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House of Este

The House of Este was an Italian princely family, linked with several contemporary royal dynasties, including the House of Habsburg and the British royal family. The elder, German branch of the House of Este, known as the Younger House of Welf, included dukes of Bavaria and Brunswick-Lüneburg and produced Britain's Hanoverian monarchs, as well as one Emperor of Russia and one Holy Roman Emperor; the younger, Italian branch of the House of Este included rulers of Ferrara, of Modena and Reggio. According to Edward Gibbon, the family originated from the Roman Attii family, which migrated from Rome to Este to defend Italy against the Ostrogoths. However, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis; the names of the early members of the family indicate. The first known member of the house was Margrave Adalbert of Mainz, known only as the father of Oberto I, Count palatine of Italy, who died around 975. Oberto's grandson, Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan built a castle at Este, near Padua, named himself after the location.

He had three sons from two marriages, two of whom became the ancestors of the two branches of the family: Welf IV, the eldest, was the son of Kunigunde, the last of the Elder Welfs. He inherited the property of his maternal uncle, Duke of Carinthia, became duke of Bavaria in 1070, is the ancestor of the elder branch, the House of Welf. Hugh, issue of Azzo's second marriage to Garsend of Maine, inherited the French County of Maine, a legacy of his mother's dowry, but sold it one year and died without heirs. Fulco I, Margrave of Milan, the third son, is the ancestor of the younger Italian line of Este; the two surviving branches, with Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony and Bavaria on the German side, concluded an agreement in 1154 which allocated the family's Italian possessions to the younger line, the Fulc-Este, who in the course of time acquired Ferrara and Reggio. Este itself was taken over in 1275 by Padua, in 1405 by Venice; the elder branch of the House of Este, the House of Welf rendered as "Guelf" or "Guelph" in English, produced dukes of Bavaria, dukes of Saxony, a German King, the dukes of Brunswick and Lüneburg when the two branches of the family recombined in 1705.

The senior branch of the House of Welf continued to be ruled by the princes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, as undisputed until the death of the ruling duke of Brunswick Prince William VIII, in 1884. Prior to his death, his brother Karl II from Geneva Switzerland, as exiled de jure ruler of the house, had declared the Prussian annexation of the crown and the earlier Hanoverian usurpation illegal acts of usurpation inside of the German House. At his death, his grandson continued internationally recognized appeals. Hanover formed the Guelph Party to continue political appeals against the Prussian and German annexations of the crown. After the peace ending the Napoleonic wars reshaped Europe, ushering in the Modern era, the Electorate of Hanover was dissolved by treaty, its lands were enlarged and the state was promoted to a kingdom. The new kingdom existed from 1815 to 1866, but upon the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, it passed to her uncle, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, thus ceased to be in personal union with the British Crown.

The House of Este gave Great Britain and the United Kingdom the "Hanoverian monarchs". All generations of the Italian branch are descendants of Fulco d'Este. From 1171 on, his descendants were titled Margraves of Este. Obizzo I, the first margrave, battled against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, his nephew Azzo d'Este VI became podestà of Verona. As the dowry of his niece the Marchesella, Ferrara passed to Azzo VI d'Este In 1146, with the last of the Adelardi. In 1242 Azzo VII Novello was nominated podestà for his lifetime; the lordship of Ferrara was made hereditary by Obizzo II, proclaimed Lord of Ferrara in 1264, Lord of Modena in 1288, Lord of Reggio in 1289. Ferrara was a papal fief and the Este family were given the position of hereditary papal vicars in 1332. Ferrara became a significant center of culture under Niccolò d'Este III, who received several popes with great magnificence Eugene IV, he held a Council in Ferrara in 1438 known as the Council of Florence. His successors were his illegitimate sons Leonello and Borso, elevated to Duke of Modena and Reggio by Emperor Frederick III in 1452, receiving these duchies as imperial fiefs.

In 1471, he received the duchy of Ferrara as papal fief from Pope Paul II, for which occasion splendid frescoes were executed at Palazzo Schifanoia. Borso was succeeded by a half-brother, one of the most significant patrons of the arts in late 15th and early 16th century Italy. Ferrara grew into a cultural center renowned for music. Ercole's daughter Beatrice married Ludovico Duke of Milan. Ercole I's successor was his son Alfonso I, third husband of Lucrezia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI, sister to Cesare Borgia. Alfonso I was a patron of Ariosto; the son of Alfonso an

Bogstad

Bogstad Manor is a historic Manor House and former estate located in the borough of Vestre Aker in Oslo, Norway. It is situated in the northwestern part of Oslo. Bogstad has its origin in a farm, located near Bogstadvannet, a lake in the valley of Sørkedalen; the farm was owned by several notable people. It went from merchant and councilman Peder Nielsen Leuch and his family to Norwegian Prime Minister Peder Anker to his son-in-law Governor of Norway Herman Wedel Jarlsberg via his marriage to Karen Anker, the only child of Peder Anker; the property included forested acreage. Timber trader and landowner Morten Leuch was the owner of Bogstad estate from 1756. Bernt Anker acquired the estate through marriage. Peder Anker utilized the slope from the main house down to Bogstadvannet for development with curved paths and artificial creeks; the landscape was further developed from 1780. The estate was developed with a larger manor house in 1785; the last private owners were Westye Parr Egeberg. The property has been owned by Oslo municipality since 1954.

The manor house is owned by Bogstad Foundation and operated as a museum in cooperation with the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History. The manor house dating from between 1760-1780 was built in the style of Classicist architecture and is a typical example of building styles for the period. Bogstad Manor has been furnished with paintings, chandeliers and other furnishings from the period 1750-1850. Guided tours of the museum are available during summer months. Bogstad has become the name of a neighborhood of northwest Oslo which includes the area of Bogstad Manor and Bogstad Golf Course operated by the Oslo Golf Club. Hauge, Nini Egeberg Bogstad, 1773-1995 Roede, Lars To gårder – to brødre. Mye om Frogner og litt om Bogstad ISBN 978-82-92865-03-3 Hopstock, Carsten Bogstad - et storgods gjennom 300 år ISBN 82-7683-166-4 Bogstad Gård website Bogstad Gård Museum Bogstad Gård Digitalt Museum

Praga

Praga is a district of Warsaw, Poland. It is on the east bank of the river Vistula. First mentioned in 1432, until 1791 it formed a separate town with its own city charter; the historical Praga was a small settlement located at the eastern bank of the Vistula river, directly opposite the towns of Old Warsaw and Mariensztat, both being parts of Warsaw now. First mentioned in 1432, it derived its name from the Polish verb prażyć, meaning to burn or to roast, as it occupied a forested area, burnt out to make place for the village. Separated from Warsaw by a wide river, it developed independently of the nearby city, on February 10, 1648 king Władysław IV of Poland granted Praga with a city charter. However, as it was a suburb and most buildings were wooden, the town was destroyed by fires and foreign armies; the only surviving historical monument from that epoch is the Church of Our Lady of Loreto. Although there were numerous attempts to build a permanent bridge across the river, none succeeded and Praga remained a separate entity well into the 18th century.

Communication between the capital and Praga was maintained by run ferries and, in the winter, over the ice. In 1791, during the reign of Stanisław August Poniatowski, Praga was attached to Warsaw as a borough; the Battle of Praga, or Battle of Warsaw of 1794, was a Russian assault during the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794. It was followed by a massacre in which over 20,000 inhabitants of the Praga district lost their lives. Unlike the western parts of Warsaw, Praga remained untouched during World War II and in the postwar period of reconstruction, the capital was home to many ministries and public facilities. A Soviet War Memorial was located here; because of the traditional separate status of Praga, there are two Catholic dioceses in Warsaw: Archdiocese of Warsaw with St. John's Cathedral and Diocese of Warsaw-Praga with St. Florian's Cathedral; the district experienced a revival following the end of Communism in 1989, as young artists moved into many of the former factory buildings, drawing crowds in search of something different from the Old Town.

The increasing popularity of the area helped to change it into one of Poland's and Europe's creative hubs as it has been described as one of the "trendiest neighbourhood across Europe". In 2011 the local Monument to Brotherhood in Arms was taken down. Praga is administratively divided into: Praga-Północ Praga-Południe Praga-Południe and Praga-Północ include neighborhoods of: Saska Kępa Grochów Szmulowizna Gocław KamionekIn the wider sense, all areas of Warsaw located on the right bank of Vistula are known under the collective term of Praga. Besides historical Praga, they include: Białołęka Rembertów Targówek Wawer Wesoła Praga Park Museum of Praga Neon Museum in Warsaw Praga Koneser Center Media related to Praga at Wikimedia Commons