year, no stone constructions existed in Vologda: all of the city fortifications, houses and industrial enterprises were made of wood.
The unique position of Vologda on important waterways connecting Moscow and the White Sea made it attractive for the Novgorod Republic, as well as for the princes of Tver and Moscow, who fought numerous wars between the 13th and the 15th centuries. In 1371, Dmitry Prilutsky, a monk from the Nikolsky Monastery in Pereslavl-Zalessky, founded Nikolsky Monastery, now known as Spaso-Prilutsky Monastery, close to the city. Dmitry Donskoy, the Grand Prince of Moscow, was the chief benefactor of the monastery and viewed it as a stronghold of the influence of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the Northern lands in competition with Novgorod. In 1397, during the reign of Vasily I, Vologda was added to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Subsequently, the city was several times attacked by Novgorod forces. During the Muscovite Civil War, Vologda played a key role. After Vasily II the Blind, the Grand Prince of Moscow, was defeated by Dmitry Shemyaka in 1447, he swore to never start a war against Shemyaka, was exiled to Vologda, got the city as a personal possession.
From there Vasily traveled to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery where the hegumen released him from the oath. The civil war continued, in 1450, Vologda was besieged by the troops of Dmitry Shemyaka. After the death of Vasily in 1462, Vologda passed to the possession of his son Andrey Menshoy and became the center of the Principality of Vologda. In 1481, after the death of Andrey who had no successors, Vologda passed to Ivan III, the Grand Duke of Moscow, was included to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. During the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, Vologda became one of the major transit centers of Russia's trade; the foreign trade was conducted with England and other western countries via the White Sea. Arkhangelsk was the major foreign trade haven, Vologda stood on the waterway connecting Moscow with Arkhangelsk; the trade with Siberia was conducted via the Sukhona and the Vychegda Rivers, Vologda played an important role as a transit center. The state courtyard was built in the city on the bank of the Vologda River.
In 1553, Vologda was visited by the English seafarer Richard Chancellor who established diplomatic relations between the Tsardom of Russia and England. In 1554, trading agent John Gass described Vologda to English merchants as a city with an abundance of bread where the goods were twice as cheap as in Moscow and Novgorod, that there was no city in Russia that would not trade with Vologda. Following the reports of John Gass, in 1555 England opened a trading office in the city, the first Russian ambassador sent to England for negotiations became Osip Nepeya, a native of Vologda. In 1565, Ivan the Terrible introduced the policy of Oprichnina and included Vologda into the structure of Oprichnina lands; that year, he visited the city for the first time and decided to make it the center of Oprichnina and the capital of the country. The Tsar ordered to build a new fortress, it was decided to build it not in the former town center, but rather in another part of the town, limited on the one side by the river, on the other side by what are now Leningradskaya and Mira Streets.
The fortress was surrounded by a moat. Ivan the Terrible traveled to Vologda in person to supervise the foundation of the fortress on April 28, 1566, the day to cel
Tula Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically in the European Russia region of the country and is part of the Central Federal District, covering an area of 25,700 square kilometers and a population of 1,553,925. Tula is the capital of Tula Oblast. Tula Oblast borders Moscow Oblast in the north, Ryazan Oblast in the east, Lipetsk Oblast in the southeast, Oryol Oblast in the southwest, Kaluga Oblast in the west. Tula Oblast is one of the most developed and urbanized territories in Russia, the majority of the territory forms the Tula-Novomoskovsk Agglomeration, an urban area with a population of over 1 million; the Tula Oblast area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, as shown by discoveries of burial mounds and old settlements. By the Eighth Century, these lands were occupied by the Vyatichi, an East Slavic tribe who cultivated the land and worked at crafts, confirmed by records in property registers which mention an "ancient settlement" located at the confluence of the Upa River and Tulitsa River.
The first mention of the city of Tula in 1146 is found in the Nikon Chronicle, in reference to the campaign of Prince Svyatoslav Olgovich of Chernigov. At the time the lands belonged to the Ryazan Principality, Prince Sviatoslav passed through a number of settlements, including Tula, while heading for Ryazan. Tula Oblast is located in Russia's Central Federal District and borders Moscow, Lipetsk and Kaluga Oblasts. Tula Oblast streams. Major rivers include: Don River Oka River Upa River The oblast is rich in iron ore, clay and deposits of lignite; the lignite deposit is part of the Moscow coal basin. Tula Oblast has a moderate continental climate, with cold winters. Average January temperature is − 9 °C in south. Average July temperature is about +19 °C to +20 °C. Annual precipitation is 470 millimetres in 575 millimetres in northwest. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tula CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee.
Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Tula Oblast is the fundamental law of the region; the Tula Oblast Duma is the province's standing legislative body. The Oblast Duma exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it; the highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Population: 1,553,925 . Ethnic composition: Russians - 95.3% Ukrainians - 1% Armenians - 0.6% Tatars - 0.5% Azeris - 0.4% Romani people - 0.3% Belarusians - 0.2% Germans - 0.2% Others - 1.5% 19,778 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. 2002 Census population: Urban: 1,366,818 Rural: 308,940 Males: 755,057 Females: 920,701 Females per 1000 Males: 1219 Average age: 41.7 years Urban: 41.5 years Rural: 42.8 years Male: 37.8 years Female: 44.9 years2012Births: 15 499 Deaths: 27 197 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.31 | 2010 - 1.31 | 2011 - 1.32 | 2012 - 1.43 | 2013 - 1.42 | 2014 - 1.47 | 2015 - 1.57 | 2016 - 1.56 According to a 2012 survey 62% of the population of Tula Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Muslims. In addition, 19% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, 3% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Tula Oblast is part of the Central economic region, it is a prominent industrial center with metalworking, engineering and chemical industries. Major industrial cities include Aleksin. Historical industries, such as firearm and accordion manufacturing, still play an important role in the region.
The oblast has a developed agricultural sector, which ranks 33rd in Russia in agricultural production. The sector includes farming grain, sugar beets, vegetable growing, livestock raising, dairying. Tula Oblast has as many as 32 museums. Several are located in the administrative center of the oblast, the city of Tula, notably the Tula State Arms Museum, the Tula Kremlin, the Tula Samovar Museum. Another important cultural tourist attractions is the home and country estate of Leo Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana, located 12 km outside of the city of Tula; the oblast has four professional theaters, a philharmonic orchestra, a circus. List of Chairmen of the Tula Oblast Duma 2005 Moscow power blackouts Tula Arms Plant Official website of the Museum-Estate of Leo Tolstoy "Yasnaya Polyana"
Oryol or Orel is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, located on the Oka River 360 kilometers south-southwest of Moscow. Population: 317,747 . While there are no historical records, archaeological evidence shows that a fortress settlement existed between the Oka and Orlik Rivers as early as the 12th century, when the land was a part of the Principality of Chernigov; the name of the fortress is unknown. In the 13th century the fortress became a part of the Zvenigorod district of the Karachev Principality. In the early 15th century, the territory was conquered by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the city was soon abandoned by its population, after being sacked either by Lithuanians or the Golden Horde. The territory became a part of the Tsardom of Russia in the 16th century. Ivan the Terrible decreed that a new fortress be built on the spot in 1566, for the purpose of defending the southern borders of the country; the fortress was built speedily, work starting in the summer of 1566 and ending in the spring of 1567.
The location chosen was less than ideal strategically, as the fortress was located on a seasonally flooded low ground targeted from the neighboring high ground. False Dmitry I and his army passed through Oryol in 1605. Polish intervention sacked it in 1611 and 1615. Orlovsky Uyezd nonetheless continued to exist on paper. Oryol was rebuilt in 1636; the question of moving the fortress to the more advantageous high ground was in the air up until the 1670s, but the move was never made. The fortress was taken apart in the early 18th century. In the mid-18th century Oryol became one of the major centers of grain production, with the Oka River being the major trade route until the 1860s when it was replaced by a railroad. Oryol was granted town status in 1702. In 1708, Oryol was included as a part of Kiev Governorate; the Province was transferred to the newly created Belgorod Governorate in 1727. On March 11, 1778 Oryol Vice-Royalty was created from parts of Belgorod Governorates. In 1779, the city was entirely rebuilt based on a new plan.
After the October Revolution of 1917, the city was in Bolshevik hands, except for a brief period between October 13 and October 20, 1919, when it was controlled by Anton Denikin's White Army. Oryol was once again moved between different oblasts in the 1920s and 1930s becoming the administrative center of its own Oryol Oblast on September 27, 1937; the Oryol Prison was a notable place of incarceration for political prisoners and war prisoners of the Second World War. Christian Rakovsky, Maria Spiridonova, Olga Kameneva and 160 other prominent political prisoners were shot on September 11, 1941 on Joseph Stalin's orders in the Medvedev Forest massacre outside Oryol. During World War II, Oryol was occupied by the Wehrmacht on October 3, 1941, liberated on August 5, 1943, after the Battle of Kursk; the city was completely destroyed. In February 2012, the city duma abolished the direct election of mayor. In December 2013, a referendum was held, which 71% of the people supported the return of direct mayoral election.
Oryol is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Orlovsky District though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Oryol—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Oryol is incorporated as Oryol Urban Okrug. The city is served by the Oryol Yuzhny Airport. Since 1868, there has been a railway connection between Moscow. Oryol is a major transport hub on the borders of the Central and Central Black Earth economic regions. Through the city converge 7 important highways of federal and republican values: M2, P92, R119, R120, A142, 5 railway lines: on Yelets, Kursk, Mikhailovsky mine; the city has an airport. The formation of the Oryol as an important transportation hub is due to the favorable geographical position of the city on the borders of economic regions.
The town has trolley and bus systems. These kinds of public transport cover the entire territory of the city; each bus and trolley is equipped with route indicators that inform about the route through the city, designated stops. There is a waterbus on the Oka River. In the city there are taxis and shuttles, rental cars. Intercity transport terminals: Oryol Station, Station Luzhki-Oryol, Oryol Bus Station, as well as federal highway M2, P92, R119, R120, A142. On November 3, 1898 Orel inaugurated an electric tram; the draft was prepared by the Belgian entrepreneur FF Gilon and firm «Compagnie mutuelle de tramways», which won the right to build not only a tram, but lighting in the city. Oryol has a humid continental climate. 1991–1997: Alexander Kislyakov 1997–2002: Yefim Velkovsky 2002–2006: Vasily Uvarov 2006–2009: Alexander Kasyanov 2009–2010: Vasily Eremin 2010–2012: Viktor Safianov 2012: Mikhail Bernikov 2012–2016: Sergey Stupin 2016–present: Vasily Novikov Oryol is twinned with: Brest, Belarus Ke
Kaluga is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, located on the Oka River 150 kilometers southwest of Moscow. Population: 324,698 . Kaluga, founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on the southwestern borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, first appears in the historical record in chronicles in the 14th century as Koluga. During the period of Tartar raids it was the western end of the Oka bank defense line; the Great stand on the Ugra River was fought just to the west. In the Middle Ages Kaluga was a minor settlement owned by the Princes Vorotynsky; the ancestral home of these princes lies southwest of the modern city. On 19 January 1777 the Kaluga drama theatre opened its first theatrical season, established with the direct participation of the Governor-General M. N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga is connected to Moscow by the ancient roadway, the Kaluga Road; this road offered Napoleon his favored escape route from the Moscow trap in the fall of 1812. But General Kutuzov repelled Napoleon's advances in this direction and forced the retreating French army onto the old Smolensk road devastated by the French during their invasion of Russia.
On several occasions during the Russian Empire Kaluga was the residence of political exiles and prisoners such as the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray, the Kyrgyz sultan Arigazi-Abdul-Aziz, the Georgian princess Thecla, the Avar leader Imam Shamil. Kaluga was occupied by the German army in Operation Barbarossa during the climactic Battle of Moscow, it was occupied from October 12, 1941 to December 30, 1941. In 1944 the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POWs—soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army—whom the advancing Soviet front had arrested by in the Vilno area. Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with seventy-two rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kaluga—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the City of Kaluga, together with one rural locality in Ferzikovsky District, is incorporated as Kaluga Urban Okrug.
In Kaluga, Kaluga Turbine Plant is located, is part of the company Power Machines. In recent years Kaluga has become one center of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area: On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, further expanded by 2009; the investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant assembles the Volkswagen Passat, Škoda Fabia and Škoda Rapid. On October 15, 2007, the Volvo Group broke ground on a new truck assembly plant, inaugurated on January 19, 2009; the plant has a yearly capacity of 5,000 Renault trucks. On December 12, 2007, PSA Peugeot Citroën announced its decision to build a new assembly plant in Kaluga. By March 2010 the plant was operational, building Peugeot 308s for the Russian market and would produce Citroën and Mitsubishi models; the city is served by the Grabtsevo Airport. Since 1899, there is a railway connection between Moscow. Public transportation is represented by the trolleybuses and marshrutkas.
Kaluga has a humid temperate continental, with humid summers. Winter extreme records can be as low as −45 °C, while summer heat may reach up +40 °C, but it's about between −5 °C and −20 °C during winter and between 15 °C and 30 °C during summer in Kaluga. Kaluga is known for its most famous resident, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a rocket science pioneer who worked here as a school teacher; the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga is dedicated to his theoretical achievements and their practical implementations for modern space research, hence the motto on the city's coat of arms: "The Cradle of Space Exploration". Other notable people include: Alexander Amfiteatrov Yuri Averbakh Mykola Azarov Pafnuty Chebyshev, mathematician Alexander Chizhevsky David Edelstadt Alexander Gretchaninov, Russian-American composer Jonah of Hankou Andrei Kalaychev Valery Kobelev, ski jumper Mikhail Linge Pavel Popovich, the only person to receive two honorary citizenships of Kaluga Nikolai Rakov Imam Shamil Nikolay Skvortsov, swimmer Yuliya Tabakova Georgy Zhukov Olesya Zykina, 400m athlete Bulat Okudzhava and taught Literature in public school in 1980th.
Serafim Tulikov Kaluga is twinned with: Suhl, Germany.
Tver is a city and the administrative centre of Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 414,606. Located 180 kilometres northwest of Moscow, Tver was the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire, with a population of 60,000 on 14 January 1913, it is situated at the confluence of the Tvertsa Rivers. The city was known as Kalinin from 1931 to 1990; the city is where three rivers meet, splitting the town into northern and southern parts by the Volga River, divided again into quarters by the Tvertsa River, which splits the left bank into east and west halves, the Tmaka River which does the same along the southern bank. Tver's foundation year is accepted to be 1135, although there is no universal agreement on this date and some estimates place it as late as the second half of the 13th century; the name of the city is of Finish origin Tiheverä. A minor settlement of Novgorodian traders, it passed to the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1209. In 1246, Alexander Nevsky granted it to his younger brother Yaroslav Yaroslavich, from whom a dynasty of local princes descended.
Four of them were killed by the Golden Horde and were proclaimed saints by the Russian Orthodox church. A land of woods and bogs, the Principality of Tver was transformed into one of the richest and most populous Russian states; as the area was hardly accessible for Tatar raids, there was a great influx of population from the devastated south. By the end of the century, it was ready to vie with Moscow for supremacy in Russia. Both Tver and Moscow were young cities, so the outcome of their rivalry was far from being certain. Mikhail, the Grand Prince of Tver, who ascended the throne of Vladimir in 1305, was one of the most beloved of medieval Russian rulers, his policy of open conflict with the Golden Horde led to his assassination there in 1318. His son Dmitry "the Terrible Eyes" succeeded him, concluding an alliance with the mighty Grand Duchy of Lithuania, managed to raise Tver's prestige higher. Exasperated by Dmitry's influence, Prince Ivan Kalita of the Grand Duchy of Moscow engineered his murder by the Mongols in 1326.
On hearing the news of this crime, the city revolted against the Horde. The Horde joined its forces with brutally repressed the rebellion. Many citizens were enslaved or deported; this was the fatal blow to Tver's aspirations for supremacy in Russia. In the second half of the 14th century, Tver was further weakened by dynastic struggles between its princes. Two senior branches of the ruling house, those of Kashin and Kholmsky, asserted their claims to the grand ducal throne; the claimers were backed up by Moscow and settled at the Moscow Kremlin court. During the Great Feudal War in the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Tver once again rose to prominence and concluded defensive alliances with Lithuania, Novgorod and the Golden Horde. Grand Prince Boris of Tver sent one of his men, Afanasy Nikitin, to search for gold and diamonds as far as India. Nikitin's travelogue, describing his journey from 1466 to 1472, is the first firsthand account of India by a European. A monument to Nikitin was opened on the Volga embankment in 1955.
On 12 September 1485, the forces of Ivan the Great seized the city. The principality was given as an appanage to Ivan's grandson, only to be abolished several decades later. Last scions of the ruling dynasty were executed by Ivan the Terrible during the Oprichnina. At that turbulent time, Tver was ruled by a former khan of Kasimov; the only remnant of his ephemeral reign is a graceful tent-like church in the village of Kushalino, 28 kilometers northeast of Tver. The city's decline was not irrevocable, however. With the foundation of St. Petersburg, Tver gained importance as a principal station on the highway en route from Moscow, it was much visited by Russian royalty and nobility traveling from the old capital to the new one and back. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Tver was included into Ingermanlandia Governorate. In 1727 it was transferred to the newly established Novgorod Governorate. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, the whole area was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed to Tver Governorate.
Tver was the center of Tverskoy Uyezd. Following a devastating fire of 1763, the city was rebuilt in a Neoclassical style. Under Catherine the Great, the central part was reconstructed. Crumbling medieval buildings were replaced with imposing Neoclassical structures; the most important of these are the Travel Palace of the Empress, the Ascension church. In 1809 a committee was set up on the improvement of the city, where he worked the famous architect of the capital Rossi, his projects include Cathedral of Christ, houses on the waterfront and city center. He rebuilt Travel Palace. At this time, in the city lived a sister of Alexander I, Catherine Pavlovna, married to the governor of Tver, which turned the Palace into one of the centers of social life of the country and fashionable literary salon, where going to the high society of Tver and, visited by many prominent people from Moscow and St. Petersburg. Writer and historian Nikolay Karamzin read here Emperor Alexander excerpts from his "History".
In the palace of the Prince of Persia took Khozrev Mirz
Dacha Durnovo is the countryside manor of Bakunin family and Durnovo family. It is an architectural monument of classicism, located on 22 Sverdlovsk Embankment, St. Petersburg, Russia. Original country villa was built for Piotor Valilievich Bakunin in the 1780s by architect Nikolay Lvov. In 1786 the estate was passed to the Pavel Petrovich Bakunin, it was resold several more times thereafter. One of the owners was a Pavel Ivanovich Kutaisov. In 1813 it was acquired by Dmitry Nikolaevich Durnovo, who ordered its major reconstruction executed by architect Andrey Aleksevich Mikhailov; the reconstruction project lasted from 1813 to 1826. Post-reconstruction mention acquired a park/garden. In the turmoil and confusion which followed the February Revolution, groups of militant Anarchist-Communists expropriated a number of private residences in Petrograd and other cities; the most important case involved the villa of P. P. Durnovo, which the anarchists considered a suitable target, since Durnovo had been the Governor-General of Moscow during the Revolution of 1905.
Durnovo's dacha was located in the radical Vyborg district, Petrograd's "Faubourg St. Antoine," as John Reed dubbed it, lying on the north side of the Neva, just beyond the Finland Station, it was here. Anarchists and other left-wing workmen seized the Durnovo villa and converted it into a "house of rest," with rooms for reading and recreation; the new occupants included a unit of people's militia. The expropriators were left undisturbed until 5 June 1917, when a band of anarchists quartered in the dacha attempted to "requisition" the printing plant of a "bourgeois" newspaper, Russkaia Volia. After occupying the premises for a few hours, the attackers were dislodged by troops sent by the Provisional Government; the First Congress of Soviets in session, denounced the raiders as criminals "who call themselves anarchists." On 7 June 1917, P. N. Pereverzev, the Minister of Justice, gave the anarchists 24 hours to evacuate Durnovo's house; the following day, 50 sailors came from Kronstadt to defend the dacha, workers in the Vyborg district left their factories and staged demonstrations against the eviction order.
The Congress of Soviets responded with a proclamation calling on the workers to return to their jobs. Condemning the seizure of private dwellings "without the agreement of their owners," the proclamation demanded the liberation of Durnovo's dacha and suggested that the workers content themselves with the free use of the garden. During the crisis, the dacha was draped in red and black flags, armed workers came and went. Numerous meetings were held in the garden. Anarchist speakers urged that all orders and decrees, whether from the Provisional Government or the Soviet, be ignored; the anarchists remained entrenched in the dacha, in defiance of both the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet. After July 1917 the anarchists left Dacha Durnovo, while some other organizations remained for some time. Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod assumed ownership of the Dacha Durnovo and used it as worker’s club
Pavlo Petrovych Skoropadskyi was a Ukrainian aristocrat and state leader, decorated Imperial Russian Army and Ukrainian Army general of Cossack heritage. Skoropadsky became a conservative leader in Ukraine following the Russian Revolution of 1917, a founder of a hetman dynasty and Hetman of Ukraine. Pavlo Skoropadskyi was born into Skoropadsky family of Ukrainian military leaders and statesmen, that distinguished themselves since the 17th century when Fedir Skoropadsky participated in the Battle of Zhovti Vody; the father of Pavel Petro Ivanovych Skoropadsky was a Cavalry Guard Colonel and a veteran of the Caucasian War. Afterwards he served as a speaker for the Starodub County Council until his death. Pavlo's aunt Countess Yelyzaveta Myloradovych was a Ukrainian public activist, she was one of the main sponsors for foundation first Ukrainian scientific institution Shevchenko Scientific Society in Lviv. Her husband was Count Lev Myloradovych; the grandfather Ivan served as a speaker for the Pryluky County and Poltava Governorate councils.
He was known for building the Trostyanets Arboretum. Pavlo's father Petro Ivanovych was a descendant of the Tarnovsky family, while Pavlo's mother was a descendant of Miklashewsky and Olsufiev families. Pavlo grew up at his father's estate in Pryluky County, Poltava Governorate, he attended a gymnasium in Starodub and graduated from the Page Corps cadet school in Saint Petersburg. In 1893 Skoropadsky graduated from the Page Corps and was assigned as a cornet to the Chevalier Guard regiment where he was put in charge of a squadron. After two years he was assigned a duty of the Regimental adjutant in the same regiment. In December 1897 he was promoted to Poruchik. In 1897 Skoropadsky married Aleksandra Petrovna Durnovo, a daughter of Pyotr Pavlovich Durnovo, the General Governor of Moscow. Skoropadsky's first major assignment was a sotnia commander in the 2nd Chita Cossack Regiment of the Trans-Baikal Cossack Host in Chita during the Russo-Japanese War, he became an adjutant to the commander of the Russian forces on the Far East General Nikolay Linevich.
During the war Skoropadsky was awarded the George's Weapon and several orders. In December 1905 Tsar Nikolai II made him a Fliegel-Adjutant in a rank of Colonel. On September 4, 1910 Colonel Skoropadsky was commissioned as the commander of the 20th Finnish Dragoon Regiment still continuing to be a Fliegel-Adjutant of the H. I. M. Retinue. On April 15, 1911 he was reassigned to the Leib-Guard Cavalry Regiment. Leib-Guards were the elite Russian military forces assigned for a personal protection of the emperor. On December 6, 1912 Skoropadsky was promoted to the Major General of the H. I. M. Retinue. At the start of World War I Skoropadsky was put in charge of the reorganized 1st Brigade of the 1st Cavalry Guard Division as part of the 1st Army commanded by General Paul von Rennenkampf. Skoropadsky worked for von Rennenkampf during the Russo-Japanese War when the last was commanding Trans-Baikal Cossack Host. On August 6, 1914 his regiment distinguished itself in battles near Kraupishken as part of the Russian invasion of East Prussia.
He was appointed as a commander of the United Cavalry Guard Division which distinguished near Kaushen. General Skoropadsky commanded the 5th Cavalry Division. On April 2, 1916 he was promoted to Lieutenant General and was commissioned the 1st Cavalry Guard Division. From January 22 to July 2, 1917 he is in charge of the 34th Army Corps. In July 1917 the decommissioned 34th Army Corps was transformed into the 1st Ukrainian Corps. In October 1917 at the first Congress of the Free Cossacks he was awarded a title of the honorary Otaman. From October to November 1917 his 60,000-man Army Corps defended the railway corridor stretching through Podolie to Polissya, Vapniarka – Zhmerynka – Koziatyn – Shepetivka and defended against the attacks from the Romanian front the 2nd Guard Corps, headed by Yevgenia Bosch. On 29 April 1918, a coup d'etat toppled the Ukrainian People's Republic and Skoropadsky became Hetman of Ukraine; the same day he was chrismated by bishop Nykodym in Saint Sophia Cathedral as the Hetman of Ukraine.
The coup d'état had been sanctioned by the Imperial German Army, which in the spring of 1918 had occupied Kiev and other parts of Ukraine. The Ukrainian Republic was intent upon repelling an invasion by the Bolshevik Red Army. In return, the Republican government pledged food stocks, which were to be expropriated from the peasants; the German General Staff was dissatisfied with the inefficiency and incompetence of the Republican government, which failed to deliver the supplies on time. Skoropadsky was accused by other Ukrainian nationalists of being a German collaborator supported by wealthy landowners, he was considered too pro-Russian and dictatorial. Among other things, Skoropadsky formed a cabinet of Russian speakers and Slavophiles, he committed Ukraine to federation with a restored Russian Empire. Despite these criticisms, by contrast with the earlier socialist Rada, his government was given credit for having created an effective administrative organization, established diplomatic ties with many countries, concluded a peace treaty with Soviet Russia, built many schools and universities, including the National Academy of Scien