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House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg officially called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740; the house produced kings of Bohemia, Croatia, Galicia and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations and intermarried; the House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title; the House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries.

In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Bohemia and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty; the House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon; the remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine; the successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name, for example Karl von Habsburg. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, its industrial base was thin, its naval resources were so minimal. It typified by Prince Metternich. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries, their principal roles were as follows: Holy Roman Emperors, Roman-German kings,) Rulers of Austria Emperors of Mexico Kings of Bohemia Kings of Hungary and Croatia Kings of Spain Kings of Portugal Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria Grand princes of Transylvania Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above. The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, forthwith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives.

His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby; the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108. The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 12th and 13th centuries; the Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges countship rights in Zürichgau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Swabia, they were able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance.

Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273, Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany. In a crucial step towards the creation of his own power base in the Eastern Alps, Rudolph led a coalition against king Ottokar II of Bohemia who had taken advantage of the Great Interregnum in order to expand southwards, taking over first the Babenberg, the Spanheim inheritance. In 1278, Ottokar was defeated and killed

Imperial Presidency

Imperial Presidency is a term applied to the modern presidency of the United States. It became popular in the 1960s and served as the title of a 1973 book by historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. who wrote The Imperial Presidency to address two concerns: that the presidency was uncontrollable and that it had exceeded its constitutional limits. Until the 1930s, the president had few staff, most based in the U. S. Capitol, where the President had always maintained an office; the office became used only for ceremonial occasions, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, presidents operated out of the Capitol Hill office. However, Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency during the Great Depression and World War II altered the previous importance of the office; the new age of electronic media, the growth of executive agencies under the New Deal, his Brain Trust advisors, the creation of the Executive Office of the President in 1939 all marked the growth of the traditionally small presidential staff. The post-war presidency has a large executive staff most crowded in the West Wing, the basement of the White House, or in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, beside the White House and used by the Departments of Defense and State.

Progressive overcrowding in the West Wing led President Richard Nixon to convert the former presidential swimming pool into a press room. As staff numbers increased, many people were appointed who held personal loyalty to the person serving as president and were not subject to outside approval or control. Advisory bodies developed around the presidency, many of which complemented the main cabinet departments, which declined in influence; the National Security Council and the Office of Management and Budget are prime examples. The Senate does not "advise and consent to" appointments to the Executive Office of the President, as it does with cabinet appointments. A corollary is; the presidency relies on implicit powers not found in the Constitution. The extent of foreign policy and war powers of the presidency are questioned; the extent of presidential secrecy is questioned. A plebiscitary presidency is accountable only during elections or impeachment, rather than daily to the Congress, the press and the public.

The presidencies of Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were described as surrounded by "courts" in which junior staffers acted in contravention of Executive Orders or Acts of Congress. Schlesinger pointed out activities of some Nixon staffers during the Watergate affair as an example. Under Reagan, the role of Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, USMC, in the facilitation of funding to the Contras in Nicaragua, in explicit contravention of a congressional ban, was highlighted as an example of the ability to act by a "junior courtier" based on his position as a member of a large White House staff. Howard Baker, who served as Reagan's final Chief of Staff, was critical of the growth and apparent unanswerability of the presidential "court". Historian Zachary Karabell argued that executive power grew further in the 21st century, due in part to congressional inaction. Citing the presidencies of George W. Bush and Barack Obama as examples, he wrote: "9/11 saw the beginning of the current move toward an imperial presidency, as George W. Bush keyed off the crisis to expand executive authority in national security and domestic surveillance.

In that, his administration had the legal but classified support of Congress, for a time, a considerable portion of the public." Karabell said that this trend continued under Obama, that "stonewalling" from Congress "provoked the Obama administration into finding innovative ways to exercise power," making Obama "one of the most powerful presidents ever." He wrote that this trend could set precedent for further expansion of executive power. Karabell argued that the presidency of Donald Trump had the unintended effect of eroding executive power, citing the rescission of the DACA immigration policy and the Trump administration's threat to use its position to withdraw from NAFTA as instances which have led to some power being returned to Congress at the executive branch's expense. Princeton University historians Kevin M. Kruse and Julian E. Zelizer argued that aspects of the imperial presidency are apparent in the Trump administration; the Executive Office of the President makes up only a minute part of the federal bureaucracy, with no institutional continuity, the President has little influence as to the appointment of most of its members.

The organization and functioning of most of the federal government is determined by law, the president has thus little power to reorganize it. Alasdar Roberts argued that the concept of the imperial presidency neglects several important changes in the context of governance over the last three decades, all of which tend to restrict the president's actual power: The growth in the size and the complexity of the federal bureaucracy A battery of post-Nixon controls on executive power, including transparency rules and "watchdog bureaucracies" such as the federal Inspectors General, a strengthened Government Accountability Office, the Congressional Budget Office The increased willingness of bureaucrats to protest or "blow the whistle" on policies with which they disagree, with stronger protection for whistleblowing Changes in information and communication technologies that amplify the effect of official dissent and increase the capacity of opponents to mobilize against executive action Declining public trust in and deference to federal authority Declining executive discretion over the use of federal funds, which are inc

List of MPs elected in the 1852 United Kingdom general election

This is a list of MPs elected to the House of Commons at the 1852 United Kingdom general election, arranged by constituency. New MPs elected since the general election and changes in party allegiance are noted at the bottom of the page. 1852: Following the general election 48 MPs, elected as Liberals in Ireland, formed the Independent Irish Party. They included William Keogh, John Sadleir, John Ball, Sir Timothy O'Brien, Bt, Cornelius O'Brien unseated on petition, Hon. Cecil Lawless, Francis Murphy, William Trant Fagan, James McCann, George Bowyer, Jogn Maguire, John Fitzgerald, Anthony O'Flaherty, Martin Blake, Sir Thomas Burke, Bt, Thomas Bellew. 1 January 1853: John Sadleir accepted office in the Aberdeen coalition and was defeated seeking re-election as a Liberal on 20 January 1853. April 1853: William Keogh accepted office in the Aberdeen coalition and was re-elected as a Liberal on 23 April 1853. Incomplete British Electoral Facts 1832–1999, compiled and edited by Colin Rallings and Michael Thrasher Spartacus: Political Parties and Election Results List of Parliaments of the United Kingdom UK general election, 1852

Zainab Masood

Zainab Masood is a character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by Nina Wadia. She made her first appearance on 16 July 2007. Zainab is the mother of Syed, Shabnam and Kamil Masood, she is the wife of Masood Ahmed, who divorces her, of Yusef Khan, who she remarries after a divorce decades earlier, who abuses her. Wadia quit her role in 2012 and departed the series in the episode shown on 8 February 2013. Born and raised in Pakistan, Zainab brought shame upon her family when she had an affair with Masood Ahmed, while married to Yusef Khan; as punishment, Zainab was set on fire by his family. Masood rescued her and she divorced her husband to marry Masood, joining him in the UK, where they had three children, Syed and Tamwar. Family members still treated Zainab with contempt however her brother-in-law Inzamam Ahmed. Inzamam pestered her to sleep with him for years: he considered her a "fallen woman"; the Masoods ran their own business until 2004, when Syed stole from the family, nearly bankrupting them.

Masood took the blame and banished him from their lives to save Zainab's feelings. The Masoods decided on a career change. Zainab arrives as the owner of Walford's Post Office, clashing with employee Denise Wicks though they become friends; the post office flounders in debt, Zainab turns to Inzamam for a loan, but he wants sex in return for the money, which disgusts her and Masood banishes Inzamam from his life when he discovers what his brother has done. Despite the Masoods' best efforts, they are forced to close the post office; the Masoods attempt to turn their fortunes around. Ian Beale invests £2000 and the company merges with Ian and Christian Clarke's catering company, becoming "Masala Queen", with Zainab elected manager. Problems emerge when money goes missing and Zainab suspects Masood, thinking he has done this before. Tamwar admits taking the money -- lending it to Syed. Masood reveals. Despite this, Zainab contacts Syed and after reconciling with Masood, Syed moves to Albert Square and is joined by his fiancé Amira Shah.

Zainab plans an extravagant wedding for Syed but she grows suspicious of the way Christian acts around him, is incensed to discover they are having a homosexual relationship. Zainab orders Syed to marry Amira regardless. Zainab gives birth to another son, Kamil, in 2010, but the family's joy is short-lived as Amira discovers Syed's affair with Christian and Syed comes out as gay. Amira leaves, Christian's sister, Jane Beale, reveals to Masood that Zainab knew about the affair since before the wedding. Masood and Zainab argue, he packs her belongings and physically throws her out; when the couple reconcile, they cut-off ties to their son, unable to accept his relationship with Christian. Tamwar starts seeing Afia Khan and her father, turns up and shocks Zainab as he is her ex-husband whose family set her on fire. Tamwar is forbidden from seeing Afia but disobeys his parents and invites her to the opening of his parents' restaurant, Argee Bhajee. Zainab is forced to accept the Khans into her family.

Yusef, who moves to Walford as the new GP, attempts to reconcile with Zainab, suggesting that he was not involved when his family set her on fire in Pakistan. He offers her money so she can pay off debts, supports her through marital difficulties with Masood. Yusef manipulates Zainab, causing her to pass out. Concerned that he is causing Zainab's problems and that she is in love with Yusef, Masood divorces her by saying the triple talaq. Vulnerable, Zainab accepts his marriage proposal. Afia discovers. Yusef confesses to Zainab, angry, but she decides the future is what matters and marries him anyway. Yusef turns nasty; when Zainab slaps Yusef, he slaps Zainab back. Yusef hastily arranges to take Zainab and Kamil to Pakistan, when Zainab tries to postpone this, Yusef kidnaps and threatens Kamil, forcing Zainab to do his bidding. Yusef violently beats Zainab when he discovers that she has been liaising with Masood in an attempt to escape him. Zainab says; the police are called. Yusef confronts Masood at the B&B.

He tries to kill Masood by starting a fire which engulfs the B&B. When Zainab sees a gloating Yusef, she deceives him into thinking. Yusef enters the burning building to to Zainab's distress, so does Tamwar. Yusef is killed by the fire and although Masood and Tamwar escape, Tamwar is burnt, requiring skin grafts. In the wake of this, a reunited Zainab and

Canberra Cosmos FC

Canberra Cosmos FC is a defunct Australian association football club based in Canberra in the ACT. It participated in the National Soccer League from the 1995/96 season until the end of the 2000/01 season, after which it folded due to financial difficulties. Throughout their tenure in the NSL, the club failed to attract supporters and had limited on-field success; the Cosmos were founded in 1995 as a new franchise for entry into the 1995/96 NSL season. The club arose as a ‘community model’ consortium with shares held by ACT Soccer Federation and a number of local clubs, with some support from the ACT Government. Canberra finished respectably in their first season for a new club. In finishing ninth, they performed better than much more experienced teams Wollongong, Newcastle Breakers and Gippsland Falcons. Much of the credit could be given to experienced Socceroo captain Paul Wade, but 1995–96 saw the revelation of talented Canberra-based youngsters Michael Musitano and Alex Castro, who were accordingly snapped up by other clubs in the 1996 off-season.

Canberra's second season was much more forgettable however. In finishing last, the club ended the season 16 points behind second-last placed team. Despite a dreary end to the season, a positive action would revive the club in 1997 as computing company Novell came on board with a stunningly large sponsorship deal; this allowed the Cosmos to recruit the 1996–97 coach of the year Branko Culina and after losing their best players the previous year, Canberra was a net importer of quality players for this season. New signings included Scottish defender Gordon Hunter from Hibernian, Sydney United midfielder Ante Moric and the return of Michael Musitano; this did not translate into on-field performance, winning only once in the first thirteen games – a run including an 8–0 loss to Wollongong – and only three times in the season. The Cosmos finished the 1997–98 season bottom of the table again which saw the departure of Culina and appointment of former Socceroos coach Rale Rasic. New signings for 1998–99 including Melbourne Knights goalkeeper Vilson Knezevic brought hope, but a winless start to the season for Rasic's young side escalated tensions with the board and Rale departed seven weeks into the new season.

The Cosmos continued to struggle in the national competition, finishing last for the third year in a row, ten points behind the second-last team. The 1999–2000 season saw some on-field improvement by the club achieving nine wins and nine draws. However, the Cosmos remained unstable financially, administrators were appointed on 30 June 2000 to oversee the club's financial position. In a time of general turmoil for the NSL, the 2000–01 season was reasonably successful for Canberra, finishing a respectable 11th place and remaining competitive throughout the year with eleven wins and four draws. Soccer Australia determined in mid-2000 that it would review the NSL for the 2001–02 season, proposing to reduce the number of teams from 16 to 12. Carlton and Eastern Pride folded during the season, Soccer Australia determined in June 2001 that Canberra Cosmos was not a'going concern', excluding them from the league along with Brisbane Strikers. Appeals by and on behalf of the ejected clubs followed seeking a reversal of the decision, criticising the process and criteria used.

The Soccer Australia board, under pressure from stakeholders and political figures agreed to “re-admit” Canberra and Brisbane to the NSL for the 2001/2002 season. The Cosmos stepped up planning for the new season, appointing new coaching staff and forming a partnership with English Second Division club Swindon Town. Despite looking forward, the Cosmos’ financial problems remained and were unable to recover from the initial exclusion decision. After being unable to pay their NSL affiliation fee, Soccer Australia determined that Cosmos FC had not met the required conditions of entry and on 26 September 2001 terminated its right to participate in the 2001/2002 NSL season; the club had only a single'first team' during its existence with no incorporated reserves or youth development system, owing in part to the structure of the NSL. Local players were formed a major component of the squads. While the National Youth League was in operation the ACT Academy of Sport provided the Cosmos youth side through the involvement of Soccer Canberra.

The Canberran location provided a potential pathway for players from the AIS Football Squad, although no formal links were established. The program, aimed at developing players aged 16–17 competed in the NYL independently. Few players graduated from the ACTAS and AIS programs to the Cosmos squad. In their inaugural season, the Cosmos played in predominantly dark blue shirts and dark blue shorts, colours reflecting the original ‘shooting star’ logo, provided through sportswear manufacturer Asics; the alternate strip was a white shirt and shorts with large stars in the trim. A yellow alternate strip with black shorts was introduced. For the 97/98 season, the away colours of a white shirt with blue trim became the home colours, giving more prominence to the sponsor. For the 1998/99 season, the club emblem was revised to a star design; the home strip colours were changed to red shirt and shorts with a new change strip of yellow shirt and shorts, now manufactured under a new clothing deal with Admiral Sportswear.

The logo featured a blue star over a gold circle, revised to a black star over a red circle to closer reflect the new red home strip. For the 2000/01 season, to be their last due to the Soccer Australia management turmoil had unveiled a new logo for the 2001/02 season. While there was no further information on possible change in shirt colou

Chak Vendhal

Chak Vendhal is a village in Tehsil Nakodar, Jalandhar district, in Punjab, India. According to the 2001 Census, Chak Vendhal has a population of 1,281 people. Neighboring villages include Bajuha Khurd, Gura, Chak Khurd, Khun khun and Kang Sahbu. According to local tradition, the ancestors of the Bagri families originate from the Bagar area of Rajasthan. People of the village of Chak Kallan narrate this legend. Chak Vendhal is locally known for the shrine Baba Buddha Shah Ji. Maa Gurbaksh Kaur, the first woman Sufi Saint of Punjab was baptised in 1975 by a famous saint of the Chisti order Baba Madho Shah of Adampur Punjab. In 1986, Maa Gurbaksh Kaur founded the Dera Chishtian in Chak Vendhal. Chak Vendhal has some shops; the nearest road is the Jallandhar-Nakodar Road which can be reached via Kang Sahbu. There are other roads to nearest villages like Chak Kalan and Shankar